Malocclusion prevalence and orthodontic treatment need in central Anatolian adolescents compared to European and other nations' adolescents

Fundagul Bilgic Ibrahim Erhan Gelgor Ahmet Arif Celebi About the authors

Abstract

Objective:

To determine the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in a large sample of Central Anatolian adolescents and compare them with European-other nations' adolescents.

Methods:

The sample included 1125 boys and 1204 girls aged between 12 and 16 years with no previous orthodontic treatment history. Occlusal variables examined were molar relationship, overjet, overbite, crowding, midline diastema, posterior crossbite, and scissors bite. The dental health (DHC) and aesthetic components (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) were used as an assessment measure of the need for orthodontic treatment for the total sample.

Results:

The results indicated a high prevalence of Class I (34.9%) and Class II, Division 1 malocclusions (40.0%). Moreover, increased (18%) and reduced bites (14.%), and increased (25.1%) and reversed overjet (10.%) were present in the sample.

Conclusion:

Using the DHC of the IOTN, the proportion of subjects estimated to have great and very great treatment need (grades 4 and 5) was 28.%. However, only 16.7% of individuals were in need (grades 8-10) of orthodontic treatment according to the AC.

Malocclusion; Orthodontic treatment need; IOTN

Resumo

Objetivo:

determinar a prevalência de má oclusão e a necessidade de tratamento ortodôntico em uma amostra extensa de adolescentes da Anatólia Central, e compará-los a adolescentes europeus de outras nacionalidades.

Métodos:

a amostra consistiu de 1125 meninos e 1204 meninas, com idades entre 12 e 16 anos, sem histórico de tratamento ortodôntico prévio. As variáveis oclusais avaliadas foram a relação entre molares, overjet,overbite, apinhamento, diastema na linha média, mordida cruzada posterior e mordida em tesoura. O Componente de Saúde Dental (DHC) e o Componente Estético (AC) do Índice de Necessidade de Tratamento Ortodôntico (IOTN) foram utilizados para avaliar a necessidade de tratamento ortodôntico de toda a amostra.

Resultados:

os resultados sugerem uma alta prevalência de má oclusão de Classe I (34,9%) e Classe II, subdivisão 1 (40,0%). Além disso, overbiteaumentado (18,3%) e reduzido (14,4%), e overjet aumentado (25,1%) e reduzido (10,4%) também foram observados na amostra.

Conclusão:

com base no uso do DHC do IOTN, observou-se que a proporção dos indivíduos avaliados com necessidade grande e muito grande de tratamento (notas 4 e 5) foi de 28,7%. Porém, de acordo com o AC, apenas 16,7% dos indivíduos apresentaram necessidade (notas 8-10) de tratamento ortodôntico.

Má oclusão; Necessidade de tratamento ortodôntico; IOTN

INTRODUCTION

On an increased basis, malocclusion is considered an expression of normal biologic variation, and treatment need is often based as much on psychosocial concerns as on proven oral health risks attributable to malocclusion.11. Bentele MJ, Vig KW, Shanker S, Beck FM. Efficacy of training dental students in the index of orthodontic treatment need. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2002 Nov;122(5):456-62. The criteria for determining who is most likely to benefit from orthodontic treatment are controversial. These factors make it particularly difficult for the general dentist to determine for whom orthodontic treatment is clearly indicated, since the traditional pathway to orthodontic care starts at the general dentist's office.

Different populations have been investigated to provide epidemiological data of the prevalence of malocclusion.22. Brunelle JA, Bhat M, Lipton JA. Prevalence and distribution of selected occlusal characteristics in the US population, 1988-1991. J Dent Res. 1996 Feb;75 Spec No:706-13.

3. Tschill P, Bacon W, Sonko A. Malocclusion in the deciduous dentition of Caucasian children. Eur J Orthod. 1997 Aug;19(4):361-7.

4. Thilander B, Pena L, Infante C, Parada SS, de Mayorga C. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescents in Bogota, Colombia. An epidemiological study related to different stages of dental development. Eur J Orthod. 2001 Apr;23(2):153-67.

5. Tausche E, Luck O, Harzer W. Prevalence of malocclusions in the early mixed dentition and orthodontic treatment need. Eur J Orthod. 2004 Jun;26(3):237-44.

6. Ciuffolo F, Manzoli L, D'Attilio M, Tecco S, Muratore F, Festa F, et al. Prevalence and distribution by gender of occlusal characteristics in a sample of Italian secondary school students: a cross-sectional study. Eur J Orthod. 2005 Dec;27(6):601-6. Epub 2005 Jul 11.
-77. Perillo L, Masucci C, Ferro F, Apicella D, Baccetti T. Prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in southern Italian schoolchildren. Eur J Orthod. 2010 Feb;32(1):49-53. As a common trend, quantitative variables along with Angle's classification were used in these reports. Additionally, treatment-need indexes were also used to determine orthodontic need based on esthetic impairment, potential for adverse effect on dental health, and deviation from normal occlusion.88. Gelgör IE, Sisman Y, Malkoç S. Prevalence of congenital hypodontia in the permanent dentition. Turkiye Klinikleri J Dental Sci. 2005;11(2):43-8. The Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), involving the Dental Health Component (DHC) and the Aesthetic Component (AC), is the tool most frequently used for measuring treatment need.99. Evans R, Shaw W. Preliminary evaluation of an illustrated scale for rating dental attractiveness. Eur J Orthod. 1987 Nov;9(4):314-8.,1010. Brook PH, Shaw WC. The development of an index of orthodontic treatment priority. Eur J Orthod. 1989 Aug;11(3):309-20. Perhaps, being objective and synthetic, and allowing for comparisons between different population groups, are the most important aspects of this index.77. Perillo L, Masucci C, Ferro F, Apicella D, Baccetti T. Prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in southern Italian schoolchildren. Eur J Orthod. 2010 Feb;32(1):49-53.,1111. Shaw WC, Richmond S, O'Brien KD, Brook P, Stephens CD. Quality control in orthodontics: indices of treatment need and treatment standards. Br Dent J. 1991 Feb 9;170(3):107-12.,1212. Cooper S, Mandall NA, DiBiase D, Shaw WC. The reliability of the index of orthodontic treatment need over time. J Orthod. 2000 Mar;27(1):47-53.

Certain European populations, such as the Swedish,1313. Josefsson E, Bjerklin K, Lindsten R. Malocclusion frequency in Swedish and immigrant adolescents: influence of origin on orthodontic treatment need. Eur J Orthod. 2007 Feb;29(1):79-87. British,1414. Chestnutt IG, Burden DJ, Steele JG, Pitts NB, Nuttall NM, Morris AJ. The orthodontic condition of children in the United Kingdom, 2003. Br Dent J. 2006 Jun;200(11):609-12. German,55. Tausche E, Luck O, Harzer W. Prevalence of malocclusions in the early mixed dentition and orthodontic treatment need. Eur J Orthod. 2004 Jun;26(3):237-44.,1515. Krey KF, Hirsch C. Frequency of orthodontic treatment in German children and adolescents: influence of age, gender, and socio-economic status. Eur J Orthod. 2012 Apr;34(2):152-7. French1616. Souames M, Bassigny F, Zenati N, Riordan PJ, Boy-Lefevre ML. Orthodontic treatment need in French schoolchildren: an epidemiological study using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Eur J Orthod. 2006 Dec;28(6):605-9. and Italian66. Ciuffolo F, Manzoli L, D'Attilio M, Tecco S, Muratore F, Festa F, et al. Prevalence and distribution by gender of occlusal characteristics in a sample of Italian secondary school students: a cross-sectional study. Eur J Orthod. 2005 Dec;27(6):601-6. Epub 2005 Jul 11.,77. Perillo L, Masucci C, Ferro F, Apicella D, Baccetti T. Prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in southern Italian schoolchildren. Eur J Orthod. 2010 Feb;32(1):49-53.,1717. Nobile CG, Pavia M, Fortunato L, Angelillo IF. Prevalence and factors related to malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescents in Italy. Eur J Public Health. 2007 Dec;17(6):637-41. have been examined extensively in regards to IOTN. However, there is little research and/or published data that evaluated together the prevalence of malocclusion88. Gelgör IE, Sisman Y, Malkoç S. Prevalence of congenital hypodontia in the permanent dentition. Turkiye Klinikleri J Dental Sci. 2005;11(2):43-8.,1818. Gelgör IE, Karaman AI, Ercan E. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in central Anatolia. Eur J Dent. 2007 Jul;1(3):125-31. and orthodontic treatment need1919. Güray E, Ertas E, Orhan M, Doruk C. An epidemiologic survey using "Treatment Priority Index" (TPI) on primary school children in Konya. Türk Ortodonti Derg. 1994 Nov;7(2):195-200.,2020. Ugur T, Ciger S, Aksoy A, Telli A. An epidemiological survey using the Treatment Priority Index (TPI). Eur J Orthod. 1998 Apr;20(2):189-93. in adolescents. Therefore, the aim of the present survey was to document the prevalence of individual traits of malocclusion, and to assess the need for orthodontic treatment in relation to sex by using the IOTN in a group of adolescent schoolchildren. It also aimed to compare the data provided with the findings of chiefly European patients as well as other surveys.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Data were collected during an epidemiological survey, in the period of May, 2008 to December, 2012, from 2329 adolescents (1125 males and 1204 females) aged 12.5-16.2 years, randomly selected using a one-stage cluster sampling procedure in 13 state-funded secondary schools in Kirikale city which is located in the south area of the capital of Turkey. The schools were randomly selected from an initial pool of 27 schools that had been previously identified by the school district to avoid possible biases ensuing from social heterogeneity. Written parent informed consent forms were obtained for dental examinations. Family origin and registration information were examined in order to determine that the sample was a good representative of ancestry from the central part of the country. All male and female patients who met the following criteria were included in the sample: (1) age from 12 to 16 years; (2) secondary dentition present with no remaining deciduous teeth; (3) no multiple missing teeth; (4) presence of first permanent canines and molars; and (5) no previous history of orthodontic treatment. Each examination took place while the subject was seated in a standard, quiet classroom in the designated chairs. Clinical examination was carried out by one examiner who was previously calibrated. The examination lasted 20 minutes per child, following the World Health Organization guidelines.2121. World Health Organization. International collaboration study of oral health outcomes (ICS II), document 2: oral data collection and examination criteria. Geneva: WHO; 1989.

Orthodontic variables

Patients with an occlusal pattern that deviated from the ideal Class I relationship, which is based on the buccal groove of the mandibular first molar settled on the mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary first molar as described by Angle, (including crowding, spacing, rotations), were categorized as Class I malocclusion. Thus, the Class I normal category was limited to patients with occlusions that were ideal or near ideal. Patients with a different Angle classification of occlusion on each side were categorized into a single Class based on the predominant pattern of occlusion and/or canine relationship.44. Thilander B, Pena L, Infante C, Parada SS, de Mayorga C. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescents in Bogota, Colombia. An epidemiological study related to different stages of dental development. Eur J Orthod. 2001 Apr;23(2):153-67.,2222. Silva RG, Kang DS. Prevalence of malocclusion among Latino adolescents. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2001 Mar;119(3):313-5.

For overbite and overjet, values between 0 and 4 mm were considered normal.77. Perillo L, Masucci C, Ferro F, Apicella D, Baccetti T. Prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in southern Italian schoolchildren. Eur J Orthod. 2010 Feb;32(1):49-53. Posterior crossbite and scissors bite were registered as bilateral, right and left.44. Thilander B, Pena L, Infante C, Parada SS, de Mayorga C. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescents in Bogota, Colombia. An epidemiological study related to different stages of dental development. Eur J Orthod. 2001 Apr;23(2):153-67.,55. Tausche E, Luck O, Harzer W. Prevalence of malocclusions in the early mixed dentition and orthodontic treatment need. Eur J Orthod. 2004 Jun;26(3):237-44. Crowding was recorded for the incisor and also posterior segments of each jaw (1-3 mm = mild; 4-6 mm = moderate; > 6 mm = severe).44. Thilander B, Pena L, Infante C, Parada SS, de Mayorga C. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescents in Bogota, Colombia. An epidemiological study related to different stages of dental development. Eur J Orthod. 2001 Apr;23(2):153-67. Anterior diastema was diagnosed when there was a space of at least 1 mm between central incisors in either arch.44. Thilander B, Pena L, Infante C, Parada SS, de Mayorga C. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescents in Bogota, Colombia. An epidemiological study related to different stages of dental development. Eur J Orthod. 2001 Apr;23(2):153-67.

Patients with a normal occlusion pattern had normal molar and canine relationships, no crowding or crossbites, normal overjet and overbite, well-balanced faces, and no history of previous orthodontic treatment.

Orthodontic treatment need

The findings served to determine orthodontic treatment need with reference to the IOTN99. Evans R, Shaw W. Preliminary evaluation of an illustrated scale for rating dental attractiveness. Eur J Orthod. 1987 Nov;9(4):314-8.,1010. Brook PH, Shaw WC. The development of an index of orthodontic treatment priority. Eur J Orthod. 1989 Aug;11(3):309-20. which consists of the DHC and the AC. Considerations as to no treatment need, borderline need, or great need were based on five grades in the DHC and 10 grades in the AC.

Statistical analysis

To test examiner reproducibility, 25 children were reexamined by Kappa's method four weeks after initial examination.2323. Landis JR, Koch GG. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics. 1977 Mar;33(1):159-74.The ratio of the sample, as a maximum estimate of the proportion of individual traits of malocclusion in the whole population, was calculated for the total sample and for girls and boys separately. The number of subjects with diagnosed anomaly (n) and its prevalence (n/N x 100, in which N is the number of subjects examined) was determined. The differences between sex groups were assessed by means of chi-square test. Data were analyzed by SPSS software package (version 21.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill., USA). for IOTN DHC and AC grades. Level of significance was established at p < 0.05.

RESULTS

Kappa test indicated high reliability and reproducibility (0.73 - 0.80) for the parameters tested. Table 1 presents the prevalence of each occlusal trait in the total sample. Class I malocclusion was found in 812 subjects, which represented 34.9% of the 2329 individuals examined. Class II malocclusion was diagnosed in 1041 individuals, 40.0% of all patients were Division 1 and 4.7% of all patients were Division 2. Class III malocclusion was found in 240 subjects, 10.3% of the sample. Normal overbite was the most common (73.5%), mostly observed in girls (p < 0.001). Increased overbite was recorded in 18.3% of the sample, mostly observed in boys (p < 0.05). The prevalence of reduced bite value was found as 8.2%. Normal overjet was present in 1371 individuals (64.5%). Prevalence of increased overjet (25.1%) was found to be higher than negative overjet (10.4%). While crossbite was found more frequently, as much as of 4.0 % of the sample, scissors bite was rarely diagnosed in only 0.3% of the subjects.

Table 1
- Occlusal classifications.

Anterior crowding was present in 1638 individuals (66.2%) (Table 2); 17.9, 9.1 and 38.1% of those had crowding in the upper arch, lower arch and both arches, respectively. Moderate crowding was more common in both arches. Midline and spread diastemas were found in 14.8 and 12.9% of the sample, respectively. Diastemas were observed mostly in the upper arch (Table 2).

Table 2
- Distribution of crowding and diastema.

In the study group, the IOTN revealed no treatment need in 45.6% of the sample, when the DHC was used (mostly in boys (p < 0.05) and 43.1% when the AC was used. (Figs 1 and 2, and Tables 3 and4). When borderline cases were taken into consideration, treatment need was diagnosed in 25.7% of the sample when the DHC was used and in 40.2% when the AC was used. The number of subjects with the need for orthodontic treatment was 648 (28.7%) when the DHC was used, and 376 (16.7%) when the AC was used.

Figure 1
- Dental Health Component (DHC) grades of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) in Anatolian adolescents (Grades 1 and 2, no need; Grade 3, borderline need; Grades 4 and 5, definite need).

Figure 2
- Aesthetic component (AC) grades of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) in Anatolian adolescents (Grades 1-4, no need; Grade 5-7, borderline need; Grades 8-10, definite need).

Table 3
- DHC of IOTN statistics of boys and girls.
Table 4
- AC of IOTN statistics of boys and girls.

DISCUSSION

Although many studies were published to describe the prevalence and types of malocclusion, when examining a certain population it is difficult to compare and contrast these findings, partly because of the varying methods and indexes used to assess and record occlusal relationships, age differences of the study populations, examiner subjectivity, specific objectives, and differing sample sizes.2222. Silva RG, Kang DS. Prevalence of malocclusion among Latino adolescents. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2001 Mar;119(3):313-5. Methodology used in this study was mostly collected from European studies,44. Thilander B, Pena L, Infante C, Parada SS, de Mayorga C. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescents in Bogota, Colombia. An epidemiological study related to different stages of dental development. Eur J Orthod. 2001 Apr;23(2):153-67.,66. Ciuffolo F, Manzoli L, D'Attilio M, Tecco S, Muratore F, Festa F, et al. Prevalence and distribution by gender of occlusal characteristics in a sample of Italian secondary school students: a cross-sectional study. Eur J Orthod. 2005 Dec;27(6):601-6. Epub 2005 Jul 11.,77. Perillo L, Masucci C, Ferro F, Apicella D, Baccetti T. Prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in southern Italian schoolchildren. Eur J Orthod. 2010 Feb;32(1):49-53.,2222. Silva RG, Kang DS. Prevalence of malocclusion among Latino adolescents. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2001 Mar;119(3):313-5. and our results were discussed with the findings from different European geological regions due to close proximity and since there was limited information of individuals in the literature. The general consensus about treatment timing for malocclusions is that it should start around permanent dentition. At this stage, maxillary and mandibular development is almost completed and the malocclusion takes its final pattern. Given the characteristics of the sample, this paper demonstrated the occlusal traits of an untreated adolescent population at those ages.

With respect to the occlusal findings, Class I malocclusion was found in 34.9% of the sample. This Class I occlusion figure included individuals with incisor crowding and dental malalignment and thus did not imply ideal normal occlusion. The prevalence of Class II, Division 1 (40.0%), in the present study, was greater than the rates reported for English school children (12.5%),2424. Haynes S. The prevalence of malocclusion in English children aged 11-12 years. Report of the congress. Eur Orthod Soc. 1970:89-98. Shropshire school population (27.2%),2525. Foster TD, Day AJ. A survey of malocclusion and the need for orthodontic treatment in a Shropshire school population. Br J Orthod. 1974 Apr;1(3):73-8. adolescents in Bogotá (14.9%),44. Thilander B, Pena L, Infante C, Parada SS, de Mayorga C. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescents in Bogota, Colombia. An epidemiological study related to different stages of dental development. Eur J Orthod. 2001 Apr;23(2):153-67. and Italian school adolescents (36.3%.77. Perillo L, Masucci C, Ferro F, Apicella D, Baccetti T. Prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in southern Italian schoolchildren. Eur J Orthod. 2010 Feb;32(1):49-53. However, Lauc2626. Lauc T. Orofacial analysis on the Adriatic islands: an epidemiological study of malocclusions on Hvar Island. Eur J Orthod. 2003 Jun;25(3):273-8. on Hvar Island, and Josefsson et al1313. Josefsson E, Bjerklin K, Lindsten R. Malocclusion frequency in Swedish and immigrant adolescents: influence of origin on orthodontic treatment need. Eur J Orthod. 2007 Feb;29(1):79-87. for a Swedish population, found that Class II malocclusion was more common in their population (greater than 45%), and explained this figure by a genetic influence on the incidence of Class II malocclusions. Early treatment in the primary or early mixed dentition has been recommended for Class III malocclusions.44. Thilander B, Pena L, Infante C, Parada SS, de Mayorga C. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescents in Bogota, Colombia. An epidemiological study related to different stages of dental development. Eur J Orthod. 2001 Apr;23(2):153-67.,2727. McNamara JA Brudon WL. Orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. Ann Arbor: Needham Press; 2001. The prevalence of Class III malocclusion determined in this study is 10.3%. However, Goose et al2828. Goose DH TD, Winter FC. Malocclusion in school children of the West Midlands. Br Dent J. 1957;102:174-8. (2.91%), Haynes2424. Haynes S. The prevalence of malocclusion in English children aged 11-12 years. Report of the congress. Eur Orthod Soc. 1970:89-98.(2.5%), Foster and Day2525. Foster TD, Day AJ. A survey of malocclusion and the need for orthodontic treatment in a Shropshire school population. Br J Orthod. 1974 Apr;1(3):73-8. (3.5%), Proffit et al2929. Proffit WR, Fields HW Jr, Moray LJ. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in the United States: estimates from the NHANES III survey. Int J Adult Orthodon Orthognath Surg. 1998;13(2):97-106. (5.7%), Thilander et al44. Thilander B, Pena L, Infante C, Parada SS, de Mayorga C. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescents in Bogota, Colombia. An epidemiological study related to different stages of dental development. Eur J Orthod. 2001 Apr;23(2):153-67. (5.8%), Lauc2626. Lauc T. Orofacial analysis on the Adriatic islands: an epidemiological study of malocclusions on Hvar Island. Eur J Orthod. 2003 Jun;25(3):273-8. (4.8%), and Perillo et al77. Perillo L, Masucci C, Ferro F, Apicella D, Baccetti T. Prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in southern Italian schoolchildren. Eur J Orthod. 2010 Feb;32(1):49-53.(4.3%) reported lower rates. The present study confirmed that the predominant anteroposterior relationship of the arches in adolescents was Class II, Division 1. Of the vertical anomalies, increased overbite was more than twice as frequent as anterior open bite. Our results were similar to the rates reported by Thilander et al44. Thilander B, Pena L, Infante C, Parada SS, de Mayorga C. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescents in Bogota, Colombia. An epidemiological study related to different stages of dental development. Eur J Orthod. 2001 Apr;23(2):153-67. and Lauc2626. Lauc T. Orofacial analysis on the Adriatic islands: an epidemiological study of malocclusions on Hvar Island. Eur J Orthod. 2003 Jun;25(3):273-8. who also claimed that deep bite was often associated with a Class II malocclusion and more common in boys. However, higher ratios were found in Italian samples.66. Ciuffolo F, Manzoli L, D'Attilio M, Tecco S, Muratore F, Festa F, et al. Prevalence and distribution by gender of occlusal characteristics in a sample of Italian secondary school students: a cross-sectional study. Eur J Orthod. 2005 Dec;27(6):601-6. Epub 2005 Jul 11.,77. Perillo L, Masucci C, Ferro F, Apicella D, Baccetti T. Prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in southern Italian schoolchildren. Eur J Orthod. 2010 Feb;32(1):49-53. Increased overjet proved to be as high as increased overbite in this study; this is a reflection of the higher prevalence of Class II malocclusion among adolescents. Our findings agree with those of Thilander et al,44. Thilander B, Pena L, Infante C, Parada SS, de Mayorga C. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescents in Bogota, Colombia. An epidemiological study related to different stages of dental development. Eur J Orthod. 2001 Apr;23(2):153-67. in Bogotanian adolescents, and Ciuffolo et al,66. Ciuffolo F, Manzoli L, D'Attilio M, Tecco S, Muratore F, Festa F, et al. Prevalence and distribution by gender of occlusal characteristics in a sample of Italian secondary school students: a cross-sectional study. Eur J Orthod. 2005 Dec;27(6):601-6. Epub 2005 Jul 11. in Italian adolescents, in which high rates of increased overjet in the permanent dentition were reported. In a French sample, increased overjet was present in fewer subjects (6%).33. Tschill P, Bacon W, Sonko A. Malocclusion in the deciduous dentition of Caucasian children. Eur J Orthod. 1997 Aug;19(4):361-7.

In this study, uni/bilateral posterior crossbite was more frequent than scissors bite and was observed in 9.5% of the sample. This rate was similar to the findings of Ciuffolo et al66. Ciuffolo F, Manzoli L, D'Attilio M, Tecco S, Muratore F, Festa F, et al. Prevalence and distribution by gender of occlusal characteristics in a sample of Italian secondary school students: a cross-sectional study. Eur J Orthod. 2005 Dec;27(6):601-6. Epub 2005 Jul 11. and higher than Thilander et al.44. Thilander B, Pena L, Infante C, Parada SS, de Mayorga C. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescents in Bogota, Colombia. An epidemiological study related to different stages of dental development. Eur J Orthod. 2001 Apr;23(2):153-67. Perillo et al77. Perillo L, Masucci C, Ferro F, Apicella D, Baccetti T. Prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in southern Italian schoolchildren. Eur J Orthod. 2010 Feb;32(1):49-53. showed a higher percentage for crossbite and scissors bite (14.2 and 3.5%, respectively).

Crowding, in one or both arches, was the most frequent of all anomalies recorded (66.2%). This finding complied with the results of Thilander et al44. Thilander B, Pena L, Infante C, Parada SS, de Mayorga C. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescents in Bogota, Colombia. An epidemiological study related to different stages of dental development. Eur J Orthod. 2001 Apr;23(2):153-67. and Lauc.2626. Lauc T. Orofacial analysis on the Adriatic islands: an epidemiological study of malocclusions on Hvar Island. Eur J Orthod. 2003 Jun;25(3):273-8. There is a general consensus that treatment of crowding should start in the permanent dentition.55. Tausche E, Luck O, Harzer W. Prevalence of malocclusions in the early mixed dentition and orthodontic treatment need. Eur J Orthod. 2004 Jun;26(3):237-44. The National Health and Nutrition Survey III, undertaken in the United States between 1989 and 1994, showed a frequency of crowding ranging from 42.3% at ages 8-11 to 54.5% at ages 12-17, which was lower than the frequencies observed in this investigation.2929. Proffit WR, Fields HW Jr, Moray LJ. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in the United States: estimates from the NHANES III survey. Int J Adult Orthodon Orthognath Surg. 1998;13(2):97-106. Nevertheless, other studies have reported lower rates of crowding located in anterior/both segments.33. Tschill P, Bacon W, Sonko A. Malocclusion in the deciduous dentition of Caucasian children. Eur J Orthod. 1997 Aug;19(4):361-7.,66. Ciuffolo F, Manzoli L, D'Attilio M, Tecco S, Muratore F, Festa F, et al. Prevalence and distribution by gender of occlusal characteristics in a sample of Italian secondary school students: a cross-sectional study. Eur J Orthod. 2005 Dec;27(6):601-6. Epub 2005 Jul 11.,77. Perillo L, Masucci C, Ferro F, Apicella D, Baccetti T. Prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in southern Italian schoolchildren. Eur J Orthod. 2010 Feb;32(1):49-53.,2424. Haynes S. The prevalence of malocclusion in English children aged 11-12 years. Report of the congress. Eur Orthod Soc. 1970:89-98.,2525. Foster TD, Day AJ. A survey of malocclusion and the need for orthodontic treatment in a Shropshire school population. Br J Orthod. 1974 Apr;1(3):73-8.

Thilander et al44. Thilander B, Pena L, Infante C, Parada SS, de Mayorga C. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescents in Bogota, Colombia. An epidemiological study related to different stages of dental development. Eur J Orthod. 2001 Apr;23(2):153-67. found the prevalence of median diastema in their population to be 13.5% in the early mixed and 4% in the permanent dentition. Lauc2626. Lauc T. Orofacial analysis on the Adriatic islands: an epidemiological study of malocclusions on Hvar Island. Eur J Orthod. 2003 Jun;25(3):273-8. observed a high rate of midline diastema (45.1%). In contrast, in our study, this rate was 12.7%. Perillo et al77. Perillo L, Masucci C, Ferro F, Apicella D, Baccetti T. Prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in southern Italian schoolchildren. Eur J Orthod. 2010 Feb;32(1):49-53. showed the prevalence of median diastema as equal to 9.9%. The frequency of diastema in Nigeria was 24%.3030. Otuyemi OD, Ogunyinka A, Dosumu O, Cons NC, Jenny J. Malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need of secondary school students in Nigeria according to the dental aesthetic index (DAI). Int Dent J. 1999 Aug;49(4):203-10.

Administrators of publicly funded programs need a valid screening method to determine priority for orthodontic treatment.1515. Krey KF, Hirsch C. Frequency of orthodontic treatment in German children and adolescents: influence of age, gender, and socio-economic status. Eur J Orthod. 2012 Apr;34(2):152-7.Priority of orthodontic care through national health care plans in European countries has been a prime factor behind the development of indexes, such as the IOTN.

The need for orthodontic treatment has been presented in the literature by means of different indexes. In the present study, the classification by the IOTN was used because the authors' are familiar with this index.

In Turkey, there are few epidemiologic surveys. Guray et al1919. Güray E, Ertas E, Orhan M, Doruk C. An epidemiologic survey using "Treatment Priority Index" (TPI) on primary school children in Konya. Türk Ortodonti Derg. 1994 Nov;7(2):195-200. used the Treatment Priority Index (TPI) and found that 72.26 % of 483 students required orthodontic treatment in a primary school with a low socioeconomic standard from Konya district (South Anatolia). Ugur et al2020. Ugur T, Ciger S, Aksoy A, Telli A. An epidemiological survey using the Treatment Priority Index (TPI). Eur J Orthod. 1998 Apr;20(2):189-93. found a 37.77% orthodontic treatment need, by using the TPI in 572 6 to 10-year-old Turkish primary school children with a high socioeconomic standard in central Anatolia. Our study was carried out in a large adolescent sample with moderate socioeconomic status, and treatment need was lower than those two studies. These studies conducted in different regions show similar results in terms of the need for orthodontic treatment in individuals with different socio-cultural features in different locations. The results of this study were not in agreement with Ugur et al2020. Ugur T, Ciger S, Aksoy A, Telli A. An epidemiological survey using the Treatment Priority Index (TPI). Eur J Orthod. 1998 Apr;20(2):189-93. who determined that orthodontic treatment needs increase with age. In our study, according to the DHC of the IOTN, 28.7% of the whole sample was classified as being in need of orthodontic treatment (grades 4 and 5). The results showed that the percentage was relatively greater than those reported by Souames et al1616. Souames M, Bassigny F, Zenati N, Riordan PJ, Boy-Lefevre ML. Orthodontic treatment need in French schoolchildren: an epidemiological study using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Eur J Orthod. 2006 Dec;28(6):605-9. in France and Perillo et al77. Perillo L, Masucci C, Ferro F, Apicella D, Baccetti T. Prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in southern Italian schoolchildren. Eur J Orthod. 2010 Feb;32(1):49-53. in Italy (21.3 and 27.3%, respectively). However, the British studies found a higher prevalence rate for untreated subjects: 32.7%,1010. Brook PH, Shaw WC. The development of an index of orthodontic treatment priority. Eur J Orthod. 1989 Aug;11(3):309-20. 33% and, 35%.1414. Chestnutt IG, Burden DJ, Steele JG, Pitts NB, Nuttall NM, Morris AJ. The orthodontic condition of children in the United Kingdom, 2003. Br Dent J. 2006 Jun;200(11):609-12.Josefsson et al1313. Josefsson E, Bjerklin K, Lindsten R. Malocclusion frequency in Swedish and immigrant adolescents: influence of origin on orthodontic treatment need. Eur J Orthod. 2007 Feb;29(1):79-87. found 39.5% of orthodontic treatment need in a Swedish sample. The findings of the present study, therefore, indicated that a substantial need for orthodontic intervention was present at a similar level to French and Italian children, but generally lower than northern European populations (United Kingdom and Sweden).

The AC for IOTN, in the present study, reduced orthodontic treatment need (16.7%). This has also been reported in other studies.1010. Brook PH, Shaw WC. The development of an index of orthodontic treatment priority. Eur J Orthod. 1989 Aug;11(3):309-20.,1313. Josefsson E, Bjerklin K, Lindsten R. Malocclusion frequency in Swedish and immigrant adolescents: influence of origin on orthodontic treatment need. Eur J Orthod. 2007 Feb;29(1):79-87.,1616. Souames M, Bassigny F, Zenati N, Riordan PJ, Boy-Lefevre ML. Orthodontic treatment need in French schoolchildren: an epidemiological study using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Eur J Orthod. 2006 Dec;28(6):605-9. Tausche et al55. Tausche E, Luck O, Harzer W. Prevalence of malocclusions in the early mixed dentition and orthodontic treatment need. Eur J Orthod. 2004 Jun;26(3):237-44. claimed that the AC alone failed to identify any children needing orthodontic treatment. Because of the AC alone is an inappropriate method for screening treatment need, lack of agreement occurs between the normative component and the IOTN-AC. However, Josefsson et al1313. Josefsson E, Bjerklin K, Lindsten R. Malocclusion frequency in Swedish and immigrant adolescents: influence of origin on orthodontic treatment need. Eur J Orthod. 2007 Feb;29(1):79-87. used the AC both by the examiner and the subject. This study also hunted up a difference between males and females for orthodontic treatment need. Treatment need did not differ significantly as a result of sex. AC alone is unsuitable for screening treatment need.

CONCLUSION

The results of this investigation demonstrated that Class II, Division 1 malocclusion was the most prevalent occlusal pattern among adolescents, and the high incidence of increased overjet and overbite are a reflection of the high prevalence of Class II malocclusion. Also, a high percentage of crowding is noteworthy. Nearly one-third of the evaluated population would have a mandatory need for orthodontic treatment, if the DHC scores were used as the main criterion for such decisions. If the AC scores were used, the need would decrease to one-fifth of the sample. These results revealed the high percentage of need for orthodontic treatment in Turkey.

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    The authors report no commercial, proprietary or financial interest in the products or companies described in this article.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Nov-Dec 2015

History

  • Received
    04 Feb 2015
  • Accepted
    06 July 2015
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