Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The need for treated water is essential for life. With the constant increase in population, the most common way to purify surface water is through conventional water treatment plants (WTPs). The high volume of residue (sludge) generated in this process is most often returned to the catchment site, negatively affecting the ecosystem. The sludge of WTPs is similar to soil because it is composed of inorganic solids. Adobe is a construction material made from water and soil without the burning process, so it is considered sustainable, recyclable, and energy-efficient and can be stabilized with various materials. Therefore, the objective of this work is to develop adobes using the sludge of WTPs and to analyse their physical, mechanical and thermal properties. Adobes were produced with five concentrations of sludge by mass: 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7%. It was observed that with the increase in the sludge concentration, there was an increase in the capillarity and a decrease in mass, the water absorption was limited to 3% of sludge, and there was an increase in the bulk density. The linear shrinkage, thermal conductivity and compressive strength were not influenced. The addition of WTP sludge altered some properties of adobe. The use of WTP sludge in adobe is limited to 3%; above that, the adobe becomes unstable in relation to water. Therefore, the use of WTP sludge in the manufacture of adobe is feasible in controlled concentrations and is a sustainable use of the residue.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Papaya is characterized as one of the most important crops in Brazil. Thus, good quality seedlings are essential for formation of orchards in agricultural production. This study aimed to evaluate shading levels and substrate compositions for production of papaya seedlings. Growing environments were evaluated with 0, 18, 35, and 50% shading and substrates from combinations (%) of hillside soil (HS), cattle manure (CM), Bioplant® (BP), washed fine sand (FS), and super fine-grained vermiculite (FV). As there was no replication for the growing environments, the group of experiments were analyzed using a 4 × 4 factorial arrangement (4 shades × 4 substrates), with five replications. Growth and biometric relationships were analyzed. Substrates consisting of 30% HS + 15% CM + 20% BP + 20% FS + 15% FV and 45% HS + 0% CM + 20% BP + 20% FS + 15% FV, as well as environments with 18 and 35% shading formed seedlings with higher plant heights, diameters, phytomass, and Dickson quality indices. The results showed that substrates with a higher content of hillside soil and lower content of cattle manure, associated with an environment with 18 or 35% shading, provided high-quality seedlings.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to identify homogeneous rainfall zones in the winter and summer 1st and 2nd crops, in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The zones were defined by clustering using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to transform seasonal rainfall series. Monthly average rainfall data collected from 157 weather stations for 20 years (1996 to 2015) were employed. The results show that the number of homogeneous zones varied among growing seasons. The summer crop presented two clusters, with rainfall averages of 1489 and 1925 mm; the second crop presented four clusters, with averages of 1849, 1004, 1454, and 1182 mm; and the winter crop had three clusters, with averages of 969, 1498, and 1171 mm. Clustering was a useful instrument to identify geographical regions with similar rainfall regimes during different growing seasons in the state of Paraná. Rainfall distribution was more homogeneous in the summer crop. In all crops analyzed, the clusters with the lowest rainfall rate were present in the northwestern, northern center, and northern pioneer of the state of Paraná, whereas the clusters with the highest rainfall rate were found in the coastal regions.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Dams provide a water supply, irrigation and power generation. However, the economic, social and environmental impacts are serious when they rupture. It is important that dams continue to function properly and are constantly evaluated for their safety and functionality. Contrary to general belief, small dams are the ones that present the most problems, because they are often built without adequate design and construction methods. One of the methods to evaluate the safety of a dam is through the Dam Safety Index (DSI), which may not entirely avoid subjectivity in dam safety assessment but does propose balanced individual subjectivities in determining the weights of the index criteria. The DSI can also assist managers with preventive maintenance schedules in a dam safety assessment. This work aims to reassess the importance of the parameters of the DSI based on a new weighting of these criteria. The modification of the DSI shows a new bias in the weighting of the criteria that composes the index, not only considering technical aspects, but also legal and environmental ones.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Electrostatic spray can bring benefits to the pesticide application such as the reduction of application rate and the increase of deposits on targets. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of electrostatic spraying using lower application rates and different adjuvants on soybean spray deposition and chemical control of powdery mildew (Microsphaera diffusa Cooke & Peck). The field experiment was conducted in duplicate. A randomized complete block design with four replications in a 2 × 2 × 2 + 1 factorial scheme was used. The factors were two application rates, with and without droplet electrification, two spray solution compositions, and one additional treatment. Deposition on upper and lower leaves, spray loss to the soil, and powdery mildew control effectiveness were evaluated. The electrical conductivity of the spray solution and the charge/mass ratio induced in droplets were also evaluated. All treatments reduced the soybean powdery mildew severity. Electrostatic spraying responded positively to an increase in the electrical conductivity of the spray solution regarding the charge/mass ratio, but it did not increase spray deposition on the lower third of the canopy and did not influence spray loss to the soil, which was higher as the application rate increased.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Most important farm operations require a significant amount of energy, and this consumes a major portion of the farm's budget. Consequently, analyzing the fuel consumption of agricultural machinery for farm operations of different sizes makes it possible to predict fuel consumption to set an appropriate budget for energy. The main purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the k-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm to predict the fuel consumption of tractor–chisel plow systems correctly. A training-set design of 139 points of 173 data points obtained from the literature was utilized, and the remaining 34 data points were applied as a test set. The input parameters were tractor power, plowing width, depth and speed of plowing, soil percentages of sand, silt, and clay, initial soil moisture content, and initial soil bulk density. The predictive power of the KNN method was compared with that of multiple linear regression (MLR), and experimental data were used to determine the predictive power of both methods. The KNN method generated better results than the multiple linear regression method. The test dataset correlation coefficients were 0.817 for the KNN (k = 2) method and 0.422 for the multiple linear regression method. This study suggests that the KNN method with k = 2 (two nearest neighbors) is suitable for estimating the fuel consumption of tractor–chisel plow systems for input values within the studied range.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Drying is the most widely used process to ensure the quality and stability of plant products. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effective water diffusivity and activation energy in grain sorghum during drying at different temperatures and initial moisture contents. Sorghum grains (cultivar DeKalb 640) were harvested with an initial moisture content of 0.49 kg water kg−1 dry matter. The effective diffusion coefficient was determined from different initial moisture contents of approximately 0.49, 0.40, 0.31, and 0.23 kg water kg−1 dry matter. Grains with different moisture contents were dried under four temperature conditions of 40, 60, 80, and 100 °C on perforated trays. The spherical geometry model was used for liquid diffusion. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design in a 4 × 4 factorial scheme (four moisture contents × four temperatures), with three replications. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and regression using the statistical software SISVAR®. Sorghum grain diffusivity increases at the same drying temperature as an increase of the initial moisture content of grains. The activation energy was higher for grains with higher initial moisture content, with values of 27.32, 26.75, 22.55, and 20.94 kJ mol−1, respectively.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are a promising tool for technology development and transfer and for the economic success of the agricultural sector. The objective of this study is to assess the validity of biomass estimation in a commercial maize plantation using aerial images obtained by a UAV. The proposed methodology involved analyzing images acquired in scheduled flights, processing orthophoto (georeferenced image) data, evaluating digital terrain elevation models, and assessing the quality of dense point clouds. Data were collected using two cameras, one with a 16-megapixel flat lens and the other with a 12-megapixel fish-eye lens coupled to a UAV, at two flight altitudes (30 and 60 meters) over hybrid maize (AG1051) crop irrigated by center pivot in the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte, Ceará, Brazil. Crop biomass was estimated in 1 m2 plots sampled randomly, and data were validated by interpreting aerial images of target areas. The measurements of biomass using UAV-based aerial images were promising. The estimated values were more accurate using the fish-eye lens at 30 m altitude, corresponding to 2.97 kg m-2, which is very close to the values measured in the field (2.92 kg m-2).
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The recovery of waste from the broiler production chain (BPC) is consistent with the principles of a circular economy. Besides turning waste into organic compost, its use as substrate for the production of vegetable seedlings further increases its economic value. However, it is necessary to adapt its characteristics to enable its use as substrate. To this end, the addition of boiler remnant charcoal wastes (BCW), another type of waste generated in the BPC, to the organic compost resulting from the composting of BPC waste with different bulking agents (BAs) was studied. The addition of BCW to agro-industrial compost reduced the electrical conductivity (EC) of substrates. Multiple linear regression showed that, of the 13 variables (physical, chemical and physicochemical) studied, three (EC, pH and N content) are sufficient to explain the seedling quality index (SQI). Simple nonlinear regression showed that, in order to achieve higher SQIs and easier removal of clod from tray, an additional 30% in weight of BCW is required for compost, using urban tree pruning, wood sawdust and sugarcane bagasse BAs. The use of cotton and Napier grass waste as BAs is not recommended for BPC waste mixtures, as they cause a large increase in substrate EC.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Wood is a material used for various purposes since ancient times and is mainly used in civil and rural construction and industry. Due to the predatory exploitation of known trees, it is necessary to characterize new species for use in urban and rural structures as alternatives of species commonly used. This study aimed to determine the physical and mechanical properties of Guarucaia wood (Peltophorum vogelianum Benth.) based on the Brazilian standard ABNT NBR 7190 (1997) and estimate the strength and stiffness as a function of apparent density using the analysis of variance and also estimate stiffness as a function of its strength. The mechanical properties of P. vogelianum were considered compatible for structural use when compared with others used for the same purpose, being classified in the class C50 of dicotyledon species and evidencing the possibility of its use for structural purposes. According to the results of the poor quality in the fit of regression models in the statistical analysis, the strength and stiffness could not be estimated as a function of apparent density nor stiffness properties as a function of their respective strengths.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The operational performance of the agricultural tractor can be increased by adjusting parameters such as tire inflation pressure, axle mass distribution and gauge opening, which is a very divergent factor in controlled-traffic production. The objective of the experiment was to measure the energy performance of a 93 kW agricultural tractor in intermediate grading operation in two slopes (flat and sloping) and three gauge configurations (closed, intermediate and open) in mobilized soil. Energy performance was determined from the following parameters: slip, engine speed, actual effective speed, hourly and specific fuel consumption; strength, power and performance on the drawbar. Turbo pressure and temperature monitoring was also performed at six different engine points. The experiment was conducted in double factorial arrangement (2 slopes and 3 gauges), with four replications, totaling 24 plots. Data were analyzed for normality and homoscedasticity of the residues, after ANOVA and when significant, the means test. Tilts and tire gauges did not differ statistically, so it can be concluded that depending on the operation do not interfere with operating performance.