Engenharia Agrícola, Volume: 42, Número: 3, Publicado: 2022
  • ERGONOMIC DESIGN OF CAB STRUCTURE FOR WHEELED COMBINE HARVESTER Scientific Paper

    Liu, Sifan; Tang, Zhong; Zhang, Ben; Liang, Yaquan; Gu, Xinyang

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT In view of the fact that the design of the cab structure of wheeled combine harvesters in China lacks ergonomic design parameters exclusive for Chinese drivers, there are generally problems such as high vibration and poor comfort of the whole machine structure during the harvesting process. Firstly, this paper designed the cab structure of a wheeled grain combine harvester based on ergonomics. Then, the driver's handling comfort and visibility were simulated and analyzed using Creo. Finally, the relevant dimensions of the driver's control device were optimized. The results show that the wheeled grain combine harvester cab based on ergonomic design better meets their driving comfort needs. In addition, it is found that the operating frequencies of the key components, such as the main shaft of the conveyor spindle, the vibrating screen, the threshing drum, and the intermediate shaft of the engine, partially overlap with the frequency of human discomfort. Therefore, modal planning is also needed for this harvester to meet human comfort requirements better. This paper provides the basic parameters for the design of the cab structure of the combine harvester with high comfort for the Chinese harvesting machinery driver.
  • IMPACT OF LOAD LAYOUT ON INTERNAL VENTILATION DURING THE TRANSPORT OF BROILERS Scientific Paper

    Pinheiro, Daniel G.; Barbosa Filho, José A. D.; Machado, Nítalo A. F.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT The characterisation of ventilation during the transport of broilers is essential to identify and solve problems related to the microclimate of the load. This study aimed to evaluate the ventilation patterns in alternative load layouts, i.e., with a central span or an air corridor, used in Brazil. Computational fluid dynamics simulations and wind tunnel tests were performed on virtual models and small-scale prototypes, respectively. The results showed that the load layout with a "central span" promoted positive ventilation patterns and increased wind circulation between the crates. However, it reduces the load transport capacity by approximately 20% (70 fewer crates), increasing the number of journeys. Therefore, the modification of the layout can optimise ventilation throughout the load; however, it becomes necessary to reduce the number of crates stacked on the truck, which is not feasible for the commercial transport of broilers because it makes it more onerous.
  • SIMPLE CORRECTION METHOD OF SOIL PENETRATION RESISTANCE FOR SOIL WATER CONTENT Scientific Paper

    Duarte, Thiago F.; Silva, Tonny J. A. da; Bonfim-Silva, Edna M.; Lima, Gabrielly F.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT Soil penetration resistance (PR) assessment is a physical assessment of soil to identify compacted soil layers. Its results are influenced by soil moisture. In this study, a method for correcting PR as a function of soil water content is proposed. The proposed method employs the same function that represents the relationship between PR and soil moisture to calculate the correction that should be applied to the data. The method was evaluated in a Quartzipmment and an Oxisol, at reference moistures of 0.05 to 0.25 kg kg-1 and 0.10 to 0.30 kg kg-1, respectively. In addition, the efficiency was evaluated based on mean absolute error (MAE), bias, and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Following correction, the PR data of both soil classes followed the reference PR values ​​ (calculated for reference moisture). The largest errors were −0.474 (bias), 0.360 (MAPE), and 0.505 (MAE) for the Oxisol, and 0.112 (bias), 0.616 (MAPE), and 0.286 (MAE) for the Quartzipmment. Furthermore, the best performance occurred at a reference moisture of 0.25 and 0.10 kg kg-1 for Oxisol and Quartzipmment, respectively. Moreover, these moistures were close to the suction pressure of 10 kPa for both soils.
  • EFFECTS OF COMMERCIAL RAPID COOLING PROGRAMS ON ‘ROSA’ MANGO QUALITY Scientific Paper

    Ferreira, Iara J. S.; Turco, Silvia H. N.; Silva, Rodrigo T.; Freitas, Sergio T. de; Costa, Daniel dos S.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Mango quality is affected by thermal storage conditions. Therefore, it is important to use cooling techniques and their monitoring to maintain desirable properties in the fruit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of commercial rapid cooling programs on the quality of ‘Rosa’ mango. Mangoes were distributed on different horizontal positions of six pallets. All pallets were put through two rapid cooling times, three pallets for 120 minutes and three pallets for 240 minutes. Subsequently, the fruits were stored in a cold chamber for 7 and 14 days, followed by an evaluation of shelf life for 3 days at 20°C. Experimental design was in randomized blocks with three replicates, with one pallet per replicate. The weight, pH, and skin color of the fruit were assessed. According to the results, fruits closer to the air inlet in the packages showed the highest cooling rates. After storage and shelf life, quality parameters were not significantly affected by the rapid cooling programs. In conclusion, the 120-minute program can be satisfactorily adopted for the rapid cooling process of the ‘Rosa’ mango, considering the reduction of energy costs and the reduction of the dwell time of the fruit in the cold chamber.
  • CLASSIFICATION OF BANANA RIPENING STAGES BY ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS AS A FUNCTION OF PLANT PHYSICAL, PHYSICOCHEMICAL, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS Scientific Paper

    Bonini Neto, Alfredo; Souza, Angela V. de; Bonini, Carolina dos S. B.; Mello, Jéssica M. de; Moreira, Adonis

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT Brazil is currently the 4th world’s largest banana producer, producing around 7 million tons. In this scenario, several studies have been developed with a large amount of data, such as climatic, morphological, and nutritional data, in an attempt to improve these numbers even further. This study aims to classify banana ripening stages by artificial neural networks (ANN) as a function of plant physical, physicochemical, and biochemical parameters. The used ANN consisted of a three-layer feedforward backpropagation network, with eight neurons in the input layer (physical, physicochemical, and biochemical parameters), ten neurons in the intermediate layer, and two neurons in the output layer (classification of banana ripening stages). The results showed three configurations. ANN presented an excellent result for the training phase, with 100% accuracy in the sample classification for the three configurations. The validation and testing phases, that is, the classification of samples that were not part of the training, showed 91.6% and 94.4% accuracy in the first and second configurations, respectively, and 89.5% accuracy in the third configuration.
  • FUZZY MODELING FOR THE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT LIGHT INTENSITIES IN THE PRODUCTION OF BELL PEPPER SEEDLINGS Scientific Paper

    Brito, Déborah C. T. C. de; Lourençoni, Dian; Turco, Silvia H. N.; Oliveira, Pablo T. L. de

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT Bell peppers are one of the most cultivated and consumed vegetables in Brazil, and their high production yield largely depends on the use of high-quality seedlings. Supplementary lighting using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can help in the production of seedlings and improve their quality. This study aims to develop a fuzzy model to predict the agronomic parameters of bell pepper seedlings under different light intensities. Experimental data on the lighting levels and biometric responses of bell pepper seedlings were used to develop a fuzzy model, and the lighting levels defined in five sets were used as the input variable. The model was used to predict the output variables, namely the plant height, number of leaves, stem diameter, internode number, shoot fresh weight, and root fresh weight. The results indicated that the use of supplemental lighting at a level of 75 μmol m-2s-1 was the most beneficial, producing seedlings with more leaves, higher stem diameters, internode numbers, and fresh weights. The model error rates were satisfactory for the predicted values of all variables, demonstrating the usefulness of the fuzzy model for estimating the best lighting levels in the cultivation of bell pepper seedlings.
  • DYNAMIC POTATO IDENTIFICATION AND CLEANING METHOD BASED ON RGB-D Scientific Paper

    Fu, Xiaoming; Meng, Zhijun; Wang, Zedong; Yin, Xiaohui; Wang, Chang

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT To solve the problems of a large number of clods remaining in potatoes after mechanized harvesting in northern heavy clay soil planting areas in China and requiring much labor to separate clods from potatoes, which leads to a heavy workload, inefficiency and a low cleaning rate, an RGB-D-based Mask R-CNN dynamic potato identification model is established by using acquired RBG-D image data of untreated potatoes after mechanized harvesting, and a potato cleaning method is presented in this paper. This makes it possible to automatically separate clod impurities from potatoes. The experimental results showed that the prediction accuracy of the identification model is more than 97%. With the increase in cleaning conveyance speed, the prediction accuracy of the model and the actual cleaning precision show a downward trend. Comprehensively considering the potato cleaning efficiency and accuracy, when the speed is set to 0.4 m·s−1, the cleaning precision reaches as high as 96.35%. This research provides a method and theoretical reference for the further study of intelligent potato cleaning systems.
  • DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS TO ESTIMATE THE UNSATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF A SANDY LOAM SOIL IN THE AGRICULTURAL FIELD Scientific Paper

    Al-Dosary, Naji Mordi Naji; Aboukarima, Abd El Wahed Mohamed; Marazky, Mohamed Said El

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT Hydraulic conductivity in unsaturated soil controls water movement and measuring it in agricultural fields is a challenging task requiring time-consuming, costly, and skilled experimentation. This study was conducted to reduce the cost of experimentation through the development of an estimation model. The developed model is based on dimensional analysis to determine the value of hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soil as it relates to soil moisture content, irrigation water electrical conductivity, and suction rate (pressure head). Data points were acquired from measurements of cumulative infiltration in the field, using a mini disc infiltrometer. The developed model gave a mean discrepancy ratio of 1.10 (the acceptable range is 0.5–2.0) and a mean percentage of relative errors of 9.96%. These values indicate that the dimensional analysis model is reliable for the prediction of sandy loam soil’s unsaturated hydraulic conductivity.
  • SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL AND PRODUCTION COMPONENTS IN IRRIGATED NOBLE GARLIC Scientific Paper

    Oliveira, Job T. de; Oliveira, Rubens A. de; Almeida, Edmilson I. B.; Cunha, Fernando F. da; Teodoro, Paulo E.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Among agricultural components, crop ecophysiological parameters play an essential role in garlic growth and yield. This study aimed to characterize the structure and spatialization of garlic crop parameters, evaluating spatial correlations among yield, lateral shoot growth, and plant ecophysiological components. These consisted of intercellular CO2 concentration, stomatal conductance, transpiration, water-use efficiency, carboxylation efficiency, photosynthetically active radiation, relative humidity around leaves, relative humidity in leaves, air temperature, leaf temperature, vapor pressure deficit, and water content in the air and leaves. Our results showed that irrigated purple garlic yield, lateral shoot growth, and ecophysiological components are spatially dependent. A cross-semivariogram between plant ecophysiological parameters showed negative spatial correlations and spatial dependence, with a coefficient of determination (r2) above 0.730. These findings indicate a close correlation between garlic yield and lateral shoot growth with the ecophysiological parameters studied. In short, purple garlic production had a high inter-spatial correlation with plant transpiration and water contents in the air and leaves.
  • DEVELOPMENT OF A WATER QUALITY INDEX WITH A REDUCED NUMBER OF PARAMETERS Scientific Paper

    de Oliveira, Amanda R. M; Borges, Alisson C.; da Silva, Greicelene J; Nascimento, Moysés

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT The development of water quality indices (WQIs), duly modified and using a small number of parameters, may be of great economic use. The purpose of this work was to develop a WQI with a reduced number of parameters (WQIred), in relation to what is used in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais (WQIIGAM), in the basin of the Doce River. Four different scenarios were analysed, with the absence of the following parameters for the calculation of the WQIred: BOD, E. coli and phosphate; BOD and E. coli; BOD, E. coli and total solids (TS); BOD, E. coli, phosphate and TS. The redistribution of the weight attributed to the eliminated parameters was done according to the following methods: (i) in weighted form, through optimisation of the correlation between the WQIred and the WQIIGAM; (ii) based on the cluster analysis. The best scenario found was that of the WQIred considering only DO, pH, temperature variation, nitrates and turbidity, with the weights being redistributed based on cluster analysis. This scenario maintained satisfactory performance, with a minimum difference being observed between WQIIGAM and WQIred, in terms of management purpose. The WQIred as proposed makes it possible to establish a monitoring control system operating in real time in the Doce river basin, as all the parameters considered can be obtained with the use of multiparameter probes.
  • LOW-COST ELECTRO-MECHANICAL PRESS FOR DETERMINING PRE-CONSOLIDATION PRESSURE Technical Paper

    Duarte, Thiago F.; Godoy, Edson; Silva, Tonny J. A. da; Bonfim-Silva, Edna M.; Santos, Douglas V. R. dos

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT The pre-consolidation pressure is a soil parameter indicating the maximum load that can be supported without irreversible deformation. However, the commercially available equipment for such determination is very expensive, limiting studies on this subject. The objective of this study was to develop a low-cost press model for determining a soil pre-consolidation pressure. The press comprised an electric jack for lifting a soil sample against a fixed piston. A compression cell was built using Technyl®. The stability and smoothness of the applied loads were controlled using springs with different dimensions and strengths. The load and deformation data were obtained using an indicator connected to the load cell and a dial indicator, respectively. The equipment was tested by determining the pre-consolidation pressure in an Oxisol cultivated with cotton and under an area of native Cerrado. The pre-consolidation pressures for a soil water tension of 10 kPa were 50.8 kPa and 61.1 kPa for the soil under the native Cerrado and cotton crop, respectively, and the compressibility indexes were 0.71 and 0.37, respectively. The main advantages of this equipment are its low cost, ease of construction, and simplicity of operation. However, the equipment is non-automatic; thus, the data necessary for the construction of the compression curve must be collected by an operator.
  • SIMULATION OF EFFICIENCY IN AVAILABILITY FOR DIFFERENT SUGARCANE (Saccharum spp.) TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT Technical Paper

    Santos, Neisvaldo B. dos; Monteiro, Leonardo de A.; Chioderoli, Carlos A.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT Brazil is the world’s largest sugarcane producer destined for mills producing alcohol, sugar, and electricity cogeneration. Sugarcane transport to the mills is carried out by trucks with trailers and tractors with semi-trailers, which transport the raw material harvested in the field to the mill. The modal road system of sugarcane transport uses this equipment to meet the continuous demand of the harveste draw material, with punctuality in the transport execution and generating a minimum cost. This study aimed to analyze the influence of availability efficiency on the operational and economic performance of different sugarcane transport equipment. A computational model called TransporteCana was developed in a spreadsheet due to the difficulty in meeting the objective under field conditions. The model was checked for possible routine errors, validated, and used in the analysis of variables and generation of results. The results showed that increasing availability efficiency reduces the operational cost of producing the equipment. Large managerial investments for the means of execution are required for high availability efficiencies.
  • DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS OF AN AUTONOMOUS ELECTRIC VEHICLE FOR USE IN FAMILY FARM UNITS Technical Paper

    Rosales, Jean C.; Machado, Roberto L. T.; Machado, Antônio L. T.; Andrade, Henrique G.; Kroessin, Laís

    Resumo em Inglês:

    ABSTRACT Family farming in Brazil is responsible for the country’s food security, ensuring most of the food consumed by Brazilians. However, the agricultural machinery and equipment industry has not been dedicated to providing innovations to this sector, focusing mainly on supplying large agribusiness properties with the most advanced technology equipment. Thus, the introduction of new technological solutions regarding agricultural machines for family farming is necessary. Considering the need to supply this branch of the Brazilian agricultural sector with new technologies, this study aimed to establish the design specifications of an autonomous electric vehicle that serves as a multifunction platform, which was primarily designed to remove weeds, mainly meeting the needs of family farmers. The product development methodology in its informational phase was applied to obtain and study these needs. As a result, 19 design specifications were established with their associated target values, allowing defining the physical and economic parameters that will be the basis for the development of the autonomous electric vehicle in its conceptual phase.
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Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola SBEA - Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola, Departamento de Engenharia e Ciências Exatas FCAV/UNESP, Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane, km 5, 14884.900 | Jaboticabal - SP, Tel./Fax: +55 16 3209 7619 - Jaboticabal - SP - Brazil
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