Accessibility / Report Error

Cidadania

Citizenship

Resumos

Queremos com este artigo contribuir para mover o debate pedagógico sobre educação em cidadania para além do que caracterizamos em um trabalho anterior como o impasse de perspectivas idealizadas (Fischman; Haas, 2012). Nosso argumento está embasado em duas ideias principais. Primeiro, a noção de cidadão que informa programas de educação em cidadania é estreitamente definida com base em narrativas de pertencimento em termos nacionais. Estas narrativas não são mais adequadas para compreender as complexas relações (se alguma vez o foram) entre cidadania e educação porque não levam em consideração as mudanças políticas, econômicas, sociais e demográficas contemporâneas relacionadas aos processos frouxamente definidos, mas muito influentes, de globalização. Em segundo lugar, e talvez mais importante, uma superênfase sobre modelos de racionalidade relacionados à tradição cartesiana de cogito ergo sum - e de atores humanos como seres puramente conscientes - oferece um modelo abertamente idealista e educacionalmente impraticável de educação em cidadania. Iniciamos com uma breve apresentação de alguns dos modelos de compreensão das relações entre cidadania e educação mais frequentemente utilizados e suas deficiências. A seguir, a próxima seção introduz o conceito de cognição incorporada e a relevância de metáforas e protótipos na compreensão da cidadania. Concluímos com algumas observações sobre ir além de modelos idealizados de educação em cidadania.

Escolarização; Educação para a Cidadania; Conhecimento Incorporado; Metáforas


With this article we want to contribute to moving the pedagogical debate about citizenship education beyond what we characterized in previous work as the impasse of idealized perspectives (Fischman; Haas, 2012). Our argument rests on two main ideas: First, the notion of citizen informing citizenship education programs is narrowly defined based on narratives of nationally bounded membership. Such narratives are no longer adequate for understanding the complex relationships between citizenship and education (if they ever were) because they do not consider the contemporary political, economic, social, and demographic changes related to the loosely defined, but very influential, processes of globalization. Second, and perhaps more importantly, an overemphasis on models of rationality related to the Cartesian tradition of cogito ergo sum - and of human actors as purely conscious beings - offers an overly idealistic and educationally impractical model of citizenship education. We begin with a brief presentation of some of the most frequently used models of understanding the relationships between citizenship and education and their shortcomings. Then, the next section introduces the concept of embodied cognition and the relevance of metaphors and prototypes in understanding citizenship. We conclude with some notes on going beyond idealized models of citizenship education.

Schooling; Citizenship Education; Embodied Cognition; Metaphors


  • ALPEROVITZ, Gar; DALY, Lew. Unjust Deserts: how the rich are taking our common inheritance and why we should take it back. New York: New Press, 2008.
  • ALSUP, Janet. Teacher Identity Discourses: negotiating personal and professional spaces. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2006.
  • AMERICAN RHETORIC. Martin Luther King Jr.: I've been to the Mountaintop. 2010. Disponível em: <http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkivebeentothemountaintop.htm> Acesso em: 2 nov. 2010.
  • ANDERSON, Benedict. Imagined Communities: reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. New York: Verso, 1991.
  • ANDERSON, Gary L. Toward Authentic Participation: deconstructing the discourses of participatory reforms in education. American Educational Research Journal, New York, v. 35, n. 4, p. 571-603, 1998.
  • APPIAH, Kwame Anthony. Cosmopolitanism: ethics in a world of strangers. New York: W. W. Norton, 2006.
  • APPLE, Michael W. Ideology and Curriculum 2. ed. New York: Routledge, 1990.
  • APPLE, Michael W.; BEANE, James A. (Org.). Democratic Schools Alexandria: VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1995.
  • ARENDT, Hannah. The Human Condition Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958.
  • ARENDT, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism London: Allen & Unwin, 1967.
  • ARENDT, Hannah. Men in Dark Times New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1968.
  • ARENDT, Hannah. Between Past and Future. Trans D. Lindley New York: Penguin Books, 1993. (Original work published in 1958)
  • ARIELY, Dan. Predictably Irrational: the hidden forces that shape our decisions, revised and expanded edition. New York: Harper Collins, 2008.
  • ARIELY, Dan. The Upside of Irrationality: the unexpected benefits of defying logic at work and at home. New York: Harper Collins, 2010.
  • ARMSTRONG, Sharon Lee; GLEITMAN, Lila R.; GLEITMAN, Henry. What some Concepts Mightbe. Cognition, v. 13, n. 3, p. 263-308, maio 1983.
  • ARNOT, Madeleine. Gendered Citizenry: new feminist perspectives on education and citizenship. British Educational Research Journal, v. 23, n. 3, p. 275-295, 1997.
  • AYERS, William; HUNT, Jean Ann; QUINN, Therese. Teaching for Social Justice New York: New Press and Teachers College Press, 1998.
  • BARBER, Benjamin R. Strong Democracy: participatory politics for a new age. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.
  • BARSALOU, Lawrence W. Ad hoc Categories. Memory & Cognition, v. 11, p. 211-227, 1983.
  • BARSALOU, Lawrence W. Deriving Categories to Achieve Goals. In: BOWER, Gordon H. (Org.). The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: advances in research and theory, v. 27. New York: Academic Press, 1991. P. 01-64.
  • BATTISTONI, Rick. Teaching High-Schoolers Participatory Democracy. The Education Digest, v. 70, p. 03-18, 2004.
  • BAUMAN, Zygmunt. The Individualized Society Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2001.
  • BEER, Francis A.; BOYNTON, G. Robert. Paths Through the Minefields of Foreign Policy Space: practical reasoning in the U.S. Senate discourse about Cambodia. In: BEER, Francis A.; LANDTSHEER, Christ'l de (Org.). Metaphorical World Politics East Lansing, Michigan: Michigan State University Press, 2004. P. 141-163.
  • BECHARA, Antonie; DAMASIO, Hanna; TRANEL, Daniel; DAMASIO, António. The Iowa Gambling Task and the Somatic Marker Hypothesis. Trends in Cognitive Science, v. 9, n. 4, p. 159-162, 2005.
  • BEER, Francis; LANDTSHEER, Christ'l de. Metaphorical World Politics East Lansing, Michigan: Michigan State University Press, 2004.
  • BERLINER, David C. Our Impoverished View of Educational Research. Teachers College Record, v. 108, n. 6, p. 949-995, 2006.
  • BIESTA, Gert J. J. Education and the Democratic Person: towards a political conception of democratic education. Teachers College Record, v. 109, n. 3, p. 740-769, 2007.
  • BIESTA, Gert J. J. Learning Democracy in School and Society Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2011.
  • BOWMAN, Nicholas A. Promoting Participation in a Diverse Democracy: a meta-analysis of college diversity experiences and civic engagement. Review of Educational Research, v. 81, n. 1, p. 29-68, 2011.
  • BRODER, David. Schools' Civic Mission. The Washington Post, p. B7, 16 fev. 2003.
  • BUTTS, Robert Freeman. The Revival of Civic Learning: a rationale for citizenship education in American schools. Bloomington. Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation, 1980.
  • CAMERER, Colin; LOEWENSTEIN, George; PRELEC, Drazen. Neuroeconomics: how neuroscience can inform economics. Working Paper, 2004. Disponível em: <http://www.nyu.edu/econ/user/bisina/camerer_loewenstein_prelec.pdf>. Acesso em: 18 out. 2010.
  • CARNEGIE CORPORATION of New York & CIRCLE. The Civic Mission of Schools. New York: Carnegie Corporation of New York & CIRCLE (The Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement), 2003.
  • CARNOY, Martin; LEVIN, Henry M. Schooling and Work in the Democratic State. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985.
  • CARUSO, Marcelo; DUSSEL, Inés. Dewey in Argentina: tradition, intention, and situation in the production of a selective reading. Encounters on Education, v. 10, n. 0, 2009. Disponível em: <http://library.queensu.ca/ojs/index.php/encounters/article/view/2140> Acesso em: 20 nov. 2010.
  • CHATTERJEE, Arnab; SINHA, Sitabhra; CHAKRABARTI, Bikas K. Economic Inequality: is it natural? Current Science, v. 92, n. 10,  p. 1383-1389, 2007.
  • CHENEY, Lynne V. Speeches and Testimony: teaching for freedom. James Madison Program in American Ideals and Institutions, Princeton University, 29 nov. 2001. Disponível em: <http://www.aei.org/speech/13472>. Acesso em: 03 nov. 2010.
  • CLORE, Gerald L.; ORTONY, Andrew. Cognition in Emotion: always, sometimes, or never? In: LAND, Richard D.; NADEL, Lynn (Org.). Cognitive Neuroscience of Emotion Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. P. 24-61.
  • CONDRON, Dennis J. Egalitarianism and Educational Excellence: compatible goals for affluent societies? Educational Researcher, v. 40, n. 2, p. 47-55, 2011.
  • DALE, Roger; ROBERTSON, Susan L. New Arenas of Global Governance and International Organisations: reflections and directions. In: MARTENS, Kerstin A.; RUSCONI, Alessandra; LEUZE, Kathrin (Org.). New Arenas of Education Governance: the impact of international organizations and markets on educational policy making. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2007. P. 217-228.
  • DAMASIO, Antonio R. Descartes' Error: emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Harper Collins, 1994.
  • DAMASIO, Antonio R. Looking For Spinoza: joy, sorrow, and the feeling brain. New York: Harcourt, 2003.
  • DAMASIO, Antonio R. Self Comes to Mind: constructing the conscious brain. New York: Pantheon, 2010.
  • DEAN, Mitchell. Governmentality: power and rule in modern society. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, 1999.
  • DEVINE, Patricia G. Stereotypes and Prejudice: the automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, v. 56, p. 5-18, 1989.
  • DEWEY, John. Democracy and Education: an introduction to the philosophy of education. New York: Macmillan Company, 1916.
  • DEWEY, John. Experience and Education New York: Touchstone, 1938.
  • DIJKSTERHUIS, Ap; VAN BAAREN, Rick B.; BONGERS, K. C. A.; BOS, Maarten W.; VAN LEEUWEN, Matthijs L.; VAN DER LEIJ, Aryan. The Rational Unconscious: conscious versus unconscious thought in complex consumer choice. Working Paper, sem data.  Disponível em: <http://www.unconsciouslab.com/publications/Dijksterhuis%20Van%20Baaren%20Bongers%20Bos%20Van%20Leeuwen%20Van%20der%20Leij%20-%20The%20rational%20unconscious%20-%20Conscious%20versus%20unconscious%20thought%20in%20complex%20consumer%20choice.pdf>. Acesso em: 4 nov. 2010.
  • DUSSEL, Inés. La Escuela y la Formación de la Ciudadanía: reflexiones en tiempos de crisis. Documentos e Informes de Investigación, n.186, Buenos Aires: FLACSO, 1996.
  • FARKAS, Steve; DUFFET, Ann M. High Schools, Civics, and CitizenShip: what social studies teachers think and do. Washington D.C.: American Enterprise Institute, 2010.
  • FAUCONNIER, Gilles; TURNER, Mark. The Way We Think: conceptual blending and the mind's hidden complexities. New York: Basic Books, 2002.
  • FELDMAN, Jerome A. From Molecule to Metaphor: a neural theory of language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.
  • FISCHMAN, Gustavo E. Imagining Teachers: rethinking teachereducation and gender. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000.
  • FISCHMAN, Gustavo E.; GANDIN, Luis Armando. Escola Cidadã and Critical Discourses of Educational hope. In: McLAREN, Peter; KINCHELOE, Joe L. (Org.). Critical Pedagogy: where are we now. New York: Peter Lang, 2007. P. 209-223.
  • FISCHMAN, Gustavo E.; HASS, Eric. Framing Higher Education: nostalgia, entrepreneurship, consumerism and redemption. In: SANDLIN, Jennifer. A.; McLAREN, Peter (Org.). Critical Pedagogies of Consumption: living and learning in the shadow of the "Shopocalypse". New York: Routledge, 2009. P. 108-122.
  • FISCHMAN, Gustavo E.; HASS, Eric. Beyond "Idealized" Citizenship Education: embodied cognition, metaphors and democracy. Review of Research in Education (RRE), Education, Democracy and the Public Good, v. 36, n. 1, p. 190-217, 2012.
  • FOUCAULT, Michael. Governmentality. In: BURCHELL, Graham; GORDON, Colin; MILLER, Peter (Org.). The Foucault Effect: studies in governmentality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. P. 87-104.
  • FOUCAULT, Michael. The Subject and Power. In: FAUBION, James D.; RABINOW, Paul (Org.). Power: essential works of Foucault 1954-1984. London: Penguin, 1994. P. 326-348.
  • FOUCAULT, Michael; SENELLART, Michel; EWALD, François et al. Security, Territory, Population: lectures at the Collège de France 1977–1978. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2004.
  • FRASER, Nancy. Scales of Justice: reimagining political space in a globalizing world. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008.
  • FRASER, Nancy; GORDON, Linda. Civil Citizenship Against Social Citizenship? On the ideology of contract-versus-charity. In: VAN STEENBERGEN, Bart (Org.). The Condition of Citizenship London: SAGE, 1994. P. 90-107.
  • FRIEDRICH, Daniel; JAASTAD, Bryn; POPKEWITZ, Thomas S. Democratic Education: an (im)possibility that yet remains to come. Educational Philosophy and Theory, v. 42, n. 5-6, p. 571-587, 2009.
  • GANDIN, Luis Armando; FISCHMAN, Gustavo. Participatory Democratic Education: is the utopia possible? Porto Alegre's Citizen School Project. In: ANDERSON, Philip M.; HAYES, Kecia; ROSES, Karel; KINCHELOE, Joe L. (Org.). Urban Education: an encyclopedia. CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006. P. 135-146.
  • GIDDENS, Anthony. Central Problems in Social History Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.
  • GRADY, Joseph E.; OAKLEY, Todd; COULSON, Seana. Conceptual Blending and Metaphor. In: BRANDT, Per Aage; GERGERSEN, Frans; STJERNFELT, Frederik; SKOV, Martin (Org.). The Roman Jakobson Centennial Symposium: international journal of linguistics acta linguistica hafniensia, v. 29. Copenhagen: C. A. Reitzel, 1999. P. 221-237.
  • GRAMSCI, Antonio. Selections from the Prison Notebooks New York: International Publishers, 1971.
  • GREEN, Andy. Education, Globalization and the Nation State New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997.
  • GRUBB, W. Norton; LAZERSON, Marvin. The Education Gospel: the economic power of schooling. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • GUTMANN, Amy. Democratic Education ed. rev. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999.
  • GUTMANN, Amy. Unity and Diversity in Democratic Multicultural Education: creative and destructive tensions. In: BANKS, James A. (Org.). Diversity and Citizenship Education San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004. P. 71-96.
  • HASS, Eric; FISCHMAN, Gustavo. Nostalgia, Entrepreneurship, and Redemption: understanding prototypes in higher education. American Educational Research Journal, v. 47, n. 3, p. 532-562, 2010.
  • HASS, Eric; POYNOR, Leslie. Issues of Teaching and Learning. In: ENGLISH, Fenwick W. (Org.). The SAGE Handbook of Educational Leadership Thousand Oaks: Sage, 2005. P. 483-505.
  • HAIDT, Jonathan; BJORKLUND, Fredrik. Social Intuitionists Answer Six Questions about Moral Psychology. In: SINNOTT-ARMSTRONG, Walter (Org.). Moral Psychology: the cognitive science of morality: intuition and diversity, v. 2. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008. P. 181-217.
  • HAWESWORTH, Mary. Policy Discourse as Sanctioned Ignorance: theorizing the erasure of feminist knowledge. Critical Policy Studies, v. 3, n. 3, p. 268-289, 2009.
  • HAMPTON, James A. An Investigation of the Nature of Abstract Concepts. Memory & Cognition, v. 9, p. 149-156, 1981.
  • HIRSCH Jr., Eric Donald. The Making of Americans: democracy and our schools. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2009.
  • HOGAN, Patrick Colm. Understanding Nationalism: on narrative, cognitive science, and identity. Columbus: Ohio University Press, 2009.
  • HOOKS, Bell.  Teaching to Transgress: education as the practice of freedom. New York: Routledge, 1994.
  • HOWE, R. Brian; COVELL, Katherine. Engaging Children in Citizenship Education: a children's rights perspective. The Journal of Educational Thought, v. 43, n. 1, p. 21-44, 2009.
  • IACOBONI, Marco. Mirroring People: the new science of how we connect with others. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2008.
  • ISIN, Engin F. Citizenship in Flux: the figure of the activist citizen. Subjectivity, v. 29, p. 367-388, 2009.
  • ISIN, Engin F.; WOOD, Patricia K. Citizenship and Identity London: Sage Publications, 1999.
  • JACKSON, Philip W. The Practice of Teaching New York: Teachers College Press, 1986.
  • JENSON, Jane. Changing Citizenship Regimes in Western Europe. In: CONFERENCE ON REINVENTING SOCIETY IN A CHANGING GLOBAL ECONOMY, 2008, Toronto. Anais...Toronto: University of Toronto, 8-10 mar. 2001.
  • JESSOP, Bob. The Future of the Capitalist State Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2002.
  • JOHNSON, Christopher. Metaphor vs. Conflation in the Acquisition of Polysemy: the case of SEE. In: HIRAGA, Masako K.; SINHA, Chris; WILCOX, Sherman (Org.). Cultural, Typological and Psychological issues in Cognitive Linguistics. Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, v. 152. Selected papers of the bi-annual ICLA meeting in Albuquerque, jul. 1995. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1997. P. 155-169.
  • KAHNE, Joseph; WESTHEIMER, Joel. In the Service of What? The Politics of Service Learning. Phi Delta Kappan, v. 77, n. 9, p. 593-599, 1996.
  • KAHNE, Joseph; WESTHEIMER, Joel. Teaching Democracy: what schools need to do. Phi Delta Kappan, v. 85, n. 1, p. 34-67, set. 2003.
  • KNIGHT ABOWITZ, Kathleen.. On the Public and Civic Purposes of Education. Educational Theory, v. 58, n. 3, p. 357-376, 2008.
  • KNIGHT ABOWITZ, Kathleen; HARNISH, Jason. Contemporary Discourses of Citizenship. Review of Educational Research, v. 76, n. 4, p. 653-690, 2006.
  • KOZOL, Jonathan. The Shame of the Nation: the restoration of apartheid schooling in America. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2006.
  • KRENDL, Anne C.; MACRAE, C. Neil; KELLEY, William M.; FUGELSANG, Jonathan A.; HEATHERTON, Todd F. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: an fmri investigation of the functional anatomic correlates of stigma. Social Neuralscience, v. 1, p. 5-15, 2006.
  • KUMASHIRO, Kevin K. The Seduction of Common Sense: how the right has framed the debate on America's schools. New York: Teachers College Press, 2008.
  • KUNDA, Ziva. Social Cognition: making sense of people. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999.
  • KWOK-BUN, Chan. Chinese Identities, Ethnicity and Cosmopolitanism London, England: Routledge, 2005.
  • LAKOFF, George. Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: what categories reveal aboutthe mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.
  • LAKOFF, George. Moral Politics: how liberals and conservatives think. 2. ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.
  • LAKOFF, George. The Political Mind: why you can't understand 21st-century American politics with an 18th-century brain. New York: Viking, 2008.
  • LAKOFF, George; JOHNSON, Mark. Metaphors We Live By Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.
  • LAKOFF, George; JOHNSON, Mark. Philosophy in the Flesh: the embodied mind and its challenge to western thought. New York: Basic Books, 1999.
  • LEICESTER, Mal; MODGIL, Celia; MODGIL, Sohan (Org.). Politics, Education and Citizenship New York: Falmer Press, 2000.
  • LEVINE, Peter. Youth Voter Turnout 20%: what does that mean? Huffington Post 03 nov. 2010. Disponível em: <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/peter-levine/youth-voter-turnout-20-wh_b_778244.html>. Acesso em: 15 nov. 2010.
  • LEVINSON, Meira. The Civic Achievement Gap. CIRCLE Working Paper, n. 51, jan. 2007. Disponível em: <http://www.civicyouth.org/PopUps/WorkingPapers/WP51Levinson.pdf>. Acesso em: 15 nov. 2010.
  • LUTKUS, Anthony; WEISS, Andrew R. The Nation's Report Card: civics 2006 (NCES 2007–476). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2007.
  • MAHILIOS, Marc; MAXSON, Marilyn. Metaphors as Structures for Elementary and Secondary Preservice Teachers' Thinking. International Journal of Educational Research, v. 29, n. 3, p. 227-240, ago. 1998.
  • MALKKI, Liisa. National Geographic: the rooting of peoples and the territorialization of national identity among scholars and refugees. Cultural Anthropology, v. 7, n. 1, p. 24-44, fev. 1992.
  • MARTINEZ, María A.; SAULEDA, Narcís; HUBER, Güenter L. Metaphors as Blueprints of Thinking about Teaching and Learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, v. 17, n. 8, p. 965-977, 2001.
  • McCOWAN, Tristan. Approaching the Political in Citizenship Education: the perspectives of Paulo Freire and Bernard Crick. Educate, v. 6, n. 1, p. 57-70, 2006.
  • McCOWAN, Tristan. Rethinking Citizenship Education: a curriculum for participatory democracy. London: Continuum, 2009a.
  • McCOWAN, Tristan. A Seamless Enactment of Citizenship Education. Journal of Philosophy of Education, v. 43, n. 1, p. 85-99, 2009b.
  • McDONOUGH, Kevin; FEINBERG, Walter (Org.). Citizenship and Education in Liberal-Democratic Societies: teaching for cosmopolitan values and collective identities. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • McGINN, Noel F. Education, Democratization, and Globalization. A Challenge for Comparative Education. Comparative Education Review, v. 40, n. 4, p. 341-357, 1996.
  • MILLER, Peter; ROSE, Nikolas. Governing the Present: administering economic, social and personal life. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2008.
  • MOLL, Marita. Participatory Citizenship: walking the talk. Education Canada, v. 44, n. 3, p. 45-71, 2004.
  • MUNBY, Hugh. Metaphor and Teachers' Knowledge. Research in the Teaching of English, v. 21, n. 4, p. 377-97, 1987.
  • MURPHY, Gregory L. The Big Book of Concepts. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002.
  • OFFE, Claus. Contradictions of the Welfare State London: Hutchinson, 1984.
  • NYERS, Peter. Abject Cosmopolitanism: the politics of protection in the anti-deportationmovement. Third World Quarterly, v. 24, n. 6, p. 1069-1093, 2003.
  • PARKER, Walter C.  "Advanced" Ideas about Democracy: toward a pluralist conception of citizen education. Teachers College Record, v. 98, n. 1, p. 104-125, 1996.
  • PARKER, Walter C. Teaching Democracy: unity and diversity in public life. New York: Teachers College Press, 2003.
  • PATCHEN, Terri; CRAWFORD, Teresa. From Gardeners to Tour Guides: the epistemological struggle revealed in teacher-generated metaphors of teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, v. 62, n. 3, p. 286-298, 2011.
  • PETERS, Michael A. Introduction: governmentality, education and the end of neoliberalism? In: PETERS, Michael A.; BESLEY, A. C.; OLSSEN, Mark; MAURER, Susanne; WEBER, Susanne (Org.). Governmentality Studies in Education Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2009. P. 27-48.
  • PIERSON, Paul; HACKER, Jacob S. Winner-Take-All Politics: how Washington made the rich richer--and turned its back on the middle class. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2010.
  • PINEAU, Elyse Lamm. Teaching is Performance: reconceptualizing a problematic metaphor. American Educational Research Journal, v. 31, p. 3-26, 1994.
  • PINI, Mónica (Org.). Discursos y Educación: herramientas para un análisis crítico de los discursos educativos. Buenos Aires (Argentina): UNSAM, 2009.
  • POPKEWITZ, Thomas S. Struggling for the Soul: the politics of education and the construction of the teacher. New York: Teachers' College Press, 1998.
  • POPKEWITZ, Thomas S. Cosmopolitanism and the Age of School Reform: science, education and  making society by making the child. New York: Routledge, 2007.
  • PRINZ, Jesse J. Furnishing the Mind: concepts and their perceptual basis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002.
  • PROKHOVNICK, Raia. Public and Private Citizenship: from gender invisibility to feminist inclusiveness. Feminist Review, v. 60, p. 84-104, 1998.
  • PROVENZO Jr., Eugene F.; McCLOSKEY, Gary N.; KOTTKAMP, Robert B.; COHN, Marilyn M. Metaphor and Meaning in the Language of Teachers. Teachers College Record, v. 90, p. 551-573, 1989.
  • PUTNAM, Robert D. Bowling Alone: America's declining social capital. Journal of Democracy, v. 6, n. 1, p. 65-78, 1995.
  • RAMACHANDRAN, Vilayanur S. The Tell-Tale Brain: a neuroscientist's quest for what makes us human. New York: Norton, 2011.
  • REDDY, Michael J. The Conduit Metaphor: a case of frame conflict in our language about language. In: ORTONY, Andrew (Org.). Metaphor and Thought Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978. P. 164-201.
  • ROBERTSON, Susan L. Globalization, Education Governance and Citizenship Regimes: new democratic deficits and social injustices. In: LIPMAN, Pauline; MONKMAN, Karen (Org.). Handbook of Social Justice and Education New York: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2007. P. 542-543.
  • ROBERTSON, Susan L.; DALE, Roger. Researching Education in a Globalising Era: beyond methodological nationalism, methodological statism, methodological educationism and spatial fetishism. In: RESNIK, Julia (Org.). The Production of Educational Knowledge in the Global Era Rotherdam: Sense Publishers, 2008. P. 19-32.
  • ROGERS, Rebecca; MALANCHARUVIL-BERKES, Elizabeth; MOSLEY, Melisa; HUI, D.; O' GARRO JOSEPH, Glynis. Critical Discourse Analysis in Education: a review of the literature. Review of Educational Research, v. 75, n. 3, p. 365-416, 2005.
  • ROSCH, Eleanor. Human Categorization. In: WARREN, Neil (Org.). Advances in Crosscultural Psychology, v. 1. London: Academic Press, 1977. P. 177-206.
  • ROSCH, Eleanor. Principles of Categorization. In: ROSCH, Eleanor; LLOYD, Barbara B. (Org.). Cognition and Categorization Hillsdale: Erlbaum, 1978. P. 27-71.
  • ROSCH, Eleanor. Reclaiming Cognition: the primacy of action, intention andemotion. Journal of Consciousness Studies, v. 6, n. 11-12, p. 61-77, 1999.
  • ROSCH, Eleanor; MERVIS, C. B. Family Resemblance: studies in the internal structure of categories. Cognitive Psychology, v. 7, p. 573-605, 1975.
  • ROSCH, Eleanor; MERVIS, Carolyn B.; GRAY, Wayne B.; JOHSON, David M.; BOYES-BRAEM, Penny. Basicobjects in Natural Categories. Cognitive Psychology, v. 8, p. 382-439, 1976.
  • ROSE, Nikolas; MILLER, Peter. Governing the Present: administering economic, social and personal life. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2008.
  • ROTH, Klas; BURBULES, Nicholas C. Changing Notions of Citizenship Education. In: ROTH, Klas; BURBULES, Nicholas C. (Org.). Contemporary Nation-States Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2007. P. 15-25.
  • SABAN, Ahmet. Prospective Teachers' Metaphorical Conceptualizations of Learner. Teaching and Teacher Education, v. 26, p. 290-305, 2010.
  • SASSEN, Saskia. Territory, Authority, Rights Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006.
  • SCHUGURENSKY, Daniel. Citizenship Learning for and Through Participatory Democracy. In: PINNINGTON, Elizabeth; SCHUGURENSKY, Daniel (Org.). Learning Citizenship by Practicing Democracy: international initiatives and perspectives. Cambridge Scholarly Press, 2010. P. 50-61.
  • SEN, Amartya. Inequality Examined New York: Russell Sage, 1992.
  • SEN, Amartya. Development as Freedom New York: Anchor Books, 1999.
  • SFARD, Anna. On Two Metaphors for Learning and the Dangers of Choosing just One. Educational Researcher, v. 27, n. 2, p. 04-13, 1998.
  • SHAKER, Paul. Fighting the Education Wars, Metaphorically. Teachers College Record Disponível em: <http://www.tcrecord.org>. Acesso em: 12 nov. 2010.
  • SLEETER, Christine. Teaching Whites about Racism. In: MARTIN, R. J. (Org.). Practicing what We Preach: confronting diversity in teacher education. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995. P. 117-130.
  • SMITH, Kweku M. Dualism within Progressive Pedagogies: the dynamic nature of democratic education. Social Studies Review, v. 48, n. 1, p. 38-44, 2009.
  • SMITH, Michael B; NOWACEK, Rebecca S.; BERNSTEIN, Jeffrey L. Introduction: ending the solitude of citizenship education. In: SMITH, Michael B.; NOWACEK, Rebecca S.; BERNSTEIN, Jeffrey L. (Org.). Citizenship Across the Curriculum Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2010. P. 01-12.
  • STROMQUIST, Nelly. Theorizing Global Citizenship: discourses, challenges, and implications for education. Inter-American Journal of Education for Democracy, v. 2, n. 1, 2009. Disponível em: <http://www.ried-ijed.org/english/articulo.php?idRevista=9&idArticulo=26>. Acesso em: 02 nov. 2010.
  • THOMPSON, Edward P. The Romantics: England in a revolutionary age. New York: New Press, 1997.
  • TORNEY-PURTA, Judith; AMADEO, Jo-Ann. Participatory Niches for Emergent Citizenship in Early Adolescence: an international perspective. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, v. 633, p. 180-200, 2011.
  • TORNEY-PURTA, Judith; AMADEO, Jo-Ann; ANDOLINA, Molly. A Conceptual Framework and Multimethod Approach for Research on Political Socialization and Civic Engagement. In: SHERROD, Lonnie; TORNEY-PURTA, Judith; FLANAGAN, Constance (Org.). Handbook of Research on Civic Engagement in Youth Hoboken: John Wiley, 2010. P. 497-523.
  • TURBAYNE, Colin Murray. The Myth of Metaphor Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1970.
  • TYACK, David; CUBAN, Larry. Tinkering Toward Utopia A Century of Public School Reform. Cambridge, MA & London: Harvard University Press, 1995.
  • UNITED NATIONS. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Disponível em: <http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/#atop>. Acesso em: 04 nov. 2010.
  • VAN DIJIK, Teun A. Communicating Racism: ethnic prejudice in thought and talk. Newbury Park: Sage, 1987.
  • VAN STEENBERGEN, Bart (Org.). The Condition of Citizenship London: SAGE, 1994.
  • WALLERSTEIN, Immanuel. All? Citizens some! The Making of the Citizen. Comparative Studies in Society and History, v. 45, n. 4, p. 650-679, 2003.
  • WEIL, Simone. The Need for Roots: prelude to a declaration of duties towards mankind. Tradução de A. Wills. New York: Routledge Classics, 2009. (Original work published 1949)
  • WELLMAN, David T. Portraits of White Racism Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1977.
  • WEST, Thomas. The Economic Principles of America's Founders: property rights, free markets, and sound money. First Principles Series Report, n. 32. Heritage Foundation website. Disponível em: <http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2010/08/the-economic-principles-of-america-s-founders-property-rights-free-markets-and-sound-money>. Acesso em: 30 ago. 2010.
  • WESTEN, Drew. The Political Brain: the role of emotion in deciding the fate of the nation. New York: Public Affairs, 2007.
  • WESTHEIMER, Joel; KAHNE, Joseph. Educating for Democracy. In: HAYDUK, Ronald; MATTSON, Kevin (Org.). Democracy's Moment: reforming the American political system for the 21st century. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002. P. 91-107.
  • WESTHEIMER, Joel; KAHNE, Joseph. Reconnecting Education to Democracy: democratic dialogues. Phi Delta Kappan, v. 85, n. 1, p. 8-14, 2003.
  • WESTHEIMER, Joel; KAHNE, Joseph. What Kind of Citizen? The Politics of Educating for Democracy. American Educational Research Journal, v. 41, n. 2, p. 237-269, 2004.
  • WHITE, Melanie; HUNT, Alan. Citizenship: care of the self, character and personality. Citizenship Studies, v. 4, n. 2, p. 93-116, 2000.
  • WILLIS, Paul. Learning to Labor: how working class kids get working class jobs. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977.
  • WILKINSON, Richard; PICKETT, Kate. The Spirit Level: why greater equality makes societies stronger. New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2009.

Datas de Publicação

  • Publicação nesta coleção
    22 Jan 2013
  • Data do Fascículo
    Ago 2012

Histórico

  • Recebido
    Fev 2012
  • Aceito
    Abr 2012
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - Faculdade de Educação Avenida Paulo Gama, s/n, Faculdade de Educação - Prédio 12201 - Sala 914, 90046-900 Porto Alegre/RS – Brasil, Tel.: (55 51) 3308-3268, Fax: (55 51) 3308-3985 - Porto Alegre - RS - Brazil
E-mail: educreal@ufrgs.br