Models for the pedagogical integration of information and communication technologies: a literature review

Modelos para a integração pedagógica de tecnologias de informação e comunicação: uma revisão da literatura.

Modelos para la integración pedagógica de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación: una revisión de la literatura

Olga González Sosa Cristina Hennig Manzuoli About the authors

Abstract

Education was, is and will continue to be a field full of questions: Why to teach? What to teach? How to teach? What, how and when to evaluate? Moreover, while the same questions persist, answers to them do not. They are dynamic, and they are transformed according to the demands of the family, the company and government policies. To address these considerations, this article aims to present the results of research into the literature of the last two decades on the elements that characterize a pedagogical model and that have been taken into account in explorations with regard to the educational integration of information and communication technologies and to identify gaps for future research. The results show that only 11% of the literature reviewed addresses the four questions listed above and concludes on the need to deepen the factors that affect the success of the changes that are introduced in the school, which seek to generate processes of educational transformation, from a holistic perspective.

Teaching; Educational models; Pedagogical trends; Curriculum; Evaluation

Resumo

A educação foi, é e continuará a ser um campo cheio de questões: por que ensinar? O que ensinar? Como ensinar? O que, como e quando avaliar? Além disso, enquanto as mesmas questões persistem, as respostas a elas não. São dinâmicas e se transformam de acordo com as demandas da família, da empresa e das políticas governamentais. Para abordar estas considerações, este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar os resultados da pesquisa na literatura das últimas duas décadas sobre os elementos que caracterizam um modelo pedagógico e que foram levados em conta nas explorações sobre a integração educacional das tecnologias de informação e comunicação e identificar lacunas para pesquisas futuras. Os resultados mostram que apenas 11% da literatura consultada aborda as quatro questões listadas acima e conclui sobre a necessidade de aprofundar os fatores que afetam o sucesso das mudanças que são introduzidas na escola, que buscam gerar processos de transformação educacional, desde uma perspectiva holística

Ensino; Modelos educativos; Tendências pedagógicas; Currículo; Avaliação

Resumen

La educación era, es y seguirá siendo un campo lleno de preguntas: ¿por qué enseñar? ¿Qué enseñar? ¿Cómo enseñar? ¿Qué, cómo y cuándo evaluar? Además, si bien las mismas preguntas persisten, las respuestas a ellas no. Son dinámicos y se transforman de acuerdo con las demandas de la familia, la empresa y las políticas del gobierno. Para abordar estas consideraciones, este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar los resultados de la investigación en la literatura de las últimas dos décadas sobre los elementos que caracterizan un modelo pedagógico y que se han tenido en cuenta en las exploraciones con respecto a la integración educativa de las tecnologías de información y comunicación e identificar las lagunas para futuras investigaciones. Los resultados muestran que solo el 11% de la literatura consultada aborda las cuatro preguntas enumeradas anteriormente. y se concluye sobre la necesidad de profundizar en los factores que inciden en el éxito de los cambios que se introducen en la escuela, que buscan generar procesos de transformación educativa, desde una perspectiva holística.

Docencia; Modelos educativos; Tendencias pedagógicas; Currículo; Evaluación

1 Introduction

It cannot be denied that the education system of the 21st century requires profound changes to respond to society’s needs, particularly those related to social and economic changes. Therefore, new “skills and competencies required by the educational standards that each student must be able to achieve by the end of compulsory education” must be developed (INTERGUAYAMA, 2010INTERGUAYAMA. Habilidades y competencias del siglo XXI para los aprendices del nuevo milenio en los países de la OCDE. 2010. Available from: <http://guayama.inter.edu/wordpress/?wpfb_dl=140>. Access in: 2017 Ago 17.
http://guayama.inter.edu/wordpress/?wpfb...
, p. 3).

For this reason, leaders in education from international organizations have come together to formulate a global framework enabling countries to face the challenges of the information society. An example of this was the World Summit on the Information Society (Geneva, 2003; Tunis, 2005) convened by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), which defined goals that can be adapted to the plans and policies of each nation. These goals are meant to guarantee equal opportunities and quality education that responds to the needs of all students, where lifelong learning and diversified teaching of information and communication technology applications in social and economic fields are promoted for improving learning processes and developing student competences (BETANCOURT, 2004BETANCOURT, V. La cumbre mundial sobre la sociedad de la información (CMSI). Proceosy temas debatidos, 2004. Obtenido de https://www.apc.org/es/system/files/wsis_process_ES.pdf
https://www.apc.org/es/system/files/wsis...
; DECLARATION OF INCHEON, 2015DECLARACION DE INCHEON. Educación 2030. República de Corea, 2015; UIT, 2005UIT – UNIÓN INTERNACIONAL DE TELECOMUNICACIONES. Cumbre mundial sobre la sociedad de la información, 2003, Ginebra. Documentos finales. Ginebra, 2005. Available from: <https://www.itu.int/net/wsis/outcome/booklet-es.pdf>. Access in: 2017 Ago 17.
https://www.itu.int/net/wsis/outcome/boo...
).

To meet these demands, numerous investigations have been conducted around the world describing experiments with technology integration in specific contexts. Although many studies have reported successful results with regard to the use of technology to improve students’ motivation and learning, there seems to be a disconnection in the holistic reflections regarding visions for the type of person to be shaped, the curriculum, the pedagogy, the types of relationships of the actors involved, and the evaluation of learning that characterizes each educational institution. In this regard, Fernandes et al. (2016)FERNANDES, G.; GONCALVES, P.; AMORIM, A. Gestão de recursos tecnológicos em colégios estaduais baianos: as múltiplas possibilidades de ação pedagógica na EJA. Ensaio: Avaliação e Políticas Públicas em Educação, v. 24, n. 93, p. 890-909, Dec. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-40362016000400006
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-4036201600...
, highlight the importance of school management to promote the organization, mobilization and articulation of material and human conditions to ensure the effective progress of educational processes.

Some research (BADILLA QUINTANA; MEZA FERNÁNDEZ, 2015BADILLA QUINTANA, M. G.; MEZA FERNÁNDEZ, S. A pedagogical model to develop teaching skills. the collaborative learning experience in the Immersive Virtual World TYMMI. Computers in Human Behavior, v. 51, Part B, p. 594-603, Oct. 2015 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.03.016
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.03.01...
) has focused on producing scenarios in which teachers can create learning situations that simulate training experiences for students. These experiences are encompassed in the implementation of virtual environments for collaborative work and social networks where interaction is valued.

Other research has adhered to the Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) model to improve performance of teaching and learning processes in specific areas (SAMPAIO, 2016SAMPAIO, P. A. S. R. Conhecimento tecnológico dos professores de Matemática sobre quadros interativos segundo as políticas públicas de formação contínua. Ensaio: Avaliação e Políticas Públicas em Educação, v. 24, n. 93, p. 845-65, Dec. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-40362016000400004
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-4036201600...
; TAI et al., 2015TAI, H et al. Applying Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) model to develop an online English writing course for nursing students. Nurse Education Today, v. 35, n. 6, p. 782-8, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2015.02.016
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2015.02.0...
). These studies report positive results when the model is used mainly for learning organized writing as well as in the absorption of content. Others have focused on investigating the reasons why teachers integrate information and communication technology (ICT) into their classes. Results reveal that the use of these technologies is directly proportional to the teacher’s mastery of them as well as to resources availability, to how much they motivate students and to the use of constructivist methods in teaching/learning processes (PETKO, 2012PETKO, D. Teachers’ pedagogical beliefs and their use of digital media in classrooms: sharpening the focus of the “will, skill, tool” model and integrating teachers’ constructivist orientations. Computers and Education, v. 58, n. 4, p. 1351-9, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.12.013
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.1...
).

Teachers’ perception of the integration of technologies, the competencies they possess and their relationship are public policies that have also been subject of research. An example is the study carried out by Herrera et al. (2018)HERRERA, M.; FERNANDEZ, D.; SEGUEL, R. Percepción de los profesores sobre integración de TIC en las prácticas de enseñanza en relación a los marcos normativos para la profesión docente en Chile. Ensaio: Avaliação e Políticas Públicas em Educação, v. 26, n. 98, p. 163-84, Mar 2018. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0104-40362017002501119.
https://doi.org/10.1590/s0104-4036201700...
, who conclude that perceptions and experience of teachers are fundamental factors for the educational integration of ICTs and that there is not necessarily a relationship between their learning and the requirements of the regulations.

Along these same lines of teacher beliefs, the studies report that teachers seldom use multimedia resources like YouTube videos, since they believe that these media are only used for fun and for motivating activities, and do not require much effort by students in terms of processing information (KRAUSKOPF et al., 2012KRAUSKOPF, K.; ZAHN, C.; HESSE, F. Leveraging the affordances of Youtube: The role of pedagogical knowledge and mental models of technology functions for lesson planning with technology. Computers and Education, v. 58, n, 4, p. 1194-206, May 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.12.010
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.1...
).

Other studies have focused on the use of an electronic portfolio for the development of cognitive skills in b-learning environments. They conclude that the use of these portfolios, together with problem-based learning models, helps develop problem-solving skills and critical thinking, since they allow students to create, synthesise and systematise conclusions (KORANEEKIJ; KHLAISANG, 2015KORANEEKIJ, P.; KHLAISANG, J. Development of learning outcome based e-portfolio model emphasizing on cognitive skills in pedagogical blended e-learning environment for undergraduate students at faculty of education, Chulalongkorn University. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, v. 174, p. 805-13, Feb. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.664
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01...
)

In another vein, some researchers have studied the influence of connectivity as a model for training industrial design students, finding positive results related to the creation of learning networks through online courses and other technology tools such as wikis, blogs, and 3D printing, all of which contributed to the absorption of knowledge and student creativity (RENDA; KUYS, 2015RENDA, G.; KUYS, B. Connectivism as a pedagogical model within industrial design education. Procedia Technology, v. 20, p. 15-9, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.protcy.2015.07.004
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.protcy.2015.07...
). Other studies have focused on collaborative work to create scenarios where future teachers face situations in which they can simulate the decisions required in teaching students.

Finally, although there are initiatives to create models and experiences for training students and teachers that incorporate technology, educational institutions must review and adjust the strategies implemented by first analysing aspects such as the vision for the type of person that they want to shape, the curriculum, the pedagogy, the types of relationship between the actors involved and the evaluation of learning. Results should provide a clear vision for addressing the pedagogical strategies that promote lifelong learning: learning to know, learning to do, learning to live together and learning to be.

Therefore, if the integration of technology is indispensable for the 21st century education, then it is imperative for the pedagogical models of educational institutions to adapt to this need. This article intends to present a bibliographic review of the elements that should be considered in the integration of ICT into education in order to understand how they relate to current pedagogical models and to identify areas for future research.

2 Review methodology

The methodology for the literature review was systematic, taking into account the stages illustrated in the Graph 1, adapted from the Okoli and Schabram’s (2010)OKOLI, C.; SCHABRAM, K. A guide to conducting a systematic literature. Sprouts, v. 10, n. 26, p. 1-51, 2010. approach.

Graph 1
Review method

2.1 Objective

The objective of the bibliographic research was to use the learning experiences of students or teachers that involved the pedagogical integration of ICT to identify how these strategies are related to the elements that define a pedagogical model.

2.2 Initial search criteria

Electronic searches were conducted in educational databases such as Scopus, Jstor and ProQuest. In addition, different combinations of keywords were used, such as “ICT integration models”, “ICT and teaching”, and “ICT and learning”. Based on these search criteria, a total of 3,397 high-quality studies published from 1994 through the first quarter of 2017 were found.

To further refine the results, a search filter using keyword combinations was applied. Furthermore, from the resulting 644 publications, only 20% of the articles were selected as shown in the Table 1.

Table 1
Articles published by year

2.3 Selection of articles and reading

Once the potential articles were identified, a preliminary reading was carried out to verify that they met the following criteria:

  • Studies related to practices that incorporate ICT for teaching or learning

  • Studies that consider strategies for incorporating ICT into teaching at any level of education

  • Studies including at least one element related to the definition of the pedagogical model

Finally, the first 100 articles that met the selection criteria were chosen. The Graph 2 shows them organized by year:

Graph 2
Documents publishing and selecting per year

2.4 Organization and analysis of the information

An in-depth reading of the articles focused on identifying how the authors approached the following questions related to the attributes required by a pedagogical model: “Why to teach/learn?”, “What to teach/learn?”, “How to teach/learn?”, “When to teach/learn?”, and “What, how and when to evaluate?”. In addition, we highlighted the foundational educational models that were used and whether they were linked to a pedagogical theory or not.

Data were organized in tables using software programs such as QDA Miner, Excel and SPSS.

2.5 Reporting of results

Once the in-depth review of the selected articles was concluded, we drafted the results report and established the relationship between the approaches for incorporating technology into educational practices and the characteristic elements of a pedagogical model.

3 Results

All the selected articles describe strategies for incorporating information and communication technologies into teaching or learning. Of these, 57% report on the results of projects in basic and secondary education and 10% in higher education, and 33% correspond to teacher training studies.

The countries of origin of these articles are shown in Graph 3. The country with the largest number of publications in this area is Spain, with 11% of the total. The United States, the United Kingdom and Malaysia each account for 10% of the total, followed by Australia with 9%. Chile, Greece, India, Belgium, Canada and Turkey each represent 4% of the total, while Portugal and Taiwan each account for 3%. Germany, France, Kenya, Nigeria, and Serbia each constitute 2% of the total. Other countries accounting for only 1% each of the total are China, Austria, Brazil, Colombia, Estonia, Finland, Iran, Italy, Morocco, Norway, New Zealand, the Czech Republic, Romania and Sweden.

Graph 3
Documents selects country

It is relevant to approach the five questions that define a pedagogical model, illustrated in Graph 4. Of the articles reviewed, it was found that 28% only address one of the questions, 35% address two questions, 26% address three questions, and 11% address four questions. None of the articles addresses all five questions.

Graph 4
Strategies of ICT integration reported

Furthermore, 58% of the selected articles establish a relationship between the strategy and a foundational educational model, while 25% associate the study with a theory of learning. Only 17% of the articles mention both, while 34% make no mention of either.

4 Synthesis of the information

The following is a synthesis of the findings identified in the approaches for incorporating technology into educational practices and possible relationships with a pedagogical model, based on the five questions that define it (COLL, 1991COLL, C. Aprendizaje escolar y construcción del conocimiento. Barcelona: Paidós, 1991.).

4.1 Educational models for the integration of ICT and related pedagogical theories

In order to provide a conceptual framework to understand how teachers integrate ICT into teaching and learning processes, 17% of the studies reviewed use the TPACK model developed by Mishra and Koehler (2006)MISHRA, P.; KOEHLER, M. J. Technological pedagogical content knowledge: a new framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, v. 108, n. 6, p. 1017-54, 2006. (some are shown in Table 2). Murthy et al. (2015)MURTHY, S.; IYER, S.; WARRIEM, J. ET4ET: a large-scale faculty professional development program on effective integration of educational technology. Educational Technology and Society, v. 18, n. 3, p. 16-2, 2015. and Warriem et al. (2014)WARRIEM, J. M.; MURTHY, S.; IYER, S. A2I: A model for teacher training in constructive alignment for use of ICT in engineering education. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTERS IN EDUCATION - ICCE 2014, 22., Nara, Japan. Proceedings… [S. n. t. ]. p. 896-902, 2014. build on this knowledge base with the A2I model (Attain-Align-Integrate). Similarly, the teacher’s role in process innovation is analysed via the K20 model (WILLIAMS et al., 2008WILLIAMS, L. et al. Mutual support between learning community development and technology integration: impact on school practices and student achievement. Theory Into Practice, v. 47, n. 4, p. 294-302, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405840802329219
https://doi.org/10.1080/0040584080232921...
), the Teaching Development Programme model (TDP) (ALBION et al., 2015ALBION, P. R. et al.Teachers’ professional development for ICT integration: Towards a reciprocal relationship between research and practice. Education and Information Technologies, v. 20, n. 4, p. 655-73, Dec. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-015-9401-9
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-015-9401-...
), the Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) (KARMESHU et al., 2013KARMESHU et al. Modelling diffusion of a personalized learning framework. Educational Technology, Research and Development, v. 60, n. 4, p. 585-600, 2013. https://doi.org.ez.unisabana.edu.co/10.1007/s11423-012-9249-2.
https://doi.org.ez.unisabana.edu.co/10.1...
; PEARSON, 2015PEARSON, M. Modeling universal design for learning techniques to support multicultural education for pre-service secondary educators. Multicultural Education, v. 22, n. 3, p. 27-34, 2015.), and the Technology Acceptance model (ALRESHEED et al., 2015ALRESHEED, S.; LEASK, M.; RAIKER, A. Integrating computer-assisted language learning in saudi schools: a change model. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, v. 14, n. 4, p. 69-77, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33808-8_22
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33808-...
). Regarding the study of the dynamic relationships between learning agents and ICT, Toh (2016)TOH, Y. Leading sustainable pedagogical reform with technology for student-centred learning: a complexity perspective. Journal of Educational Change, v. 17, n. 2, p. 145-69, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10833-016-9273-9
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10833-016-9273-...
, Zagami (2013)ZAGAMI, J. Social ecological model analysis for ict integration. Australian Educational Computing, v. 27, n. 3, p. 143-49, 2013. https://doi.org/10.16986/HUJE.2015013971
https://doi.org/10.16986/HUJE.2015013971...
and Lin (2011)LIN, C. A learning ecology perspective: school systems sustaining art teaching with technology. Art Education, v. 64, n. 4 , p. 12-7, 2011. used the ecological model as a reference point.

Table 2
Studies based on the TPACK model and on the theory of diffusion

Additionally, in order to understand the process of adopting educational innovations resulting from the incorporation of ICT, 7% of authors analyse the relationship between the perceived attributes of the innovations and their rate of adoption by applying the theory of diffusion (Table 2).

Moreover, the design of learning environments founded on strategies that involve technologies is based on instructional design models such as the KOLB model (EBISINE, 2015EBISINE, S. S. Curriculum innovation and information and communication technology (ICT): an analysis. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, v. 6, 4S1, p. 264-7, Nov. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-011-9179-3
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-011-9179-...
), the Substitution Augmentation Modification Redefinition (SAMR) model (HAMILTON et al., 2016HAMILTON, E. R.; ROSENBERG, J. M.; AKCAOGLU, M. The substitution augmentation modification redefinition (SAMR) model: a critical review and suggestions for its use. TechTrends, v. 60, n. 5, p. 433-41, May 2016. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-016-0091-y
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-016-0091-...
; NKONKI; NTLABATHI, 2016NKONKI, V.; NTLABATHI, S. Teaching and learning innovations on blackboard: What form and function? In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON E-LEARNING, 11. , 2016, Kuala Lampur, Malysia. Proceedings… [S. n. t.]. p. 120-6.), and the Learning Cycle model (YILDIZ; KOÇAK, 2016YILDIZ, B.; KOÇAK, Y. A model proposal on ICT integration for effective mathematics instruction. Hacettepe Egitim Dergisi, v. 31, n. 1, p. 14-33 Jan. 2016. https://doi.org/10.16986/HUJE.2015013971
https://doi.org/10.16986/HUJE.2015013971...
), which enable the active participation of students.

The learning strategies that are gaining strength are based on e-learning models (ALKOUDMANI, 2015ALKOUDMANI, R. M. Challenges to web-based learning in pharmacy education in arabic language speaking countries. Archives of Pharmacy Practice, v. 6, n. 3, p. 41-47, Jul. 2015.; ARIF et al., 2015ARIF, M. et al. An architecture of agent-based multi-layer interactive e-learning and e-testing platform. Quality and Quantity, v. 49, n. 6, p. 2435-58, Nov. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-014-0121-9
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-014-0121-...
; DEBANDE, 2004DEBANDE, O. ICTs and the Development of eLearning in Europe: the role of the public and private sectors. European Journal of Education, v. 39, n. 2, p. 191-208, 2004.) and the flipped model (KOSTARIS et al., 2017KOSTARIS, C. et al. Investigating the potential of the flipped classroom model in K-12 ICT teaching and learning: An action research study. Educational Technology & Society, v. 20, n. 1, p. 261-73, Jan. 2017.; CHEN; CHANG, 2017CHEN, H.; CHANG, C. Integrating the SOP2 model into the flipped classroom to foster cognitive presence and learning achievements. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, v. 20, n. 1, p. 274-91, Jan. 2017.; GARCÍA-SÁNCHEZ; JOSE, 2017GARCÍA-SÁNCHEZ, S.; JOSE, M. Empowering pre-service teachers to produce ubiquitous flipped classes. Profile, v. 19, n. 1, p. 169-85, 2017.; KOSTARIS et al., 2017KOSTARIS, C. et al. Investigating the potential of the flipped classroom model in K-12 ICT teaching and learning: An action research study. Educational Technology & Society, v. 20, n. 1, p. 261-73, Jan. 2017.), from which the self-regulated learning model was born (CARNEIRO, 2006CARNEIRO, R. Motivating school teachers to learn: can ICT add value? European Journal of Education, v. 41, n. 3/4, p. 415-35, 2006.). Additionally, there are references on problem-based learning (ARATI et al., 2011ARATI, D.; TODOROVA, A.; MERRETT, R. Implementation and sustainability of a global ICT company’s programme to help teachers integrate technology into learning and teaching in germany, france and the UK. ALT-J: Research in Learning Technology, v. 19, suppl. 1, p. 170-81, 2011. https://doi.org/10.3402/rlt.v19s1/7802
https://doi.org/10.3402/rlt.v19s1/7802...
; VIRKUS, 2008VIRKUS, S. Use of web 2.0 technologies in LIS education: Experiences at tallinn university, estonia. Program, v. 42, n. 3, p. 262-274,. 2008. https://doi.org/10.1108/00330330810892677
https://doi.org/10.1108/0033033081089267...
), Digital Game Based Learning (DGBL) (COUCEIRO et al., 2013COUCEIRO, R. M. et al. Design and evaluation of a computer game for the learning of information and communication technologies (ICT) concepts by physical education and sport science students. Education and Information Technologies, v. 18, n. 3, p. 531-54, Sep. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-011-9179-3
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-011-9179-...
; EMIN-MARTINEZ; NEY, 2013EMIN-MARTINEZ, V.; NEY, M. Supporting teachers in the process of adoption of game based learning pedagogy. In: ECGBL 2013 - EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON GAMES BASED LEARNING, 2013, Porto, Portugal. [S.l..]: ACPI, 2013. p.156-62.; LOCKLEY; BOYLE, 2014LOCKLEY, A.; BOYLE, A. Towards a game-based learning ecosystem: An institutional strategy. In: EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON GAMES-BASED LEARNING, 8., 2014, Berlin. Proceedings… [S. n. t. ]. p. 312-20.; MANESSIS, 2013MANESSIS, D. Examining early childhood education students’ attitudes toward educational computer games in kindergarten. In: ECGBL 2013 - EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON GAMES BASED LEARNING, 2013, Porto, Portugal. [S. l.]: ACPI, 2013. p. 369-77.;) and object-based education (RAJU et al., 2016RAJU, S. V. et al. Role of ICT in outcome based education. In: INTERNATIONAL ADVANCED COMPUTING CONFERENCE – IACC2016, 6., 2016, Bhimavaram, India. Proceedings… [S. n. t.]. p. 815-9.).

Finally, the literature reports that theories of learning associated with the aforementioned models are based on the thought of Papert, Piaget and Vygotsky (DREHER et al., 2009DREHER, C. et al. Virtual worlds as a context suited for information systems education: Discussion of pedagogical experience and curriculum design with reference to second life. Journal of Information Systems Education, v. 20, n. 2, p. 211-224, 2009.). The premise is that the creation of knowledge and the acquisition of skills are active and interrelated processes, hence the relationship of ICT integration strategies with social constructivism. This strategy contribute to the collaborative and student-centred learning (COUCEIRO et al., 2013COUCEIRO, R. M. et al. Design and evaluation of a computer game for the learning of information and communication technologies (ICT) concepts by physical education and sport science students. Education and Information Technologies, v. 18, n. 3, p. 531-54, Sep. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-011-9179-3
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-011-9179-...
; GARCÍA-VALCÁRCEL et al., 2013GARCÍA-VALCÁRCEL, A.; BASILOTTA, V.; LÓPEZ, C. ICT in collaborative learningin the classrooms of primary and secondary education. Comunicar, v. 21, n. 42, p. 55-74, 2013.; KOH; SING, 2011KOH, J. H.; SING, C. C. Modeling pre-service teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) perceptions: the influence of demographic factors and TPACK constructs. In: ASCILITE 2011, Hobart, Australia. Paper... [S. n. t.]. p. 735-46.; KABICHER et al., 2009KABICHER, S.; DERNTL, M.; MOTSCHNIG-PITRIK, R. ActiveCC: A collaborative framework for supporting the implementation of active curricula. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 18(4), 429-451.2009. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ez.unisabana.edu.co/docview/193997865?accountid=45375.
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; MARTÍN; DE ARRIBA, 2017MARTÍN, A. H.; DE ARRIBA, J. M. Concepciones de los docentes no universitarios sobre el aprendizaje colaborativo con TIC/ (concepts of non-university teachers on collaborative learning with ICT). Educación XX1, v. 20, n. 1, p. 185-208, 2017. https://doi.org.ez.unisabana.edu.co/10.5944/educXX1.1286
https://doi.org.ez.unisabana.edu.co/10.5...
; MURTHY et al., 2015MURTHY, S.; IYER, S.; WARRIEM, J. ET4ET: a large-scale faculty professional development program on effective integration of educational technology. Educational Technology and Society, v. 18, n. 3, p. 16-2, 2015.; PEINADO-MIGUEL et al., 2013PEINADO-MIGUEL, F. et al. Learning and innovation: a methodological proposal from the teaching of media management. Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, n. 68, p. 115-38, 2013. https://doi.org/10.4185/RLCS-2013-971en
https://doi.org/10.4185/RLCS-2013-971en...
; WANG, 2008WANG, Q. A generic model for guiding the integration of ICT into teaching and learning. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, v. 45, n. 4, p. 411-9, 2008.).

The tendencies for each question about the pedagogical model, found in the literature are shown below:

4.2 Why to teach?

The studies reviewed refer to the digital inclusion as a necessary condition for achieving social equity and justice (RANIERI et al., 2009RANIERI, M. et al. Mobile learning for the integration of groups that risk being marginalized. Journal of E-Learning and Knowledge Society, v. 5, n. 2, p. 75-85, 2009.; WILLIAMS et al., 2008WILLIAMS, L. et al. Mutual support between learning community development and technology integration: impact on school practices and student achievement. Theory Into Practice, v. 47, n. 4, p. 294-302, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405840802329219
https://doi.org/10.1080/0040584080232921...
). A quality education that is based on key competencies for personal development, social integration and for autonomous creative and innovative work that enables individuals to develop throughout life. (CAMPIÓN et al., 2016CAMPIÓN, R. S. et al. Las percepciones de los directivos de centros escolares sobre el uso y el valor de las TIC para el cambio e innovación educativa/Perceptions of school leaders about the use and value of ICT for educational change and innovation. Estudios sobre Educación, v. 30, p. 145-74. 2016. https://doi.org.ez.unisabana.edu.co/10.15581/004.30.145-174.
https://doi.org.ez.unisabana.edu.co/10.1...
; GARCÍA-VALCÁRCEL et al., 2013GARCÍA-VALCÁRCEL, A.; BASILOTTA, V.; LÓPEZ, C. ICT in collaborative learningin the classrooms of primary and secondary education. Comunicar, v. 21, n. 42, p. 55-74, 2013.; KARMESHU et al., 2013; NYAGOWA, 2014NYAGOWA, H. O. The influence of infrastructure, training, content and communication on the success of NEPAD’S pilot e-schools in kenya. Information Development, v. 30, n. 3, p. 235-46, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266666913489698
https://doi.org/10.1177/0266666913489698...
; ONWUAGBOKE et al., 2015ONWUAGBOKE, B. B.; SINGH, T. K.; FOOK, F. S. Integrating technology in art education in nigerian education system: the need for an effective pedagogical approach. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, v. 6, n. 4, p. 184-92, 2015. https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n4s1p184
https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n4s1...
; PEINADO-MIGUEL et al., 2013PEINADO-MIGUEL, F. et al. Learning and innovation: a methodological proposal from the teaching of media management. Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, n. 68, p. 115-38, 2013. https://doi.org/10.4185/RLCS-2013-971en
https://doi.org/10.4185/RLCS-2013-971en...
; SEGREDO et al., 2017SEGREDO, E.; MIRANDA, G.; LEÓN, C. Hacia la educación del futuro: el pensamiento computacional como mecanismo de aprendizaje generativo. Education in the Knowledge Society, v. 18, n. 2, p. 33-58, 2017. https://doi.org/10.14201/eks20171823358
https://doi.org/10.14201/eks20171823358...
; SILVA et al., 2014SILVA, J. B. et al. Adaptation model of mobile remote experimentation for elementary schools. Revista Iberoamericana de Tecnologias Del Aprendizaje, v. 9, n. 1, p. 28-32, 2014. https://doi.org/ 10.1109/RITA.2014.2302053
https://doi.org/...
; VANDERLINDE; JOHAN, 2011VANDERLINDE, R.; JOHAN, V. B. A new ICT curriculum for primary education in flanders: Defining and predicting teachers’ perceptions of innovation attributes. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, v. 14, n. 2, p. 124-35, 2011.; WILLIAMS et al., 2008WILLIAMS, L. et al. Mutual support between learning community development and technology integration: impact on school practices and student achievement. Theory Into Practice, v. 47, n. 4, p. 294-302, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405840802329219
https://doi.org/10.1080/0040584080232921...
).

Additionally, authors as Kabakci e Coklar (2014)KABAKCI ,Y. I.; COKLAR, A. N. Modeling preservice teachers’ TPACK competencies based on ICT usage. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, v. 30, n. 4, p. 363-76, Jan. 2014., Kabicher et al., (2009)KABICHER, S.; DERNTL, M.; MOTSCHNIG-PITRIK, R. ActiveCC: A collaborative framework for supporting the implementation of active curricula. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 18(4), 429-451.2009. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ez.unisabana.edu.co/docview/193997865?accountid=45375.
https://search-proquest-com.ez.unisabana...
e Zhu, 2013ZHU, C. How innovative are schools in teaching and learning? A case study in beijing and hong kong. The Asia - Pacific Education Researcher, v. 22, n. 2, p. 137-45, 2013. https://doi.org.ez.unisabana.edu.co/10.1007/s40299-012-0006-4
https://doi.org.ez.unisabana.edu.co/10.1...
and advocate for teaching ethics to ensure that citizens use technology appropriately and for cultural change to recognize new values, norms and ways of doing things.

4.3 When to teach?

The way in which the protagonists in the educational context are related determines when to teach or learn, hence the importance of clarifying the roles of the actors involved in this process.

In 90% of the literature reviewed that addresses the role of the teacher, it is stressed that the responsibility for planning or managing learning activities falls on teachers. Therefore, one could say that it is the teacher who decides when to teach or learn. It also points to the student as the centre of the educational process and stresses the need for students to assume active and highly self-directed roles in learning environments involving technology.

Table 3 presents some of the authors that explicitly address the roles of the teacher and the student.

Table 3
Literature that discusses the roles of teacher and student

4.4 What to teach?

It was found in the literature that content developed in the context of the reported educational experiences was created from two perspectives: global curricula based on standard guidelines and structured by discipline, and flexible curricula based on core educational experiences and supported by mobile learning, digital content, the promotion of authentic learning and project-based assignments, among others. Some examples are presented in Table 4.

Table 4
Origins of curricular content

Regarding curriculum design, Ham and Cha (2009)HAM, S.; CHA, Y. Positioning education in the information society: the transnational diffusion of the information and communication technology curriculum. Comparative Education Review, v. 53, n. 4, p. 535-57, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1086/603584
https://doi.org/10.1086/603584...
note that the categories used to define curricula are quite similar among different countries and stable over time, despite local idiosyncrasies such as economic conditions and socio-historical characteristics. Under these conditions, it is expected that a well-planned curriculum will lead to the comprehensive development of the student (EBISINE, 2015EBISINE, S. S. Curriculum innovation and information and communication technology (ICT): an analysis. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, v. 6, 4S1, p. 264-7, Nov. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-011-9179-3
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-011-9179-...
). An example of this is the spiral curriculum, characterized by an iterative process of content review (MURTHY et al., 2015MURTHY, S.; IYER, S.; WARRIEM, J. ET4ET: a large-scale faculty professional development program on effective integration of educational technology. Educational Technology and Society, v. 18, n. 3, p. 16-2, 2015.; WARRIEM et al., 2014WARRIEM, J. M.; MURTHY, S.; IYER, S. A2I: A model for teacher training in constructive alignment for use of ICT in engineering education. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTERS IN EDUCATION - ICCE 2014, 22., Nara, Japan. Proceedings… [S. n. t. ]. p. 896-902, 2014.).

Nevertheless, there are those who advocate for a flexible curriculum that is adaptable to the interests of students (JIMÉNEZ et al., 2008JIMÉNEZ, A.; ANTONIO, D.; PANTOJA, B. Scaffolding tutoring strategy on virtual environments for training/scaffolding como estrategia de tutoría en entornos virtuales de entrenamiento. Ingeniare : Revista Chilena de Ingenieria, v. 16, n. 2, p. 220-31, 2008.; KABICHER et al., 2009KABICHER, S.; DERNTL, M.; MOTSCHNIG-PITRIK, R. ActiveCC: A collaborative framework for supporting the implementation of active curricula. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 18(4), 429-451.2009. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ez.unisabana.edu.co/docview/193997865?accountid=45375.
https://search-proquest-com.ez.unisabana...
; PEARSON, 2015PEARSON, M. Modeling universal design for learning techniques to support multicultural education for pre-service secondary educators. Multicultural Education, v. 22, n. 3, p. 27-34, 2015.; WILLIAMS et al., 2008WILLIAMS, L. et al. Mutual support between learning community development and technology integration: impact on school practices and student achievement. Theory Into Practice, v. 47, n. 4, p. 294-302, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405840802329219
https://doi.org/10.1080/0040584080232921...
). Thus promoting a vision that is not limited to the simple acquisition of basic knowledge (writing, reading, arithmetic, art, etc.), but also promotes learning experiences aimed at social skill development, problem solving, good work habits (self-sufficiency, responsibility, organization) and the capacity for reflection, critical thinking and initiative (EMIN-MARTINEZ; NEY, 2013EMIN-MARTINEZ, V.; NEY, M. Supporting teachers in the process of adoption of game based learning pedagogy. In: ECGBL 2013 - EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON GAMES BASED LEARNING, 2013, Porto, Portugal. [S.l..]: ACPI, 2013. p.156-62.; GARCÍA-VALCÁRCEL et al., 2013GARCÍA-VALCÁRCEL, A.; BASILOTTA, V.; LÓPEZ, C. ICT in collaborative learningin the classrooms of primary and secondary education. Comunicar, v. 21, n. 42, p. 55-74, 2013.; SEGREDO et al., 2017SEGREDO, E.; MIRANDA, G.; LEÓN, C. Hacia la educación del futuro: el pensamiento computacional como mecanismo de aprendizaje generativo. Education in the Knowledge Society, v. 18, n. 2, p. 33-58, 2017. https://doi.org/10.14201/eks20171823358
https://doi.org/10.14201/eks20171823358...
).

4.5 How to teach?

Didactics is one of the concerns of teachers, tutors and in general of the people in charge of teaching processes, who are constantly searching for strategies to harmonize teaching practices with the needs of society and the historical characteristics of the times. For this reason, it is not surprising that, in the last decade, research in education has focused on identifying new ways of teaching that go beyond the mere transmission of knowledge to reach a state where the generation of knowledge, supported by information and communication technologies, is valued.

In the research reviewed that explicitly addresses some type of teaching and learning strategy, 30% of the authors value collaborative work and emphasize the value of specific competencies in technology for sharing resources and learning cooperatively (SHARIJA; WATTERS, 2012SHARIJA, M. A.; WATTERS, J. J. Innovative leadership by school principals: embedding information communication and technology in kuwaiti schools. Journal of International Education, v. 8, n. 4, p. 425-34, 2012.; TAYLOR; DURAN, 2006TAYLOR, J.; DURAN, M. Teaching social studies with technology: new research on collaborative approaches. The History Teacher, v. 40, n. 1, p. 9-25. 2006. https://doi.org/10.2307/30036936.
https://doi.org/10.2307/30036936...
; ; WARRIEM et al., 2014WARRIEM, J. M.; MURTHY, S.; IYER, S. A2I: A model for teacher training in constructive alignment for use of ICT in engineering education. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTERS IN EDUCATION - ICCE 2014, 22., Nara, Japan. Proceedings… [S. n. t. ]. p. 896-902, 2014.; WILLIAMS et al., 2008WILLIAMS, L. et al. Mutual support between learning community development and technology integration: impact on school practices and student achievement. Theory Into Practice, v. 47, n. 4, p. 294-302, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405840802329219
https://doi.org/10.1080/0040584080232921...
; ZHU, 2013ZHU, C. How innovative are schools in teaching and learning? A case study in beijing and hong kong. The Asia - Pacific Education Researcher, v. 22, n. 2, p. 137-45, 2013. https://doi.org.ez.unisabana.edu.co/10.1007/s40299-012-0006-4
https://doi.org.ez.unisabana.edu.co/10.1...
; ZYAD, 2016ZYAD, H. Integrating computers in the classroom: Barriers and teachers’ attitudes. International Journal of Instruction, v. 9, n. 1, p. 65-78, Jan. 2016. https://doi.org/10.12973/iji.2016.916a
https://doi.org/10.12973/iji.2016.916a...
). They also encourage self-direction and lifelong learning (DREHER et al., 2009DREHER, C. et al. Virtual worlds as a context suited for information systems education: Discussion of pedagogical experience and curriculum design with reference to second life. Journal of Information Systems Education, v. 20, n. 2, p. 211-224, 2009.; MARTÍN; DE ARRIBA, 2017MARTÍN, A. H.; DE ARRIBA, J. M. Concepciones de los docentes no universitarios sobre el aprendizaje colaborativo con TIC/ (concepts of non-university teachers on collaborative learning with ICT). Educación XX1, v. 20, n. 1, p. 185-208, 2017. https://doi.org.ez.unisabana.edu.co/10.5944/educXX1.1286
https://doi.org.ez.unisabana.edu.co/10.5...
; POHL et al., 2008POHL, M. et al.. Computer supported collaborative learning and vocational training: Adapting the technology to the learners’ needs. Universal Access in the Information Society, v. 7, n. 4, p. 259-72, 2008. https://doi.org.ez.unisabana.edu.co/10.1007/s10209-008-0119-y
https://doi.org.ez.unisabana.edu.co/10.1...
; et al., 2017; WEBB, 2006WEBB, S. Can ICT reduce social exclusion? The case of an adults’ English Language Learning Programme. British Educational Research Journal, v. 32, n. 3, p. 481-507, 2006. ).

Furthermore, the use of ICT facilitates the redesign and combination of traditional materials with innovative multimedia resources (AREA-MOREIRA et al., 2016AREA-MOREIRA; M., HERNÁNDEZ-RIVERO, V.; SOSA-ALONSO, J. Modelos de integración didáctica de las TIC en el aula. Comunicar, v. 24, n. 47, p. 79-87, Apr. 2016. https://doi.org/10.3916/C47-2016-08
https://doi.org/10.3916/C47-2016-08...
; KOH; SING, 2011KOH, J. H.; SING, C. C. Modeling pre-service teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) perceptions: the influence of demographic factors and TPACK constructs. In: ASCILITE 2011, Hobart, Australia. Paper... [S. n. t.]. p. 735-46.; ONWUAGBOKE et al., 2015ONWUAGBOKE, B. B.; SINGH, T. K.; FOOK, F. S. Integrating technology in art education in nigerian education system: the need for an effective pedagogical approach. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, v. 6, n. 4, p. 184-92, 2015. https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n4s1p184
https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n4s1...
; SAXENA, 2017SAXENA, A. Issues and impediments faced by canadian teachers while integrating ICT in pedagogical practice. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, v. 16, n. 2, p. 58-70, Apr. 2017.; THUNE; WELLE-STRAND, 2005THUNE, T.; WELLE-STRAND, A. ICT for and in Internationalization Processes: A Business School Case Study. Higher Education, v. 50, n. 4, p. 593-611, 2005.) that can stimulate the development of skills such as critical thinking, problem-solving, communication and creativity (LIN, 2012LIN, C. Application of a model for the integration of technology in kindergarten: An empirical investigation in taiwan. Early Childhood Education Journal, v. 40, n. 1, p. 5-17, 2012. https://doi.org.ez.unisabana.edu.co/10.1007/s10643-011-0494-5
https://doi.org.ez.unisabana.edu.co/10.1...
; YUNUS, 2007YUNUS, M. Malaysian ESL teachers’ use of ICT in their classrooms: Expectations and realities. ReCALL. The Journal of EUROCALL, v. 19, n. 1, p. 79-95, 2007.; MARCOUX; LOERTSCHER, 2009MARCOUX, E.; LOERTSCHER, D. V. Achieving teaching and learning excellence with technology. Teacher Librarian, v. 37, n. 2, p. 14-22,88, 2009.; NIEMEL; HELEVIRTA, 2017NIEMEL, P. S.; HELEVIRTA, M. K-12 curriculum research: The chicken and the egg of math-aided ICT teaching. International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science, v. 9, n. 1, 1-14, 2017. https://doi.org/10.5815/ijmecs.2017.01.01
https://doi.org/10.5815/ijmecs.2017.01.0...
). In addition, ICT presents options for serving students with special learning needs (McINERNEY, 2005McINERNEY, C. R. Educational inquiry and creativity: developing digital resources in ireland’s information age town. Library Trends, v. 54, n, 2, p. 266-85, 2005.).

4.6 What, how and when to evaluate?

The evaluation of learning is a major challenge for educational transformation in the 21st century. It is not enough to issue a quantitative value or a judgment at the end of a course. The function of an evaluation is to provide information at every moment in the teaching process. As discussed by Karmeshu et al. (2013), evaluation is a continuous event rather than a discrete one. It includes evaluation of learning at the beginning and at the end of the instruction (summative) as well as during the process (formative).

In this sense, the teacher’s dialogue with the student regarding the learning evaluation (the shared evaluation) favours objective assessment and decision-making (ROMERO-MARTÍN et al., 2017ROMERO-MARTÍN, R. et al. Evaluación formativa, competencias comunicativas y TIC en la formación del profesorado. Comunicar, v. 25, n. 52, p. 73-82, 2017. https://doi.org/10.3916/C52-2017-07
https://doi.org/10.3916/C52-2017-07...
). On the other hand, group self-evaluation is essential for a team to analyse its progress and errors as well as to identify the elements that must be changed to improve its collective performance (PEINADO et al., 2013).

Murthy et al. (2015)MURTHY, S.; IYER, S.; WARRIEM, J. ET4ET: a large-scale faculty professional development program on effective integration of educational technology. Educational Technology and Society, v. 18, n. 3, p. 16-2, 2015. show how teachers manage to devise student-centred learning strategies but note some difficulties in aligning evaluation strategies. In this regard, Warien et al., (2014, p. 886) notes that the main idea of the model of “constructive alignment is achieved when the activities of learning, teaching and evaluation align with the expected results of student learning”.

Other studies reviewed show how technology facilitates feedback processes and the development of strategies to advance students’ capabilities through the systematization of information (DANI; KOENIG, 2008DANI, D.; KOENIG, K. Technology and reform-based science education. Theory Into Practice, v. 47, n. 3,, 204-11, 2008.; DEANEY et al., 2006DEANEY, R.; RUTHVEN, K.; HENNESSYY, S. et al. Teachers’ developing ‘practical theories’ of the contribution of information and communication technologies to subject teaching and learning: an analysis of cases from english secondary schools. British Educational Research Journal, v. 32, n. 3, p. 459-80, 2006.; LAGRANGE; ERDOGAN, 2009LAGRANGE, J.; ERDOGAN, E. Teachers’ emergent goals in spreadsheet-based lessons: analyzing the complexity of technology integration. Educational Studies in Mathematics, v. 71, n. 1, p. 65-84, May 2009. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-008-9160-2
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-008-9160-...
), educational games and evaluation rubrics.

The gamification methodology provides immediate feedback to students, allowing them to test hypotheses and learn from their actions (COUCEIRO et al., 2013COUCEIRO, R. M. et al. Design and evaluation of a computer game for the learning of information and communication technologies (ICT) concepts by physical education and sport science students. Education and Information Technologies, v. 18, n. 3, p. 531-54, Sep. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-011-9179-3
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-011-9179-...
), while rubrics establish criteria and standards by levels by providing scales that enable educators to determine the quality of student performance in specific tasks (VERA VÉLEZ, 2008VERA VÉLEZ, L. La rúbrica y la lista de cotejo. Puerto Rico: Universidad Interamericana de Puerto Rico, 2008.).

Finally, Franklin and Smith (2015)FRANKLIN, R.; SMITH, J. Practical assessment on the run: iPads as an effective mobile and paperless tool in physical education and teaching. Research in Learning Technology, v. 23, n. 1, p. 279-86, Jan.-Jun. 2015. identified the following key principles for the effective use of rubrics for performance evaluation: (1) clarify the assessment task; (2) enable regulation of planning of assignments; (3) produce work of better quality; (4) increase student confidence in undertaking the assessment task; (5) provide clear descriptions at each level of performance; (6) provide explicit learning outcomes; and (7) make grading fair and transparent.

5 Conclusions

Education and educational policies are linked to economic growth and the demands of society, and although changes happen slowly, in recent decades, the development of information and communication technologies has led the academic community to seek to transform schools and teaching strategies. Evidence of this can be found in the exponential growth in research studies related to the pedagogical integration of ICT.

The research design that dominates the literature reviewed in this study are case studies that further the understanding of the methodologies and strategies applied by some institutions to integrate technology into the educational process This phenomenon results in strategies that were successful during implementation, but in few cases are sustainable over time.

It is important that the studies carried out on this subject, in addition to holistically considering all sectors and educational actors, be accompanied by a reflection based on the classical theories of learning and emerging theories of learning in the digital era. This allows to deepen the understanding of the factors that affect the success of the changes that are introduced in the school that seek to generate processes of educational transformation. In this regard, models such as TPACK, A2I, K20, and TDP, among others, give theoretical elements to the pedagogical integration of ICT and contribute in the consolidation of the transformation of education. Similarly, a number of alternative teaching strategies for stimulating innovation are beginning to gain momentum: e-learning, the flipped model, problem-based learning aided by technology, and game-based learning.

A concurrence in the aims of education was discovered in the literature review, concerning the training of independent, creative and innovative citizens to enable them to continue developing throughout life. However, only some studies refer to education about values and to the development of ethical citizens; skills necessary to achieve an integral formation of students, so that they perform with sensitivity and capacity for critical reflection and understanding of the globalized world and adapt quickly to changes.

Regarding the teacher’s function, it continues to play a leading role in the process. Although the literature points to the student as the centre of the educational process, it is the teacher who decides what to teach, plans and designs the learning environments. To achieve a student-centred approach, a high level of student participation in the learning process is required, which implies that the teacher would have “low control”. The teacher’s role is therefore reduced to encouraging students to take the initiative to plan and complete learning activities. With a teacher-centred approach, the teacher prefers to assume responsibility for student performance by modelling learning activities and exemplifying a “high control” teaching behaviour (den Brok et al., 2004, referenced by Kale; Goh, 2014KALE, U.; GOH, D. Teaching style, ICT experience and teachers’ attitudes toward teaching with web 2.0. Education and Information Technologies, v. 19, n. 1, p. 41-60, Mar. 2014. https://doi.org /10.1007/s10639-012-9210-3
https://doi.org...
).

Regarding evaluation, the conclusions of studies that address this topic concur in favouring a formative, shared evaluation oriented towards improving learning and not only towards performance measurement of content domain. This is achieved through a process of verification, assessment and decision-making in order to optimize the teaching/learning process (Romero-Martín et al., 2017ROMERO-MARTÍN, R. et al. Evaluación formativa, competencias comunicativas y TIC en la formación del profesorado. Comunicar, v. 25, n. 52, p. 73-82, 2017. https://doi.org/10.3916/C52-2017-07
https://doi.org/10.3916/C52-2017-07...
). In this process, ICT is a tool that allows the processing of large volumes of information from rubrics or portfolios and thus offers an immediate and timely feedback that allows clear information on the progress of students.

Finally, it is necessary to delve deeper into student-centred curricula, the evaluation of learning, learning assessment strategies, how to achieve education that is truly centred on the student, and the harmonization of emerging methodologies with traditional pedagogical approaches using current pedagogical principles. It is also important to investigate the mechanisms of participation of all educational actors in the formulation of strategies that allow changes to be made in order to achieve the training objectives.

6 Declarations

6.1 Availability of data and materials

Not to be shared. The main articles reviewed have been shown in the article.

6.2 Competing interests

Not applicable

6.3 Funding

This research is funded by Universidad de La Sabana

6.4 Authors’ contributions

Both authors contributed equally

6.5 Acknowledgements

Not applicable

6.6 Authors’ information

The authors are members of a research group interested in teacher training in ICT and have studies in this area.

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Jan-Mar 2019

History

  • Received
    10 May 2017
  • Accepted
    26 Sept 2018
Fundação CESGRANRIO Rua Santa Alexandrina 1011, Rio Comprido, 20261-235 Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brasil, Tel.: + 55 21 2103 9600, Fax: + 55 21 2103 9600 r.338, - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil
E-mail: ensaio@cesgranrio.org.br