The inter-relationship between the right to education and educational planning: an analysis of scientific production (1988 - 2018)1 1 Translated by Luisa de Assis Vieira. E-mail: luisadeassisvieira@gmail.com

Katya Lacerda Fernandes Andréia Silva Abbiati About the authors

RESUMO

Apresenta-se como objetivo deste artigo inventariar o conhecimento produzido no Brasil acerca do direito à educação e sua articulação com a temática “planejamento educacional”, no período de 1988 a 2018, por meio dos resumos das teses e dissertações disponíveis para consulta pública no Banco de Dados da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal do Nível Superior (CAPES), no âmbito da Educação. A metodologia desta pesquisa pautou-se pelo Estado da Arte, mediante o levantamento e a análise da produção acadêmica sobre o tema, à luz de categorias e enfoques desprendidos do escopo dos trabalhos investigados. No contexto da educação básica obrigatória, o estudo revelou a reverberação do direito à educação e sua relação com o planejamento educacional ao explicitar a consolidação da escola como espaço concreto de vivências de direitos e do Estado como mediador no âmbito da gestão e do planejamento educacional, simultaneamente, ao desafio de superar o descompasso entre intenções e ações no campo do processo de efetivação do direito garantido no ordenamento jurídico brasileiro.

Palavras-chave:
Direito à educação; Planejamento educacional; Estado da Arte

ABSTRACT

The objective of this article is to inventory the knowledge produced in Brazil about the right to education and its articulation with the theme “educational planning”, from 1988 to 2018, through the abstract of theses and dissertations available for public consultation at the Banco de Dados da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal do Nível Superior (CAPES) [Database of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel], in the area of Education. The methodology of this research was guided by the State of the Art, through the survey and analysis of the academic production on the theme, in the light of categories and approaches that are detached from the scope of the investigated works. In the context of compulsory basic education, the study revealed the reverberation of the right to education and its relationship with educational planning by making explicit the consolidation of the school as a concrete space for experiences of rights and the State as a mediator in the scope of management and educational planning, simultaneously, to the challenge of overcoming the mismatch between intentions and actions within the scope of the effective enforcement of the guaranteed right in the Brazilian legal system.

Keywords:
Right to education; Educational planning; State of the Art

First considerations

“[...] we always inherit something.

the challenge imposed

is to discover and understand our heritages”

(MAZZUCCHELLI, 2017MAZZUCCHELLI, Frederico. As ideias e os fatos: ensaios em teoria e história. São Paulo: Editora Unesp, 2017. , p. 79, our translation).

This article presents results on ongoing research and aims at analyzing - from the field of Education - the investigations on the themes “right to education” and “educational planning” on doctoral and master’s thesis available in Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal do Nível Superior (CAPES)[Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel] database, published from 1988 to 2018.

The assumption that guided the analysis of this material was bases on the discussion on the importance on educational planning for the materialization of the right to education, a prerogative provided by the Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil (1988BRASIL. [Constituição (1988)]. Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil de 1988. Brasília, DF: Presidência da República, [2020]. Disponível em: Disponível em: http://www2.senado.leg.br/bdsf/handle/id/566968 . Acesso em: 05 set. 2020.
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), as a fundamental right of social nature.

We highlight, according to Saviani (2013SAVIANI, Dermeval. Vicissitudes e perspectivas do direito à educação no Brasil: abordagem histórica e situação atual. Educação & Sociedade, Campinas, v. 34, n. 124, p. 743-760. jul./set. 2013. Disponível em: Disponível em: https://www.redalyc.org/pdf/873/87328534006.pdf . Acesso em: 26 maio 2021.
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, p. 745, our translation), that Education, “[...] in addition to being a type of right, the social right is a necessary, although not sufficient, condition for the exercise of all rights, whether civil, political, social, economic, or of any other nature.

It should also be noted, according to Bobbio (2004BOBBIO, Norberto. A era dos direitos. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier, 2004.), that the guarantee and protection of social rights require state action. In the author's words, “social rights require, for their practical realization, that is, for the transition from a purely verbal declaration to effective protection, [...] the expansion of the powers of the State” (BOBBIO, 2004BOBBIO, Norberto. A era dos direitos. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier, 2004., p. 67, our translation).

In the Democratic State of Law, in which the Federative Republic of Brazil is based, state action is materialized through the implementation of public policies. In the area of education, it is the educational policies that must ensure the fulfillment and maintenance of the rights of children, young people, and adults, as provided for in the Constitution.

In this perspective, the systematic planning of actions that seek to ensure not only the protection of the right in question but also the minimization of social inequalities present and rooted in our society is an essential condition for educational policies to achieve their goals and the permanent actions that guarantee educational quality. This implies, among other issues, the democratization of education and teaching, the transparency and adequacy of the public budget, and the implementation of the democratic societal project aimed at training the citizens.

When dealing with social rights, it is important to emphasize the struggle for the universalization of public policies, which must serve each and every citizen, given their public character. In Duarte's words (2007DUARTE, Clarice Seixas. A educação como um direito fundamental de natureza social. Educação &. Sociedade, Campinas, v. 28, n. 100, p. 691-713, out. 2007. Disponível em: Disponível em: https://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-73302007000300004 . Acesso em: 30 set. de 2020.
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, p. 694, our translation),

[...] it is the elaboration and implementation of public policies - the object, par excellence, of social rights - that constitute the great guiding principle of state activity, which presupposes the reorganization of powers around the planning function, to coordinate its functions for the creation of public health, education, social security systems, etc.

Based on the above, we evidence the link between the planning of public policies and social rights. It is worth mentioning, quoting Azevedo (2014AZEVEDO, Janete Maria Lins de. Plano Nacional de Educação e planejamento. A questão da qualidade da educação básica. Revista Retratos da Escola, Brasília, v. 8, n. 15, p. 265-280, jul./dez. 2014. Disponível em: Disponível em: http://retratosdaescola.emnuvens.com.br/rde/article/view/441 . Acesso em: 30 set. 2020.
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, p. 266, our translation), that “planning means selecting guidelines, strategies, techniques, and ways of acting so that governments can solve problems through intervention and regulation in/of social sectors”, among these the educational, in which actions planned in different scopes and contexts are observed; in the elaboration of educational policies, through education plans; in school management, when preparing the unit's pedagogical political project; in the classroom, through the teaching and lesson plans.

In general terms, educational planning, as a work process, is not carried out without man's teleological capacity, in other words, without the projection of purposes and means for its realization. It is important, therefore, to make explicit, in the scope of investigations on the right to education, the influences, tensions, and possibilities expressed in the discussions on educational planning, and the possible interferences in the process of making this right effective. According to Mendes' (2000MENDES, Durmeval Trigueiro. Planejamento educacional no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: EdUERJ, 2000.) analysis, educational planning expresses a dialectical relationship between thought and action and is linked to a form of State intervention.

It is important to highlight, according to Machado and Ganzeli (2018MACHADO, Cristiane; GANZELI, Pedro. Gestão educacional e materialização do direito à educação: avanços e entraves. Educar em Revista, Curitiba, v. 34, n. 68, p. 49-63, mar./abr. 2018. Disponível em: Disponível em: https://revistas.ufpr.br/educar/article/view/57215 . Acesso em: 28 maio 2021.
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), the existence of inconstancy of the legal materiality of the right to education, in which contexts that favor or hinder its realization are observed, promoting the expansion or retreat in its realization. In some periods it is also noticeable the inscription of the right to education without the proper conditions for its realization.

On the whole, when Azevedo (2006AZEVEDO, Janete Maria Lins de. O Estado, a política educacional e a regulação do setor educação no Brasil: uma abordagem histórica. In: FERREIRA, Naura Syria Carapeto; AGUIAR, Márcia Angela da Silva (org.). Gestão da educação: impasses, perspectivas e compromissos. 5. ed. São Paulo: Cortez, 2006. p. 17-42.) characterized the Brazilian educational environment from a historical approach, he explained three moments of educational policies that help us to understand the relationship between the right to education and educational planning. In the first, he stated that the universalization of school coverage occurred in a timely manner, through arrangements that compromised access to this right of citizenship. In a second phase, there was a certain expansion of the offer by the State, but with the favoring of spaces of action for the private initiative, not constituting an educational project aimed at the vast majority of the population. In a third moment, it expressed the continuity of a regulation model based on authoritarian values and practices, which opposes the democratic proposals that have the right to education as an assumption. This context is a constitutive part of the trajectory that allows us to understand the relationship between the right to education and educational planning.

In this line of thought, given the need to consider the importance of educational planning for the materialization of the right to education, as well as through the State of the Art methodology - recognized by the “inventory and descriptive character of academic and scientific production” (FERREIRA, 2002FERREIRA, Norma Sandra de Almeida. As pesquisas denominadas “estado da arte”. Educação & Sociedade, Campinas, v. 23, n. 79, p. 257-272, 2002. Disponível em: Disponível em: https://www.scielo.br/j/es/a/vPsyhSBW4xJT48FfrdCtqfp/?lang=pt&format=pdf . Acesso em: 28 maio 2021.
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, p. 258) - this study analyzed the summaries of academic works, specifically theses and dissertations produced in the field of Education in the last three decades, from the promulgation of the Federal Constitution in effect in our country.

The article is composed of two sections, in addition to this introduction and conclusion guide. The first presents a survey of works related to the field of Education in the CAPES Theses and Dissertations Database, approaching the modalities of production, the geographic and administrative origin of the institutions, as well as the year of publication. In the second section, the content of the productions related to educational planning is examined more specifically, discussing the information contained in their abstracts, such as the objectives, methodology, and results achieved, in addition to the categories inferred from the set of productions and its interrelationship with the right to education. It is, therefore, the first exposure of data from ongoing research.

An overview of the collected works

Taking as a landmark the 30 (thirty) years of the promulgation of the Federal Constitution, granted on October 5, 1988, data collection was carried out in the Database "Catalogue of Theses and Dissertations" of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), in May 2019, using the descriptor "right to education", in the period from 1988 to 2018, which resulted in a total of 1,473 (one thousand, four hundred and seventy-three) titles.

Seeking to "refine" the results, the combination of the descriptors "right to education" AND "educational planning" was used, which returned a total of 91 (ninety-one) productions, including academic master's, professional master's, and doctoral research.

Graph 1 represents the distribution of works by modality, namely, doctorate, academic masters, and professional masters between 1998 and 2018.

GRAPH 1
- DISTRIBUTION OF WORKS BY CATEGORY - CAPES (1998 - 2018)

According to Graph 1, academic master's dissertations prevailed, with 51 (fifty-one) productions (56%), followed by theses, with 20 (twenty) works (22%), and professional master's dissertations, which also presented 20 (twenty) productions (22%). The predominance of productions at the professional and academic master's levels can be justified, among other possible reasons, by the organization of Stricto Sensu Graduate courses in the country, characterized by the majority offer of master's courses, according to data available on the Sucupira Platform Website (BRASIL, 2020a).

The academic and scientific production of theses and dissertations about that period, by year of production, is detailed in Table 1 below.:

TABLE 1
DISTRIBUTION OF WORKS BY YEAR OF PRODUCTION - CAPES (1988 - 2018)

Although the delimitation of this research is based on the year 1988, the data collected indicated that the studies that encompassed the “right to education” and “educational planning” had the year 1996 as a time frame for investigation, as shown in Table 1.

Concerning the year of publication, the data showed a variety of productions, with emphasis on the year 2018, the most productive, with 18.68% of references (17 works) and the year 1996, with the lowest number of productions in the period, which corresponded to 1.10%, that is, only 1 published work.

There was an increase in production in 2016, 2017, and 2018, in which 15 (fifteen), 13 (thirteen), and 17 (seventeen) works were published, respectively. Although small, this variety can be attributed, among other possible reasons, to the discussions that preceded the approval of the National Education Plan (2014-2024), through Law No. 13.005/2014 (BRASIL, 2014), a legal instrument for educational planning in Brazil.

As for administrative dependence, the distribution of work was expressed in Graph 2 below:

GRAPH 2
- DISTRIBUTION OF WORKS BY ADMINISTRATIVE AREA - CAPES (1998 - 2018)

As shown in Graph 2, 81% of the productions published in the period, that is, 74 (seventy-four) works, were produced within the scope of public Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and 19% in private organizations, a situation which, in general, reinforces the prevalence of public HEIs in the production of knowledge. More specifically, it can also be observed through the thematic approach that relates the “right to education” and “educational planning”. It is also important to note that federal institutions stood out about other public institutions, with 46 (forty-six) productions, followed by state institutions with 26 (twenty-six) studies produced and, with only 1 (one) published work each, one municipal and one community institution.

The production of theses and dissertations by administrative region is represented in Graph 3.

GRAPH 3
- GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF WORKS BY ADMINISTRATIVE REGION - CAPES

The production of works that involved the correlation between the themes “right to education” and “educational planning”, according to the illustration in Graph 3 was concentrated in the Southeast region, with 37 (thirty-seven) surveys (41%), followed by the Northeast region, with 23 (twenty-three) productions (25%); the Southern region with 18 (eighteen) studies (20%); the Midwest with a total of 9 (nine) investigations (10%); and North with a set of 4 (four) researches, which represented 4% of the total analyzed works.

The recurring aspect in the concentration of works in certain regions, with the prevalence of the Southeast region, expresses the unequal character of the relationships established as a result of the mediations between socioeconomic, political, and cultural aspects and which concern a greater concentration of institutions and Graduate Programs and Courses. According to data from the CAPES (BRASIL, 2020bBRASIL. Capes. Plataforma Sucupira, 2020b. Disponível em: Disponível em: https://sucupira.capes.gov.br/sucupira/public/consultas/coleta/programa/quantitativos/quantitativoIes.xhtml?areaAvaliacao=38&areaConhecimento=70800006 . Acesso em: 10 nov. 2020.
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) website, in 2020 the Southeast region concentrated 71 (seventy-one) Graduate Programs in Education, which represented 37% of the total. Likewise, of the 288 (two hundred and eighty-eight) courses, 112 (one hundred and twelve) were offered by institutions located in this region of the country, that is, 38% of the total, notable percentages, given the regional division of Brazil.

It is possible to consider that the contrast found in scientific productions is not dissociated from the history of our country, in which the “[...] access to education was marked by strong inequalities: sometimes due to lack of access to the school system, sometimes due to exclusion within the system itself, or even due to access to different standards of educational quality” (SAMPAIO; OLIVEIRA, 2015SAMPAIO, Gabriela Thomazinho Clementino; OLIVEIRA, Romualdo Portela de. Dimensões da desigualdade educacional no Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Política e Administração da Educação, Porto Alegre, v. 31, n. 3, p. 511 - 530 set./dez. 2015. Disponível em: Disponível em: https://seer.ufrgs.br/rbpae/article/viewFile/60121/37016 . Acesso em: 29 set. 2020.
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, p. 512).

The analyzed works

For the analysis and delimitation of the study, from the set of 91 (ninety-one) investigations, we had to disregard 12 (twelve) works that did not focus on the level of education related to compulsory Basic Education, which comprises pre-school - the second stage of early childhood education -, elementary school and high school, namely, from 4 (four) to 17 (seventeen) years, as provided for in the Constitutional Amendment no. 59/2009.

It should also be added that another 11 (eleven) works were not included in this study, as they were not available online, either on the CAPES Platform, on the page of the institutions to which they were linked, or on other means of remote sharing via the web.

Thus, in the survey of dissertations and theses produced from 1988 to 2018 in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) across the country, the interrelation between the theme “educational planning” and “right to education”, within the scope of compulsory basic education, presented a list of 68 (sixty-eight) valid surveys selected for this analysis, which represented 74.70% of the investigations collected in the second stage of the survey.

After reading the titles and abstracts of the works, it was possible to organize them into three distinct categories: (1) Educational Planning and Policy; (2) Planning and Management of Education Systems; and (3) School Planning and Management. Even though the categorization considered the manifest and explicit content provided by the authors, the criteria used in the classification sought to verify the scope of the research, whether at the policy level in a broad sense, at the level of systems management, or even at the level of school management.

From the collected abstracts, we sought to identify the themes to which such investigations referred, which correspond to,

[...] those aspects that appear explicitly and are present in one or more of the researched works symbolize concerns that surrounded the definition of research objectives, the carrying out of their analyzes, and the conclusions about the approaches that have been given to the subject (OLIVEIRA; TEIXEIRA, 2001OLIVEIRA, Cleiton de; TEIXEIRA, Lúcia Helena Gonçalves. Municipalização e gestão municipal da educação. In: WITTMANN, Lauro Carlos. GRACINDO, Regina Vinhaes (org.). Políticas e gestão da educação (1991-1997). Brasília, DF: Anpae: MEC: Inep: Comped, 2001. p. 75-83., p. 78, our translation).

In the thematization process, a reference framework was elaborated highlighting the title, objective, and abstract of each work. In this process, ten grouped themes were identified, as specified in Table 1 below, which also shows the amount of work related to each theme.

FRAME 1
- FREQUENCY OF THE THEMES - CAPES:

After sorting the themes, the works were identified with the three categories of analysis mentioned above. This distribution can be seen in Table 2.

FRAME 2
- DISTRIBUTION OF THEMES BY CATEGORIES OF ANALYSES - CAPES:

The criteria for identifying the themes in their respective category considered the nature and generality of the works. Those who referred broadly to educational policy and legislation were included in the category “Educational Planning and Policy”; those aimed at metropolitan regions or focusing on certain municipalities, their networks, and school systems were gathered in the category “Planning and Management of Education Systems”; and, finally, those who dealt with a specific institution, made up the third category, entitled “School Planning and Management”.

The investigations grouped in the category “Educational Planning and Policy” concern 7 (seven) of the ten themes presented above, namely: Public Education Policies (5); Special Education (2); Education Financing (2); Educational inequality and socioeconomic development (1); Childhood Education (1); Education in Prison (1); Education Planning (1).

In particular, the works linked to the categories presented different emphasis involving the quality of education, digital educational objects, individualized educational planning, the normative and financial level of public policies in the field of early childhood education, education plans and socio-educational plans, the adoption of a cost forecasting tool, the expansion of compulsory education, the role of the Public Ministry/Judiciary Branch, the continuing education of teachers in the early years of elementary school, and the working hours and teacher valuation policies.

The 10 (ten) themes raised in this study were located in the category “Planning and Management of Teaching Systems”, with the highest occurrence: Public Education Policies, with 20 (twenty) works; Early childhood education and special education, with 4 (four) investigations each; Rural, Youth and Adult Education and Educational Management and Planning, with 3 (three) studies; and Education in prison, with 2 (two) works. The themes related to Educational Financing, Hospital Education and educational inequality and socioeconomic development had 1 case each.

In general terms, the works placed some emphasis on planning at the municipal level, covering reflections on early childhood education, the universalization of preschool and full-time public schools, as well as discussions on municipal and state education planning, which is materialized through the analysis of the Education Plans, which were also recurrent, in addition to a work related to the Political Pedagogical Project of a certain Municipal Department of Education.

According to the study by Ganzeli et al. (2015GANZELI, Pedro et al. (org.). Políticas educacionais na região metropolitana de Campinas: regime de colaboração. Curitiba: CRV, 2015.), the management of municipal education systems/networks lacks human and/or financial resources for the public administration, a fact that has a major impact on educational planning and the implementation of policies in this area. Thus, discussions related to the municipalization of education and the development of management models for resource optimization and decision-making were also present in the analyzed works.

Studies on the influence of legislation and the press on the elaboration of educational policies were identified, as well as those covering the importance of cash transfer programs and the work of social assistance professionals in the management and execution of public education policy. It should be noted that, sometimes, the guarantee of the right to education presumes the guarantee of other rights, and, in this sense, researches focusing on these dimensions are important.

Productions related to the offer of regular secondary education, the elaboration of curricular guidelines in Youth and Adult Education, literacy and numeracy policies were also identified, as well as works that demonstrated concern with the evaluation of public education policies, with the academic performance of students, with the quality of teaching and with continued progression, recurrent aspects within educational institutions.

Research related to the characterization of Public Education Policies for adolescent transgressors, policies for the distribution of educational opportunities, in addition to those related to inclusion and the promotion of racial equality, expressed the researchers' concern regarding the issues of guaranteeing the right to education for those who, for some reason, do not have access to this right.

In addition, there was also concern with the construction of the State Council of Education and with the performance of the Justice System/Judiciary Branch in specific institutions such as the Court of Auditors, the Public Ministry, and the Guardianship Council, regarding the action of the political parties in the Legislative Assembly and the relations between the Rural Education Movement and the government.

It is considered that the large amount of work observed in the category “Planning and management of education systems” can be explained by the political function of the municipalization process, which, according to Oliveira and Teixeira (2001OLIVEIRA, Cleiton de; TEIXEIRA, Lúcia Helena Gonçalves. Municipalização e gestão municipal da educação. In: WITTMANN, Lauro Carlos. GRACINDO, Regina Vinhaes (org.). Políticas e gestão da educação (1991-1997). Brasília, DF: Anpae: MEC: Inep: Comped, 2001. p. 75-83.), was developed in different Brazilian regions, through different degrees of extent. In this regard, it is important to emphasize that,

[...] on the one hand, municipalization enables an apparent autonomy for the municipality and transfers the educational activity of the State within the scope of the Union to this sphere. On the other hand, and in the same movement, it transfers State duties with the subjective social rights of citizens to civil society, having the school as one of the central institutions, whose organizational model and management method are materialized [...] by what it was called, in a centralized way, 'municipalization' (SILVA JR., 2004SILVA JR., João dos Reis. O papel político da municipalização educacional na construção dos novos traços da sociedade civil na década de 1990. In: MARTINS, Angela Maria; OLIVEIRA, Cleiton de; BUENO, Maria Sylvia Simões (org.). Descentralização do Estado e municipalização do ensino: problemas e perspectivas. Rio de Janeiro: DP&A, 2004. p. 57-83., p. 59, our translation).

The set of studies that integrated the category “School Planning and Management” were linked to 6 (six) themes, with greater emphasis on: Special Education, with 5 (five) productions; Prison education, bringing together 3 (three) studies; Youth and Adult Education, with 2 (two) references; and, with 1 (one) work each, there are the themes Hospital education, Early childhood education and Public Education Policies.

In general terms, the works in this category analyzed educational planning processes related to the pedagogical practice of teachers and managers of educational units, the adequacy of the school curriculum to the needs of students, and the guarantee of the right to education of those who were, for different reasons, excluded of this process at appropriate age/spaces, such as adolescents who comply with socio-educational measures and adults deprived of liberty.

In the analysis of the 68 (sixty-eight) selected works, the elements that must be included in the abstract of academic work according to the specific standardization of the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (ABNT) were identified, namely: the objective, the method, results, and conclusions of the study (ABNT NBR 6028BRASIL. Presidência da República. Lei nº 13.005, de 25 de junho de 2014. Aprova o Plano Nacional de Educação - PNE e dá outras providências. Brasília, DF: Presidência da República, 25 jun. 2014. Disponível em: Disponível em: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2011-2014/2014/lei/l13005.htm . Acesso em: 10 nov. 2020.
http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_at...
, 2003BRASIL. Capes. Plataforma Sucupira, 2020a. Disponível em: Disponível em: https://sucupira.capes.gov.br/sucupira/public/index.xhtml . Acesso em: 10 nov. 2020.
https://sucupira.capes.gov.br/sucupira/p...
).

It was observed that 11 (eleven) of the analyzed works, that is, 16.17%, did not make reference or did not clearly explain, in their abstracts, the objective of the research, an absence that hampered the detailed analysis of these studies and their relationship with educational planning from the perspective of guaranteeing the right to education.

In the analysis of the objectives of 57 (fifty-seven) works, which corresponded to 84% of the productions analyzed, there was a prevalence of research whose objective was related to the examination of public education policies, whether at the federal, state, or municipal. Of these, 26 (twenty-six) works specified, in their abstracts, the emphasis on public policies. Considering that the guarantee of the right to education implies the action of the State, which is materialized through the planning and implementation of educational policies, we can infer that the relatively significant number of works on this subject can drive other actions by the Public Power to implement the respective right.

Studies that directly referred to the analysis of the relationship between the right to education and other social rights were analyzed in 7 (seven) productions (10.30 %), which evidenced the understanding pointed out by Saviani (2013)SAVIANI, Dermeval. Vicissitudes e perspectivas do direito à educação no Brasil: abordagem histórica e situação atual. Educação & Sociedade, Campinas, v. 34, n. 124, p. 743-760. jul./set. 2013. Disponível em: Disponível em: https://www.redalyc.org/pdf/873/87328534006.pdf . Acesso em: 26 maio 2021.
https://www.redalyc.org/pdf/873/87328534...
that the right to education is constituted on a necessary premise, although not sufficient, for the exercise of other social rights.

The analysis of education plans (national, state, and/or municipal) was highlighted as an objective in 5 (five) works (7.35%), revealing the small number of productions dedicated to the study of these documents in the country. This finding led us to understand that the lack of interest in analyzing these documents can be justified, among other reasons, by the explanation that the content of the documents of subnational entities, for the most part, was characterized by reproduction, almost integral, of the text from the National Education Plan (2014-2024), Law n.º 13005, of June 25, 2014, indicating the great influence of the Union in the planning of local policies, as pointed out by Abbiati (2019ABBIATI, Andréia S. O direito à educação integral nos planos de educação (2015-2025) dos municípios da Região Metropolitana de Campinas. 2019. 504f. Tese (Doutorado em Educação) - Faculdade de Educação, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 2019.). This influence was analyzed by 2 (two) of the studies analyzed in this research, that is, 2.94%.

Studies with objectives related to the analysis of teaching practice were the object of 5 (five) productions (7.35%). In turn, the actions of the Public Power for the realization of the right to education were analyzed by 4 (four) studies (5.88%), a quantity also verified in the studies that aimed to point out ways and/or solutions for the exercise of educational management through the creation and implementation of management methods and/or techniques.

The examination of the methodology and methodological procedures used in the analyzed works revealed, according to Table 1, that 32.34% of the productions did not specify, in their abstracts, the form of research carried out.

As for the nature of the sources for the approach and treatment of investigations, the studies were characterized in three ways: (1) in 14.70%, as “bibliographic”, “documental” and “field”; (2) adding to these studies, 5.88% of researches called as documental type, documental analysis or documental research, and; (3) the amount of 2.94% identified solely as “field research”. Works that focus on the nature of the sources totaled 23.52%. Explicitly, 13.25% indicate the case study, of which one of the occurrences turned out to be multicase. Of these investigations, 10.30% alluded to the epistemological foundations, as they are situated as “qualitative research”; in addition to these, 2.95% mention “quanti-qualitative research”, representing a total of 13.25%. Of this universe, 4.41% explain action research. In addition to these categorizations, the comparative analysis and the exploratory study each represented 2.94%. Other research denominations described as interdisciplinary research, participatory research, empirical research, thematic analysis, and literature review, totaled 7.35%, respectively, as they corresponded to 1.47% each.

When analyzing the set of methodologies and methodological procedures, the distribution of works can be seen according to the type of research, as shown in Table 3:

FRAME 3
- DISTRIBUTION OF WORKS BY TYPE OF RESEARCH.

Concerning the approach, as represented in Table 4, it was found that 57.35% of the studies did not present it explicitly, 19.12% characterized it as qualitative, 5.89% as quantitative-qualitative, and 4.41% explained the theoretical perspective in which they are linked, namely: Foucauldian, Critical Historical Pedagogy and theoretical, the latter without a precise specification. As for the qualitative approaches to the policy cycle and criticism, they represented 2.94% of the investigations carried out. Other ways of expressing the approach are referred to respectively as public policy analysis, interdisciplinary nature, and exploratory character, with one occurrence each.

FRAME 4
- DISTRIBUTION OF WORKS BY RESEARCH APPROACH.

In general terms, the approach refers to a set of methodologies, which may eventually add different methodological references (SEVERINO, 2016SEVERINO, Antônio Joaquim. Metodologia do trabalho científico. 24. ed. Rev. e Atual. São Paulo: Cortez , 2016.), an aspect that can be observed in the studies presented.

It was possible to observe, among the works included in the thematic cut “right to education” and “educational planning”, the tendency of not specifying the method that guided the investigation, since 94.12% of the studies did not present such information in the abstract and 5.88% explained the dialectical paradigm, under the following names: historical and dialectical materialism, dialectical historical materialism and dialectical-critical method.

It is worth noting that, generally, the methodological procedures related to the instruments/techniques/forms of treatment and analysis were arranged in an associated way, in which the interviews stood out in the set of works linked to document analysis/documentation and content analysis, in addition to other similar joints. But, specifically, prevailed in the frequency of investigation and interpretation mechanisms: the interview, 30.71%, the document/documentation analysis, 32.35%, the observation, 17.65%, the content analysis, 14.71%, and the questionnaire, 10.29 %; among others with less occurrence, namely: triangulation, 4.41%, the focus group, 2.94% and, reciprocally, representing 1.47% each, zetetic interpretation, speech analysis and the use of spreadsheets and software.

Regarding the results, it was found that 89.70%, which represents 61 (sixty-one) productions, referred to some type of conclusion in the abstracts. However, given the diversity of approaches and methodological procedures mentioned above, it was decided to highlight the works whose conclusions pointed to the non-guarantee of the right to education or to attend to it integrally or partially.

Broadly, the studies revealed that the expansion of compulsory education represented an advance for the Brazilian educational reality, but its achievement is linked to the need to build the National Education System (SNE) and the effective implementation of the collaboration regime between the entities federated, to enable the realization of quality education, aimed at meeting the constitutional principles and, consequently, for the Brazilian socio-economic development and the adoption of regulatory mechanisms, as a way to improve basic education and implement the law the education.

Concerning the necessary indicators for the realization of the right to education, the importance of legal provisions, the dimensioning of budget planning, the use of management systems for the improvement of educational planning in the public sphere was observed, as well as one of them revealed that judicialization is a mechanism that can contribute to the evaluation of educational policy.

Among the problems raised and that generate mismatches regarding the realization of the right to education, the works mentioned aspects that range from problems in the care in the context of early childhood education, as well as in hospital and prison classes, to the clarification of the need for changes in social structures.

The following were also highlighted as elements that hinder the fulfillment of the right to education and educational planning: the contradictions in the institutionalization process of policies to promote racial equality and difficulties in implementing an inclusive perspective in pedagogical practices in a society marked by racism and exclusion; the need to develop professional apprenticeships that consider planning as a form of improvement and intervention in the school curriculum; the lack of teachers to work in regions farther away from large urban centers; the urgent need for a greater contribution of resources to guarantee the provision of quality education; and the ineffectiveness of municipalization in solving educational problems.

By way of conclusion

This study included the productions defended in Graduate Programs in Education across the country and that were directly related to educational planning and its interrelationship with the guarantee and maintenance of the right to education of children, youths, and adults in Brazil.

In broad terms, our heritage about the thematic cut of the right to education and educational planning, concerning the academic production of theses and dissertations available in the CAPES Database from 1988 to 2018 originated mostly in public institutions, specifically in master's programs.

Multiple aspects were considered and expressed the interrelationship between the right to education and educational planning. On the one hand, the school's consolidation was a concrete space for the experiences of rights and the State as a mediator in the context of educational management and planning, paying attention to the singularities of the sociopolitical, historical, economic, and cultural context. On the other hand, from the focus on the relationship between planning and the right to education, the contrast between intentions and actions regarding the realization of the rights guaranteed in the Brazilian legal system in the whole of basic education was also highlighted.

From the data presented in this work, it is noted that due to the character of initial training that is expressed in the dissertations produced by these programs, the abstracts leave open many aspects that need to be observed, concerning the exposition of objectives, methods, results, and conclusions of the researches carried out, but that there are also challenges to be faced in the presentation of theses from doctoral programs, mainly about the indication of the investigation method.

These investigations, as can be seen, took place in 1996 and were concentrated in the Southeast region, given the unequal nature of the relationships established in the context of the production of social and cultural life and the greater number of institutions and Graduate Programs in this administrative region.

The works analyzed were grouped into three categories according to the level of coverage of the research, namely: (1) Educational Planning and Policy; (2) Planning and Management of Education Systems; and (3) School Planning and Management. It should be noted that over the period analyzed, the research that integrated the category “Planning and Management of Teaching Systems” stood out to the others, which can be justified, among other reasons, by the processes of municipalization of education that they imputed to managers of subnational entities the need to plan actions for the realization and maintenance of the right to education in their localities.

The reverberation of the right to education and its relationship with educational planning was verified by the number of themes deduced from the analyzed researches and by the expressive relation of works related to the theme “Public Educational Policies”, which leads us to infer that the action of The State for the guarantee of the right to education, in the period from 1988 to 2018, was an object of concern in the educational sphere, which can be seen through the set of scientific productions about this thematic section.

The survey of these works also allows us to assert the existence of multiple aspects that express the interrelationship between the right to education and educational planning. Therefore, in the context of the last three decades, the school has been consolidated as a concrete space for the experiences of rights and the State - as a mediator in the context of educational management and planning - and, at the same time, the challenge of overcoming the mismatch between intentions and actions about the realization of the rights guaranteed in the Brazilian legal system of 1988.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) for funding this investigation.

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  • 1
    Translated by Luisa de Assis Vieira. E-mail: luisadeassisvieira@gmail.com

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    06 Dec 2021
  • Date of issue
    2021

History

  • Received
    23 Nov 2020
  • Accepted
    07 June 2021
Setor de Educação da Universidade Federal do Paraná Educar em Revista, Setor de Educação - Campus Rebouças - UFPR, Rua Rockefeller, nº 57, 2.º andar - Sala 202 , Rebouças - Curitiba - Paraná - Brasil, CEP 80230-130 - Curitiba - PR - Brazil
E-mail: educar.ufpr2016@gmail.com educar@ufpr.br