Dimensions for analysis of evaluation proposals of Early Childhood Education policies1 1 Translated by Ananyr Porto Fajardo. E-mail: aportofajardo@gmail.com

Cláudia Oliveira Pimenta Sandra Zákia Sousa Maria Luiza Rodrigues Flores About the authors

RESUMO

Avaliar propostas de avaliação da educação é um passo relevante para apreciar o potencial dessas iniciativas em promover qualidade com equidade, tendo em vista garantir o cumprimento do dever do Estado na garantia do direito à educação. Com esse pressuposto, o artigo apresenta aspectos e dimensões para análise de propostas de avaliação de políticas de Educação Infantil no âmbito de sistemas e redes de ensino. As proposições resultam de levantamento e interpretação de literatura e se apoiam em legislação e normas vigentes no país, em diálogo com a literatura que trata de requisitos para a elaboração e implementação de avaliações. Os resultados do estudo ratificam a existência de parâmetros para subsidiar processos de avaliação da etapa, estando estes direcionados para as questões de acesso, insumos, processos e resultados, destacando-se a importância de considerar as especificidades da etapa, as finalidades da avaliação e a consequência dada aos seus resultados.

Palavras-chave:
Política educacional; Avaliação educacional; Educação Infantil; Direito à educação; Sistema de Ensino

ABSTRACT

Evaluating education evaluation proposals is a relevant step to consider the potential of these initiatives in promoting quality with equity, to ensure the fulfillment of the State's duty in guaranteeing the right to education. With this assumption, the article presents aspects and dimensions for the analysis of evaluation proposals regarding the Early Childhood Education policy, within the scope of education systems and networks. The propositions result from the survey and interpretation of literature and are supported by legislation and norms in force in the country, in dialogue with the literature that deals with requirements for the preparation and implementation of evaluations. The results of the study confirm the existence of parameters to support the evaluation processes of the stage, which are directed to issues of access, inputs, processes, and results, highlighting the importance of considering the specificities of the stage, the purposes of the evaluation and consequence given to their results.

Keywords:
Educational politics; Educational evaluation; Early Childhood Education; Right to education; Education system

Introduction

Early Childhood Education - nursery school and preschool -, K-12 education first stage, was addressed in the discussions concerning external and large-scale evaluation, under the leadership of the Ministério da Educação (MEC) [Ministry of Education] in the last two decades. In Brazil, this movement stimulated the diffusion of proposals aimed to answer to this demand, extrapolating the perspective of learning evaluation or educational institutions evaluation, which were evaluative aspects dominant until then in the official documents and in the academic production concerning the mentioned educational stage.

It is suitable to register that, in 2019, Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais Anísio Teixeira [Anísio Teixeira National Institute for Educational Studies and

Research] (INEP) undertook a pilot study aimed to evaluate early childhood education, as foreseen in the Plano Nacional de Educação (PNE) [National Education Plan]. However, the results of this evaluation were not disseminated until now. In May 2020, MEC issued the Ordinance N. 458 (BRASIL, 2020BRASIL. Ministério da Educação Portaria nº 458, de 5 de maio de 2020. Institui normas complementares necessárias ao cumprimento da Política Nacional de Avaliação da Educação Básica. Brasília, DF: MEC, 2020. Disponível em: Disponível em: https://www.in.gov.br/en/web/dou/-/portaria-n-458-de-5-de-maio-de-2020-255378342 . Acesso em: 18 out. 2021.
https://www.in.gov.br/en/web/dou/-/porta...
), establishing complementary norms for the fulfilment of the National Policy of K-12 Education Evaluation, which claims that the Sistema Nacional de Avaliação da Educação Básica (SAEB) [National System of K-12 Education Evaluation] comprised the Early Childhood Education. It is not specified in the text how this evaluation will be made, even though its contours are foreseen since the National Education Plan 2001-2011 (BRASIL, 2001BRASIL. Ministério da Educação Portaria nº 458, de 5 de maio de 2020. Institui normas complementares necessárias ao cumprimento da Política Nacional de Avaliação da Educação Básica. Brasília, DF: MEC, 2020. Disponível em: Disponível em: https://www.in.gov.br/en/web/dou/-/portaria-n-458-de-5-de-maio-de-2020-255378342 . Acesso em: 18 out. 2021.
https://www.in.gov.br/en/web/dou/-/porta...
), reiterated in NEP 2014-2024 (BRASIL, 2014BRASIL. Presidência da República. Lei n° 13.005, de 25 de junho de 2014. Aprova o Plano Nacional de Educação e dá outras providências. Brasília, DF: Presidência da República, 2014. Disponível em: Disponível em: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2011-2014/2014/lei/l13005.htm#:~:text=LEI%20N%C2%BA%2013.005%2C%20DE%2025,Art . Acesso em: 18 out. 2021.
http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_at...
), in its Goal 1, strategy 1.6 (SOUSA, 2014SOUSA, Sandra Zákia. Avaliação da educação infantil: propostas em debate no Brasil. Interacções, Lisboa, v. 10, n. 32, p. 68-88, 2014. Disponível em:https://doi.org/10.25755/int.6349. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021 .
https://doi.org/10.25755/int.6349...
).

The country already has legislation and norms in force, as well as publications by MEC that subsidizes the outline of the notion of quality for this stage, comprising distinct dimensions, from those related to access to educational institutions, to requirements for implementation and functioning of the supply, including pedagogical and management aspects.

Moreover, there are inputs from academic studies and research, non-governmental organizations, private foundations/institutions, and social movements claiming access conditions, and supply of Early Childhood Education and move towards the proposal of evaluative outlines that express divergent views on how to examine the quality of young children’s education (SOUSA, 2014SOUSA, Sandra Zákia. Avaliação da educação infantil: propostas em debate no Brasil. Interacções, Lisboa, v. 10, n. 32, p. 68-88, 2014. Disponível em:https://doi.org/10.25755/int.6349. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021 .
https://doi.org/10.25755/int.6349...
, 2018SOUSA, Sandra Zákia. Avaliação da Educação Infantil: questões controversas e suas implicações educacionais e sociais. Revista de Educação PUC-Campinas, Campinas, v. 23, n. 1, p. 65-78, jan./abr. 2018. Disponível em: https://doi.org/10.24220/2318-0870v23n1a3958. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021
https://doi.org/10.24220/2318-0870v23n1a...
; VIEIRA, 2014VIEIRA, Lívia Fraga. Apontamentos sobre o documento “Educação Infantil: subsídios para a construção de uma sistemática de avaliação”. Nuances: estudos sobre educação, Presidente Prudente/SP, v. 25, n. 3, p. 18-35, set./dez. 2014. Disponível em: http://dx.doi.org/10.14572/nuances.v25i3.3166. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021.
https://doi.org/10.14572/nuances.v25i3.3...
).

Also, there are studies that register the existence of distinct evaluation movements of Early Childhood Education in course in Brazilian cities (COSTA FILHO, 2014COSTA FILHO, João Alfredo Nunes. O Tribunal de Contas do Estado da Paraíba e a avaliação da Gestão Educacional: indicadores de desempenho, análise e perspectivas. 2014. 144 f. (Mestrado Profissional em Gestão em Organizações Aprendentes) - Centro de Educação da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, 2014.; HORTA NETO; SOUZA, 2016BAUER, Adriana; HORTA NETO, João Luiz; SOUSA, Sandra Zákia. Avaliação e Gestão Educacional em Municípios Brasileiros: mapeamento e caracterização de iniciativas em curso. Relatório Final. Fundação Carlos Chagas; Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais - Anísio Teixeira. São Paulo: FCC/INEP, 2016. (mimeo).; PIMENTA, 2017PIMENTA, Cláudia Oliveira. Avaliações Municipais da Educação Infantil: contribuições para a garantia do direito à educação das crianças brasileiras? 2017. 670 f. Tese (Doutorado em Educação) - Faculdade de Educação da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, 2017.; CANÇADO, 2017CANÇADO, Natalia Francine Costa. Avaliação na Educação Infantil e Participação: desafios para a gestão. 2017. 131 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Educação) - Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, 2017.; BARROS, 2017BARROS, Emília Cristina Ferreira. Políticas de Avaliação e o Prêmio CREI Nota 10 no Município de João Pessoa: avaliar, controlar e responsabilizar. 2017. 244 f.Tese (Doutorado em Educação) - Centro de Educação, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, 2017.), presenting diverse configurations. These proposals, as discussed in these studies, depending on their outline, can both contribute for the assurance of quality of education for all zero- to 5-year-old children and may nourish selection and classificatory processes in the school and the Brazilian society. With the anticipation of implementing evaluation of Early Childhood Education within SAEB’s scope and the trend of expanding similar initiatives in Brazilian cities (BAUER; HORTA NETO; SOUSA, 2016SOUSA, Sandra Zákia; PIMENTA, Cláudia Oliveira. Avaliação da educação infantil: aportes de iniciativas estrangeiras. Est. Aval. Educ., São Paulo, v. 27, n. 65, p. 376-406, maio/ago. 2016. Disponível em:https://doi.org/10.18222/eae.v0ix.3778. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021.
https://doi.org/10.18222/eae.v0ix.3778...
; PIMENTA, 2017PIMENTA, Cláudia Oliveira. Avaliações Municipais da Educação Infantil: contribuições para a garantia do direito à educação das crianças brasileiras? 2017. 670 f. Tese (Doutorado em Educação) - Faculdade de Educação da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, 2017.), it is appropriate to discuss results from studies that explore characteristics to be assumed in the evaluation of this educational stage, evidencing the commitment with the improvement of the supplied education, and translated in parameters for the analysis of evaluative proposals.

It may be considered premature to address the criteria to evaluate evaluation, that is, a meta evaluation2 2 The notion of meta evaluation was introduced by Scriven (1969), being later approached by several authors from the education field. According to Elliot (2011, p. 943, our translation), it refers to the “verification of quality of evaluation itself”. Usually, this concept is used in the literature to refer to the evaluation that is conducted at the end of an evaluation. However, as indicated by Sttuflebean (2001), the meta evaluation can be formative when conducted along the evaluation process. Inputs on meta evaluation from several authors are explored by Elliot (2011). , given the scarcity of experiences in the country aimed at Early Childhood education. However, “[…] evaluation and criticism of the evaluation (meta evaluation) must coexist in a well-structured educational project” (VIANNA, 2003VIANNA, Heraldo Marelim Vianna. Fundamentos de um Programa de Avaliação Educacional. Est. Aval. Educ., São Paulo, n. 28, jul./dez. 2003. Disponível em: https://doi.org/10.18222/eae02820032168. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021 .
https://doi.org/10.18222/eae02820032168...
, p. 27, our translation). It is with this understanding that we consider relevant the discussion of parameters for analysis of evaluative outlines, as they bring with them a certain view of quality that guides Early Childhood Education policies.

In this sense, evaluating education evaluation proposals is a relevant step to examine its potential to promote quality with equity, as well as to contribute to assure rights, also considering specificities concerning each educational stage.

The purposes of this paper are to indicate aspects and dimensions to consider evaluation proposals of Early Childhood Education policies, elaborated within the municipal or state scope - in case these to assume with the cities the responsibility for the supply in this stage -, and to provide elements for analysis of the outline that may be assumed by the Federal Government, when giving consequence to what is foreseen in Ordinance N. 458/2020 (BRASIL, 2020BRASIL. Ministério da Educação Portaria nº 458, de 5 de maio de 2020. Institui normas complementares necessárias ao cumprimento da Política Nacional de Avaliação da Educação Básica. Brasília, DF: MEC, 2020. Disponível em: Disponível em: https://www.in.gov.br/en/web/dou/-/portaria-n-458-de-5-de-maio-de-2020-255378342 . Acesso em: 18 out. 2021.
https://www.in.gov.br/en/web/dou/-/porta...
).

In the next section, it will be presented the methodological procedures adopted in this study, followed by the mention to the legislation and the discussion of papers, dissertations and theses disseminated from 2012 to 2019 that address the requirements to be fulfilled in evaluation proposals of policies and projects, aimed to Early Childhood Education, and that indicate dimensions for the analysis of evaluations within the scope of public policies.

Methodological notes

There is no neutrality in evaluative outlines. Therefore, dealing with the analysis of evaluation proposals aimed at Early Childhood Education imposes the explicitness of the notion of quality that will mark out the judgment of its merit, focusing, as Marcus Figueiredo and Angelina Figueiredo (1986FIGUEIREDO, Marcus Faria; FIGUEIREDO, Angelina Maria Cheibub. Avaliação política e avaliação de políticas: um quadro de referência teórica. Análise & Conjuntura, Belo Horizonte, v. 1, n. 3, p. 107-27,1986. Disponível em: Disponível em: https://picture.iczhiku.com/resource/paper/whksjoUKOudfEbXb.pdf . Acesso em: 18 out. 2021.
https://picture.iczhiku.com/resource/pap...
) warn, on the judgment of the assumptions and values that inform the policies. Here, the purpose is not to evaluate processes, results, effects and/or impacts of policies, programs, and projects, but rather to contribute with indications that subsidize the analysis of decisions made in relation to the goals, procedures and instruments, uses of the results of evaluations intended to implement in a certain area and context.

The indications addressed in this article result from studies conducted by Sousa (2011SOUSA, Sandra Zákia. Avaliação de política de Educação Infantil. Brasília, DF: 2011 (Subsídio à Secretaria de Educação Básica na construção do seu posicionamento na Política Nacional de Avaliação na Educação Infantil” (Termo de referência, Projeto OEI/BRA/09/001), 2011.) intended to subsidize the formulation of evaluations of Early Childhood Education supply to support the monitoring (SOUSA, 2011SOUSA, Sandra Zákia. Avaliação de política de Educação Infantil. Brasília, DF: 2011 (Subsídio à Secretaria de Educação Básica na construção do seu posicionamento na Política Nacional de Avaliação na Educação Infantil” (Termo de referência, Projeto OEI/BRA/09/001), 2011.) and, also, to introduce criteria and indicators for analysis of evaluative proposals in force in Brazilian cities (PIMENTA, 2017PIMENTA, Cláudia Oliveira. Avaliações Municipais da Educação Infantil: contribuições para a garantia do direito à educação das crianças brasileiras? 2017. 670 f. Tese (Doutorado em Educação) - Faculdade de Educação da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, 2017.; FLORES, 2018FLORES, Maria Luiza Rodrigues. Avaliação da oferta de Educação Infantil no âmbito de um sistema municipal de ensino: contribuições para o delineamento de dimensões e indicadores de qualidade - Relatório Final. 2018. 180 f. (Pós-doutorado em Educação) - Programa de Pós-graduação da Faculdade de Educação Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, 2018.).

The references here brought are: i) the dialogue with the literature that deals with requirements for the elaboration and implementation of evaluations and that supports the analysis of proposals aimed to evaluate educational policies; II) the systematization of national legal and normative determination concerning the criteria for evaluation of Early Childhood Education policies within the scope of education systems and networks; and, III) the consideration of the literature related to evaluation proposals of Early Childhood Education policies, disseminated by means of scientific productions available in national databases, comprising the period from 2012 to 2019.

The period comprised for identification of academic productions on evaluation of Early Childhood Education policies, with potential to illuminate the definition of aspects and dimensions to evaluate the stage, took into account the year of publication of the document Educação Infantil: subsídios para a construção de uma sistemática de avaliação [Early Childhood Education: subsidies for the construction of an evaluation systematics] (BRASIL, 2012). It gathers and analyzes academic productions and legal framework concerning the different dimensions of this educational stage; it also proposes guidelines, methodological foundations, dimensions, indicators, and criteria/standards for the evaluation of policies aimed at the evaluation of this stage.

The bases searched for the collection of theses and dissertations (including Professional MSc and PhD) were the Banco de Teses e Dissertações da Capes [CAPES Theses and Dissertations Database] (BTDC) and the Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações [Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations] (BDTD), with the use of accurate describers. For the papers, Banco de Periódicos da Capes [Capes Journals Database], the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and Portal Educ@ were searched with the use of exact describers and matching among themselves.

The exact describers were inserted in the databases between quotations marks and with different prepositions, both for the object of evaluation (da, de, das, dos [of]) and their relationship with Early Childhood Education (da, de [of], na [in], em [in]). They are: avaliação da educação infantil [evaluation of the Early Childhood Education]; avaliação da qualidade da/na/em educação infantil [evaluation of the quality of/of the/in/in the Early Childhood Education]; avaliação de/das políticas da/de/na/em educação infantil [evaluation of/of the policies of/of the/in/in the Early Childhood Education]; avaliação de/dos programas da/de/na/em educação infantil [evaluation of/of the programs of/of the/in/in the Early Childhood Education]; avaliação e/da gestão da/na/em educação infantil [evaluation and/of the management of the/in/in the Early Childhood Education]; monitoramento da/na/em educação infantil [monitoring of the/in/in the Early Childhood Education]; autoavaliação da/na/em educação infantil [self-evaluation of the/in/in the Early Childhood Education]; heteroavaliação da/na/em educação infantil [hetero-evaluation of the/in/in the Early Childhood Education]; instrumentos de avaliação da/na/em educação infantil [evaluation tool of the/in/in the Early Childhood Education.

In the matched describers, besides the term Early Childhood Education, it was included the terms nursery school and preschool: evaluation and quality / policies / programs / management and Early Childhood Education / nursery school / preschool; monitoring /self-evaluation / hetero-evaluation /evaluation instruments and Early Childhood Education / nursery school / preschool.

A total of 68 headings were collected: seven PhD dissertations, 20 MSc theses, and 41 scientific papers. These productions were read in full to refine which one addressed evaluation of Early Childhood Education policies within the scope of educational systems, with potential to subsidize the construction of evaluation proposals aimed to the stage. This refinement resulted in 21 works analyzed: three dissertations, four theses and 14 papers.

It should be highlighted that, among the production gathered, three works (GLAP, 2013GLAP, Graciele. Avaliação na/da Educação Infantil: estado da arte 2000-2012. 2013. 199 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Educação) - Setor de Ciências Humanas, Letras e Artes, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Ponta Grossa, 2013.; MORO; SOUZA, 2014MORO, Catarina; SOUZA, Gizele de. Produção acadêmica brasileira sobre avaliação em educação infantil: primeiras aproximações. Est. Aval. Educ., São Paulo, v. 25, n. 58, p. 100-125, maio/ago. 2014. Disponível em:https://doi.org/10.18222/eae255820142743. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021.
https://doi.org/10.18222/eae255820142743...
; LOUVEIRA, 2015LOUVEIRA, Andreina de Melo. O debate sobre avaliação da qualidade na educação infantil: traçando cartografias. 2015. 100 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Educação) - Centro de Educação e Ciências Humanas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, 2015.) had mapped productions about evaluation in the Early Childhood Education field. The authors evidenced an increasing publication movement in which the topic is analyzed and problematized by means of theoretical and/or empirical studies. In accordance with the researchers, these studies deal with the evaluation of distinct objects, among them Early Childhood Education policies and programs. It is also appropriate to mention the research of Soares (2020SOARES, Ademilson de Sousa. Criança, infância e educação infantil: pressupostos das pesquisas. Educ. em Rev., Curitiba, v. 36, e64831, 2020. Disponível em: Disponível em: https://revistas.ufpr.br/educar/article/view/64831 . Acesso em:18 out. 2021.
https://revistas.ufpr.br/educar/article/...
), which analyzes the epistemic basis of studies related to the childhood and Early Childhood Education that, in a predominant way, has been supporting the production of Brazilian researchers between 2006 and 2016.

Furthermore, it was not considered the studies referring to the institutional self-evaluation of educational establishments, although the indications presented in them have been comprised in the formulation of aspects and dimensions to be considered when initiatives of Early Childhood Education evaluation are analyzed. This is because it is desirable that the institutional self-evaluation perspective integrates the evaluation process and indicates questions and situations to be addressed within the scope of the policies, despite not evaluating them directly.

In relation to the inputs from the evaluation field, within the limits of this text, it is mentioned as references the guidance disseminated by the Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation (c2015) in the 1970's, being its last version disseminated in 2010. It has subsidized studies and proposals developed in Brazil, suggesting that it should be considered five standards to evaluate the evaluation: utility, feasibility, accuracy, propriety, and transparency.

It is also worth mentioning, given the attention received in the educational field, the proposal Guidelines for Evaluation for Latin America and the Caribbean, launched in 2016, prepared by the Rede de Monitoramento, Avaliação e Sistematização da América Latina e do Caribe [Monitoring, Evaluation and Systematization Network of Latin America and the Caribbean] (ReLAC), Evaluation Capacity Development in Latin America (FOCEVAL), the Ministry of Planning and Economic Policy of Costa Rica (MIDEPLAN), and the German Institute of Evaluation of Cooperation for the Development (DEval)3 3 Available at: https://st2.ning.com/topology/rest/1.0/file/get/2805319507?profile=original. . Drawing on the inputs from the Joint Committee and works developed by regional and national evaluation associations and networks, the document specifies five dimensions to be considered in the evaluations: 1) Rigorous evaluation; 2) Appropriate evaluability; 3) Evaluation conducted according to ethical and legal principles; 4) Appropriate cultural understanding; 5) Relevance and utility.

Based on this production, the paper aims to indicate a possible way for analysis and evaluation of evaluation proposals for Early Childhood Education policies. The choice of aspects pertinent to the evaluation process assumed that the proposals are potentially able to contribute for the guarantee of the right to education and in the fulfilment of this duty by the State, aiming at reducing social inequalities.

Normative legislation and guidelines: a brief recapitulation

It is here stressed parameters brought by the Brazilian legislation, which are references for the formulation and implementation of Early Childhood Education policies with potential to mark out the evaluation of the stage in different dimensions. In order to summarize what is indicated in normative and legal documents, we assume as a reference Pimenta's production (2017PIMENTA, Cláudia Oliveira. Avaliações Municipais da Educação Infantil: contribuições para a garantia do direito à educação das crianças brasileiras? 2017. 670 f. Tese (Doutorado em Educação) - Faculdade de Educação da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, 2017.), which systematized indications referring to children’s rights and access conditions, service, and supply with quality for Early Childhood Education (Picture 1).

PICTURE 1
CHILDREN'S RIGHTS AND QUALITY ASPECTS INCLUDED IN THE BRAZILIAN LEGAL FRAMEWORK CONCERNING EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

The concepts of right and quality are understood by us in a symbiotic way, as warrantying the right of children to Early Childhood Education assumes warrantying the quality. For example, the investment of the public power in the expansion of the direct network is a necessary action to guarantee the right to access and service of the demand expressed - for nursery schools - and the universal service - for preschool, as well as to provide quality in the conditions of supply, given the direct public network has a greater potential to fulfill this issue (CAMPOS; FÜLLGRAF; WIGGERS, 2006CAMPOS, Maria Malta; FÜLLGRAF, Jodete; WIGGERS, Verena. A qualidade da Educação Infantil brasileira: alguns resultados de pesquisa. Cadernos de Pesquisa, São Paulo, v. 36, n. 127, p. 87-128, jan./abr. 2006. Disponível em: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-15742006000100005. Acesso em:18 out. 2021.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-1574200600...
; CAMPOS et al., 2010CAMPOS, Maria Malta et al. Educação infantil no Brasil: avaliação qualitativa e quantitativa: Relatório Final São Paulo: Fundação Carlos Chagas; Ministério da Educação; Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento, 2010. Disponível em: Disponível em: https://www.fcc.org.br/pesquisa/eixostematicos/educacaoinfantil/DoQueTrata.html . Acesso em: 18 out. 2021.
https://www.fcc.org.br/pesquisa/eixostem...
; PACÍFICO, 2010PACÍFICO, Juracy Machado. Políticas públicas para a educação infantil em Porto velho/RO (1999/2008). 2010. 358 f. Tese (Doutorado em Educação) - Faculdade de Ciências e Letras, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio De Mesquita Filho, Araraquara, 2010.; SUSIN, 2009SUSIN, Maria Otília Kroeff. A qualidade na educação infantil comunitária em Porto Alegre: estudo de caso em quatro creches conveniadas. 363 f. 2009. Tese (Doutorado em Educação) - Curso de Educação, Faculdade de Educaçãoda Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2009.; CORREIA, 2013CORREIA, Maria Aparecida Antero. Educação infantil de 0 a 3 anos: um estudo sobre demanda e qualidade na região de Guaianazes. 120 p. Dissertação (Mestrado em Educação) -Faculdade de Educação da Universidade de São Paulo, 2013.). However, the “fulfillment of criteria of covenant with private institutions, indicated by the legislation”, is another item to be evaluated and that is directly imbricated with the guarantee of the right, as a considerable part of the municipal education networks uses this procedure (TRIPODI, 2016TRIPODI, Zara Figueiredo. Educação infantil: da diversidade de oferta aos novos locais de governança. Educação, Porto Alegre, v. 39, p. 383-392, 2016. Disponível em: https://doi.org/10.15448/1981-2582.2016.3.21890. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021.
https://doi.org/10.15448/1981-2582.2016....
).

Produtions on Early Childhood Education evaluation

The literature analyzed was subgrouped from the inputs provided to the focus of this work: (I) pertinent principles and issues to propose or analyze an Early Childhood Education evaluation policy; (II) dimensions and indicators relevant for the proposal of a monitoring system of Early Childhood Education policies and/or an Early Childhood Education evaluation policy. Some works contribute for both groupings, being here evidenced, in a summarized way, that contribution understood as the most relevant for the purpose of this study.

Pertinent principles and issues to propose or analyze an Early Childhood Education evaluation policy

Rosemberg (2013ROSEMBERG, Fúlvia. Políticas de educação infantil e avaliação. Cadernos de Pesquisa, São Paulo, v. 43, n. 148, p. 44-75, jan./abr. 2013. Disponível em: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-15742013000100004. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021 .
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-1574201300...
, p. 52, our translation) highlights that the conception of evaluation must be mediated by values and is attentive to the child in an "[...] ethical and illuminating way for a socially fair and democratic decision making”. She claims that the starting point of a proposal of an evaluation research for Early Childhood Education should consider two questions: “[…] why and for what (whom) does the evaluative research of/in Early Childhood Education work? What is the reason for being of the Early Childhood Education policy?” (ROSEMBERG, 2013ROSEMBERG, Fúlvia. Políticas de educação infantil e avaliação. Cadernos de Pesquisa, São Paulo, v. 43, n. 148, p. 44-75, jan./abr. 2013. Disponível em: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-15742013000100004. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021 .
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-1574201300...
, p. 52, our translation). In this perspective, the author emphasizes that the results of the evaluation must be used in a positive way in the definition of new public policies, in curricula implementation and modification processes, in continued training programs of teachers and, in a decisive way, in the definition of elements for a decision making aimed to have an impact, that is, changes in thinking and acting of the participants of the system, being indispensable to foresee the devolution of information aiming at the improvement of the quality of the investigated institutions.

Campos (2013CAMPOS, Maria Malta. Entre as políticas de qualidade e a qualidade das práticas. Cadernos de Pesquisa, São Paulo, v. 43, n. 148, p. 22-43, jan./abr. 2013. Disponível em: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-15742013000100003. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-1574201300...
, p. 41, our translation) claims that “[…] children have the right to a service that respects their needs and their protagonism […]”. Based on evaluative research of national scope, the author underlines that the biggest problems identified in relation to the quality of supply were concentrated in the following dimensions: training of professionals; pedagogical proposals and curriculum; conditions of functioning and educative practices in the daily life; and relations with the families. Drawing upon Helen Penn, Campos indicates that a service with quality for the young children requires a wide, complex and intersectoral system that should be “[…] submitted to a continued monitoring and review that counts on enough financing for its goals.” (PENN, 2011, apudCAMPOS, 2013CAMPOS, Maria Malta. Entre as políticas de qualidade e a qualidade das práticas. Cadernos de Pesquisa, São Paulo, v. 43, n. 148, p. 22-43, jan./abr. 2013. Disponível em: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-15742013000100003. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-1574201300...
, p. 30, our translation).

When mapping proposals of Early Childhood Education evaluation in debate in Brazil, Sousa (2014SOUSA, Sandra Zákia. Avaliação da educação infantil: propostas em debate no Brasil. Interacções, Lisboa, v. 10, n. 32, p. 68-88, 2014. Disponível em:https://doi.org/10.25755/int.6349. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021 .
https://doi.org/10.25755/int.6349...
, 2018) stresses that, beyond a technical discussion, there are impasses concerning the political dimension of evaluation. Also, depending on the result of the dispute around the object of evaluation, there might be repercussions for the organization of SAEB, to which the Early Childhood Education was recently integrated. Like Rosemberg (2013ROSEMBERG, Fúlvia. Políticas de educação infantil e avaliação. Cadernos de Pesquisa, São Paulo, v. 43, n. 148, p. 44-75, jan./abr. 2013. Disponível em: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-15742013000100004. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021 .
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-1574201300...
) and Campos (2013CAMPOS, Maria Malta. Entre as políticas de qualidade e a qualidade das práticas. Cadernos de Pesquisa, São Paulo, v. 43, n. 148, p. 22-43, jan./abr. 2013. Disponível em: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-15742013000100003. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-1574201300...
), the author underlines the role of the State for the guarantee of the right to education of quality for all children, what assumes an evaluation process that has consequences and commitment with the continued improvement of the educational quality.

Coutinho and Moro (2017MORO, Catarina. Avaliação de contexto e políticas públicas para a educação infantil. Laplage Em Revista, [S. l.], v. 3, n. 1, p. 44-56, jan./abr. 2017. Disponível em: https://doi.org/10.24115/S2446-6220201731236p.44-56. Acesso em:18 out. 2021.
https://doi.org/10.24115/S2446-622020173...
) analyze the changes in the proposals of the Early Childhood Education public policy, especially policies related to evaluation, in result of the parliamentary coup in 2016 in Brazil. They also highlight that there was a rupture with the democratic perspective, until then placed in the process of formulation of a national policy of evaluation of the quality.

Nagase (2018NAGASE, Raquel H. Políticas de avaliação da educação infantil: da formação à performatividade - o cumprimento de uma AGEE no Município de Maringá. 2018. 167 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Educação) - Centro de Ciências Humanas, Letras e Artes, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, 2018.), based on Roger Dale’s studies, underlines the influence of a Globally Structured Agenda in Education, which comes to be accomplished in an articulated way with local contexts, as it is the case of the entailing of this agenda to the processes of restructuring of the Brazilian State, to the educational reforms and the emergence of the evaluative State, based on the New Public Management. The study registers that, both in the national and in the global scenario, it has been established a trend for the proposal of an Early Childhood Education evaluation with an emphasis on the results, in detriment of the processes.

Barros (2017BARROS, Emília Cristina Ferreira. Políticas de Avaliação e o Prêmio CREI Nota 10 no Município de João Pessoa: avaliar, controlar e responsabilizar. 2017. 244 f.Tese (Doutorado em Educação) - Centro de Educação, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, 2017.) investigated the articulations between national education evaluation policies and those implemented in the Early Childhood Education Reference Centers in the city of João Pessoa/PB. Considering the hypothesis that the integration of Early Childhood Education institutions with education systems has opened a way for the implementation of external and large-scale evaluations, aimed at this stage, the author presents the case study in which the evaluations were crossed by ideological biases with an emphasis on neoliberal and managerial conceptions, opposing legal documents in force.

Moro (2017MORO, Catarina. Avaliação de contexto e políticas públicas para a educação infantil. Laplage Em Revista, [S. l.], v. 3, n. 1, p. 44-56, jan./abr. 2017. Disponível em: https://doi.org/10.24115/S2446-6220201731236p.44-56. Acesso em:18 out. 2021.
https://doi.org/10.24115/S2446-622020173...
) reflects on evaluation and the national educational policy, aimed at Early Childhood Education in Brazil, discussing the proposal of a national policy of evaluation of the stage and indicating advances and retrocessions in the recent trajectory of this debate. The author indicates the challenge of monitoring and evaluating the supply, including its protagonists, in an evaluation process that is participatory, dialogic, democratic, and formative, contributing for the expansion of professionalism and quality of services.

Relevant dimensions and indicators for the proposal of a monitoring system of Early Childhood Education policies and/or an Early Childhood Education evaluation policy

Bhering and Abuchaim (2014BHERING, Eliana; ABUCHAIM, Beatriz de O. Monitoramento da educação infantil pública: possibilidades e conteúdos. Est. Aval. Educ. São Paulo, v. 25, n. 58, p. 74-99, maio/ago. 2014. Disponível em: https://doi.org/10.18222/eae255820142875. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021.
https://doi.org/10.18222/eae255820142875...
) defend an evaluation assumed to go beyond a mere diagnosis of a network or a unit, contributing with subsidies for a possible way of improvement of the work in the networks and institutions. As aspects that could guarantee advances in the quality of the education provided to the children, the authors stress: buildings and spaces; strategies of professional development and working and career conditions; strategies for parents engagement; organization of the pedagogical work; oral and written language and activities.

Approaching the Early Childhood Education monitoring system in Rio de Janeiro, Fernandes (2014FERNANDES, Fabiana Silva. Políticas públicas e monitoramento na educação infantil. Est. Aval. Educ., São Paulo, v. 25, n. 58, p. 44-72, maio/ago. 2014. Disponível em: https://doi.org/10.18222/eae255820142796. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021.) underlines that an educational service of quality must include good coverage, enough and appropriate resources, good infrastructure, trained professionals, and pedagogical practices and projects coherent with the curricular guidance of the city for nursery schools and preschools.

With special emphasis to the age group of nursery schools and based on legislation and MEC documents, Dal Coleto (2014DAL COLETO, Andréa Patapoff. Percursos para a construção de indicadores da qualidade da educação infantil. 2014. 466 f. Tese (Doutorado em Educação) - Faculdade de Educação, Unicamp, Campinas, 2014., p. 103, our translation) highlights the following aspects as priority for evaluation: “[…] the number of adults per children, interpersonal relationships, hygiene and care issues, group size, teacher or educator training, continued training, physical environment, equipment, materials, plans and the curriculum […]”.

Based on the legal order in force, on documents inducing policies produced by MEC, and on results of research supported by it, in academic production related with the discussion of the quality of/in Early Childhood Education and on foreign proposals of Early Childhood Education evaluation, Pimenta (2017PIMENTA, Cláudia Oliveira. Avaliações Municipais da Educação Infantil: contribuições para a garantia do direito à educação das crianças brasileiras? 2017. 670 f. Tese (Doutorado em Educação) - Faculdade de Educação da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, 2017.) proposes that evaluation initiatives of this stage must consider, at least, the following characteristics: being comprehensive, comprising distinct focuses and instances to be evaluated and distinct instruments/evaluative procedures; being democratic, counting on distinct subjects in its elaboration, implementation and as source of information; being transparent, in order to be established on legal norms, allowing the public access to the registers of the evaluative process and disseminating its results and actions triggered by the different instances; being consequent, so that to address, analyze, and use the results in the formulation of action and the rendering of accounts.

With a focus on the management of the Early Childhood Education municipal policy, Pinho (2014) indicates as major problems that compromise the quality of supply the context of covenant nursery schools and the reduction of the daily working hours with the children.

Costa Filho (2014COSTA FILHO, João Alfredo Nunes. O Tribunal de Contas do Estado da Paraíba e a avaliação da Gestão Educacional: indicadores de desempenho, análise e perspectivas. 2014. 144 f. (Mestrado Profissional em Gestão em Organizações Aprendentes) - Centro de Educação da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, 2014.) analyzed the evaluation process of the educational management carried through by the Audit Court of the State of Paraíba, evidencing that this Court manages two indicators concerning Early Childhood Education and 1st to 9th grades: the percentage of the taxes received plus the transfers, invested in the maintenance and development of education and the percentage of resources from the und for Fundo de Manutenção e Desenvolvimento da Educação Básica e de Valorização dos Profissionais da Educação [Maintenance and Development of Basic Education and Valorization of Education Professionals] (Fundeb), invested in teacher remuneration. Evidencing the insufficiency of these two indicators for an adequate view of the results of the educational system, the author proposes that it should also be considered the following dimensions: school infrastructure, teachers, income, school quality, enrollment, and access to education.

Emphasizing the importance of the appropriate funding, Klemann (2016KLEMANN, Angela Maria. Educação infantil pública em Santa Catarina: avaliação da qualidade da gestão. Dissertação (Mestrado em Métodos e Gestão em Avaliação) - Centro Tecnológico, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, 2016.) introduces a research instrument that makes it possible the elaboration of a diagnosis of the quality of Early Childhood Education management, indicating the Student Quality Cost (CAQ) as a reference for a quality parameter including all children.

Tayler (2014TAYLER, Collette. Avaliação da qualidade da educação infantil na Austrália. Est. Aval. Educ., São Paulo, v. 25, n. 58, p. 126-150, maio/ago. 2014. Disponível em: https://doi.org/10.18222/eae255820142850. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021.
https://doi.org/10.18222/eae255820142850...
) discusses the Australian document, National Standard Quality for Early Childhood Education, which considers changes in the management of the three dimensions of Early Childhood Education services: structural, procedural and contextual. She registers that the evaluation of services in Australia comprises seven areas: “[…] educational program and practice; children's health and safety; physical environment; personnel; relationship with the children; collaborative partnerships with families and communities; and leadership and services management.” (TAYLER, 2014TAYLER, Collette. Avaliação da qualidade da educação infantil na Austrália. Est. Aval. Educ., São Paulo, v. 25, n. 58, p. 126-150, maio/ago. 2014. Disponível em: https://doi.org/10.18222/eae255820142850. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021.
https://doi.org/10.18222/eae255820142850...
, p. 138, our translation). The author puts in evidence indications from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) relative to Early Childhood Education policies, among which we highlight for the Brazilian context: integrated approaches that assure the cohesion of care, education, health, and support to the families; clear lines of responsibility and collaboration between federal, state and/or local government bodies; universal access to “preschool”; continued monitoring and evaluations of impact and redefinition of the targeting. Strengthening aspects of the experience of the Australian Early Childhood Education evaluation, Pimenta (2018PIMENTA, Cláudia Oliveira. Avaliação da educação infantil na Austrália: contribuições para o Brasil. Est. Aval. Educ., São Paulo, v. 29, n. 70, p. 108-132, jan./abr. 2018. Disponível em: https://doi.org/10.18222/eae.v29i70.5143. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021.
https://doi.org/10.18222/eae.v29i70.5143...
, p. 111, our translation) underlines inputs for the analysis of similar initiatives in Brazil: “[…] the importance of articulation and contribution among federated entities for the implementation of policies aimed to the Early Childhood Education […]”, placing the “[…] Early Childhood Education evaluation as integral to a national policy aimed at early childhood […]”.

Sousa and Pimenta (2016SOUSA, Sandra Zákia; PIMENTA, Cláudia Oliveira. Avaliação da educação infantil: aportes de iniciativas estrangeiras. Est. Aval. Educ., São Paulo, v. 27, n. 65, p. 376-406, maio/ago. 2016. Disponível em:https://doi.org/10.18222/eae.v0ix.3778. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021.
https://doi.org/10.18222/eae.v0ix.3778...
) present a characterization of foreign initiatives of evaluation and accreditment of Early Childhood Education institutions. The authors underline aspects in most of the initiatives: supplies (material, physical infrastructure) and processes (management, interpersonal relations with students and families, curriculum, among others) of the educational institutions. Based on the analysis of studies addressing municipal evaluations, Sousa and Pimenta (2018)SOUSA, Sandra Zákia; PIMENTA, Cláudia Oliveira. Avaliação da educação infantil: aportes de iniciativas estrangeiras. Est. Aval. Educ., São Paulo, v. 27, n. 65, p. 376-406, maio/ago. 2016. Disponível em:https://doi.org/10.18222/eae.v0ix.3778. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021.
https://doi.org/10.18222/eae.v0ix.3778...
observe that they tend to be restricted to the children’s learning, choosing this indicator as an expression of the quality of Early Childhood Education, even though there are registers of cities that comprise in their proposals other aspects, like physical infrastructure, human and material resources, and others.

Garcia, Garrido and Marconi (2017GARCIA, Paulo Sérgio; GARRIDO, Érica Loureiro; MARCONI, Juliana. Um estudo sobre a infraestrutura da educação infantil da Região do Grande ABC Paulista. HOLOS, [S. l.], v. 1, p. 139-154, jul. 2017. Disponível em:https://doi.org/10.15628/holos.2017.5140. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021.
https://doi.org/10.15628/holos.2017.5140...
) analyzed the infrastructure of Early Childhood Education schools and concluded that this dimension is accountable for the legitimation of social inequalities. In the same line, Coutinho and Alves (2019COUTINHO, Ângela; ALVES, Thiago. Desigualdade de acesso à educação infantil: uma análise da meta 1 do PNE na Região Metropolitana de Maringá. Educ. Rev., Curitiba, v. 35, n. 75, p.194-217, 2019. Disponível em: https://doi.org/10.1590/0104-4060.63738. Acesso em: 18 out. 2021.
https://doi.org/10.1590/0104-4060.63738...
) stress that the inadequacy of essential aspects generates inequalities in the access to Early Childhood Education with quality. As indicators for analysis of access, the authors indicate: physical structures, professionals’ appreciation, an appropriate adult-child ratio to make it possible a mediation that favors the development of the children, curricula and evaluation processes in line with the definitions in Law 9394/1996 (BRASIL, 1996) and the Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Infantil [National Curricular Guidelines for Early Childhood Education] (BRASIL, 2009BRASIL. Câmara dos Deputados. Lei nº 10.172, de 9 de janeiro de 2001. Aprova o Plano Nacional de Educação e dá outras providências. Brasília, DF: Câmara dos Deputados, 2001. Disponível em: Disponível em: https://www2.camara.leg.br/legin/fed/lei/2001/lei-10172-9-janeiro-2001-359024-publicacaooriginal-1-pl.html . Acesso em:18 out. 2021.
https://www2.camara.leg.br/legin/fed/lei...
).

In summary, the productions analyzed here indicate the need for evaluation to consider the peculiarities of the stage, the specificities related to the nursery school age group, and a diagnosis of the context, having to develop itself with wide participation, in accord with the constitutional principle of the democratic management, including the feedback of results to the stakeholders and the due consequence in their use.

Aspects and dimensions for analysis of municipal evaluation proposals

When outlining elements to support the analysis of Early Childhood Education policies evaluation proposals, having as references the social right to education, as established in the legal and normative system in Brazil, indications present in studies and research of the field and inputs from the evaluation field, we do not intend to comprise the range of dimensions with potential to mark out such analysis, either due to the extension of aspects that can be considered, or in result of the necessary relation between the evaluative proposal and the guidelines and actions that ground Early Childhood Education policies in each context, besides the very conception of evaluation assumed by the appraisers.

In this article, the focus is to express, in a brief way, elements that we consider that should be the object of analysis in an outline of evaluation intended to promote quality with equity, from suggestions of aspects and dimensions aimed to support, especially, the analysis of the municipal Early Childhood Education evaluation initiatives. For such, we consider appropriate the organization adopted by Ivanete Boschetti (2009BOSCHETTI, Ivanete. Avaliação de Políticas, Programas e Projetos. In: CFESS; ABEPSS(org.). Serviço Social: Direitos Sociais e Competências Profissionais. Brasília: CFESS, 2009. v.1, p. 575-592.) when addressing the evaluation of policies, programs, and social projects, considering three aspects: the configuration and comprehensiveness of rights and benefits; the configuration of funding and expenditures; and the configuration of management processes and participation. With the due adaptation, given the specificity of this paper's intent, we understand that these aspects raised by us refer to structuring elements of the public policy, that unfold in proper dimensions, with the purpose of elucidating some of their main components. Thus, in Picture 2, we have listed aspects and dimensions related to Early Childhood Education evaluation, unfolded in questions pertinent to the conception of education for this stage and evaluation of policies assumed by us.

PICTURE 2
ASPECTS AND DIMENSIONS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF PROPOSALS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION EVALUATION

PICTURE 2
- continuation

PICTURE 2
continuation

PICTURE 2
continuation

Final remarks

Implementing the evaluation of Early Childhood Education within the scope of public policies assumes the construction of an evaluative outline able to contribute with robust information on the access and the conditions provided by the State for its supply. It focuses on the dynamics adopted by the public entity in the achievement of the goals of the education plan, committed with the promotion of the development and learning of all children.

This article aimed to systematize aspects and dimensions to be considered in the analysis of evaluative proposals led, mainly, by Brazilian cities. Having as a goal the indications of the legal framework that support the supply of Early Childhood Education, the results of research and studies on educational evaluation of this stage and inputs of the field of evaluation, we have presented a set of elements that enclose the several facets that shape the right to Early Childhood Education: access, conditions of supply and management, funding, transparency, and social control.

It is acknowledged in the literature the potential of induction of evaluative processes; hence the relevance of translating the right to education of quality for all children up to six years of age in proposals that can inform the commitment of the public administration to make it a reality. Moreover, it is expected that the proposals presented here can collaborate with researchers, professionals, and activists of the field in the dispute for the outlining of the evaluation of Early Childhood Education to be defined by MEC, within the scope of SAEB.

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  • 1
    Translated by Ananyr Porto Fajardo. E-mail: aportofajardo@gmail.com
  • 2
    The notion of meta evaluation was introduced by Scriven (1969), being later approached by several authors from the education field. According to Elliot (2011, p. 943, our translation), it refers to the “verification of quality of evaluation itself”. Usually, this concept is used in the literature to refer to the evaluation that is conducted at the end of an evaluation. However, as indicated by Sttuflebean (2001), the meta evaluation can be formative when conducted along the evaluation process. Inputs on meta evaluation from several authors are explored by Elliot (2011).
  • 3
    Available at: https://st2.ning.com/topology/rest/1.0/file/get/2805319507?profile=original.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    26 Nov 2021
  • Date of issue
    2021

History

  • Received
    03 Dec 2020
  • Accepted
    01 June 2021
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