In the present article we aim to critically analyze the proposal of the school mental hygiene clinics created in the first decades of the 20th century by Durval Marcondes in São Paulo and Arthur Ramos in Rio De Janeiro. The objective of the school clinics was to receive the children deemed as incapable to learn. The study of the respective proposals of intervention in the school by means of mental hygiene and psychoanalysis allowed the identification of the concept of infancy, family and education. As research sources, this investigation used the published intellectual production of the authors. By retrieving the thought and practices of Marcondes and Ramos we can recover the intellectual memory of that historical period especially regarding the fields of history and education.
History of education; Arthur Ramos; Durval Marcondes; Psychoanalysis; Mental hygiene