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Comparing Reliability of FHM and ISA Methods in Assessing Old and Large Dipterocarp Trees Health

Abstract

Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) and International Society of Arboriculture (ISA) methods are used for individual tree health assessment. However, comparing the reliability of both methods in assessing large and old tree health has yet to be evaluated. This study aims to determine reliability of two methods in evaluating the health condition of old (>100 years old) and large Dipterocarp trees in Bogor Botanic Garden (BBG), Indonesia. The parameters observed were growth, morphometry, and tree health of 44 trees. The results showed that, overall, the two methods demonstrated quite similar in assessing the health condition of targeted trees. Visual tree damage domination by conks, fruiting bodies, and other indicators of advanced decay, open wounds, and termite gallery. The average risk rating of three parts of the tree (branches/crown, trunk, roots) is low to moderate. The two approaches could be used simultaneously or separately according to the purpose of the assessment.

Keywords:
Tree health assessment; dipterocarp; heritage trees; Bogor Botanic Garden

1. INTRODUCTION

Bogor Botanic Garden is the oldest and the largest botanic garden in Southeast Asia ( Ariati & Widyatmoko, 2019Ariati SR, Widyatmoko D. Bogor Botanic Gardens. Sibbaldia 2019; 17: 11–28. ), located in Bogor city, West Java, Indonesia. This ex-situ plant conservation area was established over two centuries ago, in 1817, covering an area of almost eighty hectares. In 2022, the number of living plant collections in the botanic garden will reach 11,656, with more than 66% endemic species. Among the living plant collection, there are 5,084 trees, of which 895 are categorized as old and large trees more than 100 years old and more than 100 cm in diameter ( Rachmadiyanto et al., 2021Rachmadiyanto AN, Hariri MR, Primananda E, Suhatman A, Kuswara U. Penilaian kesehatan 12 pohon ikonis dan bernilai sejarah di Kebun Raya Bogor. Buletin Kebun Raya 2021; 24(3): 104–116. ; Registration of Bogor Botanic Gardens, 2022Registration of Bogor Botanic Gardens. Plant Registration Data. Bogor: Bogor Botanic Gardens; 2022. ). Old and large trees in the landscape of the Bogor Botanical Gardens have played essential ecosystem functions. They are the key to recognizing the actual structure of a forest ( Scipioni et al., 2019Scipioni MC, de Paiva Salomão R, Vibrans AC, Uller HF. Decline in giant tree numbers: Status report for Santa Catarina state and perspectives for Brazil. Floresta e Ambiente 2019; 26(4). ).

Old trees can store up to 415 Mg C ha -1 of carbon ( Natalia et al., 2017Natalia D, Arisoesilaningsih E, Hairiah K. Are high carbon stocks in agroforests and forest associated with high plant species diversity?. Agrivita 2017); 39(1): 74–82. ) and absorb more carbon dioxide than young trees from the atmosphere ( Gilhen-Baker et al., 2022Gilhen-Baker M, Roviello V, Beresford-Kroeger D, Roviello GN. Old growth forests and large old trees as critical organisms connecting ecosystems and human health. Environmental Chemistry Letters 2022; 20(2): 1529–1538. ; Luyssaert et al., 2008Luyssaert S, Schulze ED, Börner A, Knohl A, Hessenmöller D, Law, BE et al. Old-growth forests as global carbon sinks. Nature 2008; 455(7210): 213–215. ). Maybe carbon dioxide is stored in the trunks, branches, and leaves, which could help mitigate climate change’s effects ( Gilhen-Baker et al., 2022Gilhen-Baker M, Roviello V, Beresford-Kroeger D, Roviello GN. Old growth forests and large old trees as critical organisms connecting ecosystems and human health. Environmental Chemistry Letters 2022; 20(2): 1529–1538. ; Stecker, 2014 Stecker T. Old trees store more carbon, more quickly, than younger trees. E&E ClimateWire. [cited 2014]. Available from: https://subscriber.politicopro.com/article/eenews/1059993010 .
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). Another ecosystem function of old trees is to control the surrounding microclimate ( Cell Press, 2022 Cell Press. Protecting very old trees can help mitigate climate change. [cited 2022]. Available from: www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2022/10/221019111332.htm .
www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2022/10/22...
; J. Chen et al., 1999Chen J, Saunders SC, Crow TR, Naiman RJ, Brosofske KD, Mroz, GD et al. Microclimate in forest ecosystem and landscape ecology: Variations in local climate can be used to monitor and compare the effects of different management regimes. BioScience 1999; 49(4): 288–297. ; Gilhen-Baker et al., 2022Gilhen-Baker M, Roviello V, Beresford-Kroeger D, Roviello GN. Old growth forests and large old trees as critical organisms connecting ecosystems and human health. Environmental Chemistry Letters 2022; 20(2): 1529–1538. ). Old and large trees also often have unique genetic variations, allowing them to survive in competition with other species and extreme climatic conditions ( Frelich & Reich, 2003Frelich LE, Reich PB. Perspectives on development of definitions and values related to old-growth forests. Environmental Reviews 2003; 11(S1): 9–22. ). Thus, it becomes crucial to maintain and preserve the existence and sustainability of old trees for the future ( Gilhen-Baker et al., 2022Gilhen-Baker M, Roviello V, Beresford-Kroeger D, Roviello GN. Old growth forests and large old trees as critical organisms connecting ecosystems and human health. Environmental Chemistry Letters 2022; 20(2): 1529–1538. ).

One tree family that is predominantly old and large trees in Bogor Botanic Garden is Dipterocarpaceae. There are 67 Dipterocarp trees, consisting of 37 species. The main habitus is always standing upright compared to the surrounding plants. Seeds generally have wings and rotate like a helicopter when they fall from the tree ( Fajri, 2008Fajri M. Pengenalan umum Dipterocarpaceae, kelompok jenis bernilai ekonomi tinggi. Balai Besar Penelitian Dipterocarpa 2008; 2(1); 9–21. ) and have inflorescences with a sweet fragrance ( Smits, 1986Smits WTM. Pedoman sistem cabutan bibit Dipterocarpaceae. Samarinda: Balai Besar Penelitian Dipterocarpa; 1986. ). The tree trunk is cylindrical and mainly buttressed ( Maria et al., 2016Maria KW, Manurung TF, Sisillia L. Identifikasi jenis pohon famili dipterocarpaceae di kawasan arboretum sylva Universitas Tanjungpura Pontianak. Jurnal Hutan Lestari 2016; 4(4): 527–534. ). The Dipterocarp trees can live up to ± 250 years, even 1000 years ( Ashton, 1982Ashton P. Dipterocarpaceae. In: van Steenis-Kruseman J, Cornelis, Gijsbert, Gerrit, editor, Flora Malesiana (9th ed.). Djakarta: Noordhoff-Kolff; 1982. ). In addition, the Dipterocarp trees in Bogor Botanic Garden could be classified as heritage trees (HT) that have a significant ecological role in supporting nutrient cycling, carbon ( H. Y. H. Chen & Luo, 2015Chen HYH, Luo Y. Net aboveground biomass declines of four major forest types with forest ageing and climate change in western Canada’s boreal forests. Global Change Biology 2015; 21(10): 3675–3684. ; Slik et al., 2013Slik JWF, Paoli G, Mcguire K, Amaral I, Barroso J, Bastian, M et al. Large trees drive forest aboveground biomass variation in moist lowland forests across the tropics. Global Ecology and Biogeography 2013; 22(12): 1261–1271. ), microfauna, and epiphytic ( Lindenmayer, 2017Lindenmayer DB. Conserving large old trees as small natural features. Biological Conservation 2017; 211: 51–59. ; van der Hoek et al., 2017van der Hoek Y, Gaona GV, Martin K. The diversity, distribution and conservation status of the tree-cavity-nesting birds of the world. Diversity and Distributions 2017; 23(10): 1120–1131. ). Given their phenotype and ecological roles, it is understandable that Dipterocarp trees have become the attraction and icon of Bogor Botanic Garden. Therefore, their existence should be preserved. Moreover, the existence and the health condition of HT in many countries, such as China ( Huang, Jin, et al., 2020Huang L, Jin C, Zhen M, Zhou L, Qian S, Jim, CY et al. Biogeographic and anthropogenic factors shaping the distribution and species assemblage of heritage trees in China. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2020; 50(126652). ; Huang, Tian, et al., 2020Huang L, Tian L, Zhou L, Jin C, Qian S, Jim, CY et al. Local cultural beliefs and practices promote conservation of large old trees in an ethnic minority region in southwestern China. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2020; 49(126584). ; Jin et al., 2020Jin C, Zheng M, Huang L, Qian S, Jim CY, Lin, D et al. Co-existence between humans and nature: Heritage trees in China’s yangtze River region. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2020; 54(126748). ; H. W. Lin et al., 2020Lin HW, Chuang YC, Liu WY. Assessing the economic value of an iconic urban heritage tree. Forest Policy and Economics 2020; 118(102216). ), Malaysia ( Noor Anira et al., 2016Noor-Anira W, Hassan N, Hassan K, Mat-Nayan N. The morphology of heritage trees in colonial town: Taiping Lake Garden, Perak, Malaysia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 2016; 222: 621–630. ), Australia ( The National Trusts of Australia, 2021 The National Trusts of Australia. Register of significant trees. [cited 2021]. Available from: https://trusttrees.org.au/
https://trusttrees.org.au/...
), the United Kingdom ( Heritage Trees UK, 2018 Heritage Trees UK. Heritage Trees. [cited 2018]. Available from: https://heritagetrees.org.uk .
https://heritagetrees.org.uk...
), Singapore ( Singapore Botanic Gardens, 2001 Singapore Botanic Gardens. Heritage Trees in Singapore Botanic Gardens. [cited 2001]. Available from: https://www.nparks.gov.sg/sbg/our-gardens/heritage-trees .
https://www.nparks.gov.sg/sbg/our-garden...
), Indonesia ( Rachmadiyanto et al., 2022 Rachmadiyanto AN, Setyanti D, Rahmaningtiyas L, Saripudin, Usman, Zuhanto. Asesmen kesehatan pohon pusaka Eucalyptus alba Reinw. ex Blume di Kebun Raya Bogor secara visual dan teknologi tomografi. Buletin Kebun Raya 2022; 25(2): 67–75. ) and several states of the United States are increasingly getting much attention ( American Heritage Trees, 2021 American Heritage Trees. American heritage historical trees. [cited 2021]. Available from: https://americanheritagetrees.org . Access in: August 31, 2023.
https://americanheritagetrees.org...
). Recently, China has published scientific articles related to economic value ( H. W. Lin et al., 2020Lin HW, Chuang YC, Liu WY. Assessing the economic value of an iconic urban heritage tree. Forest Policy and Economics 2020; 118(102216). ), biogeography, distribution ( Huang, Jin, et al., 2020Huang L, Jin C, Zhen M, Zhou L, Qian S, Jim, CY et al. Biogeographic and anthropogenic factors shaping the distribution and species assemblage of heritage trees in China. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2020; 50(126652). ), and the local culture of HT ( Huang, Tian, et al., 2020Huang L, Tian L, Zhou L, Jin C, Qian S, Jim, CY et al. Local cultural beliefs and practices promote conservation of large old trees in an ethnic minority region in southwestern China. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2020; 49(126584). ).

Tree health is a scientific discipline that studies all the factors (biotic and abiotic) that affect the vitality of trees (strength and productivity). These factors are indicated as symptoms and signs of damage to a tree ( Boa, 2003Boa E. An illustrated guide to the state of health of trees, recognition and interpretation. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2003. ). Tree health is likely to be the most crucial issue when trees are near human activities, such as in yards ( Zobrist, 2011 Zobrist KW. Assessing tree health. [cited 2011]. Available from: http://pubs.cahnrs.wsu.edu/publications/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/publications/fs055e.pdf
http://pubs.cahnrs.wsu.edu/publications/...
), urban forests ( Wolf et al., 2020Wolf KL, Lam ST, McKeen JK, Richardson GRA, van den Bosch M, Bardekjian AC. Urban trees and human health: A scoping review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2021; 17(12). ), and tourist sites ( Helmanto et al., 2019Helmanto H, Rachmadiyanto AN, Mujahidin. Identification tree health in the Cimory Riverside natural tourism development area. Proceedings The 3rd SATREPS Conference 2019; 2(1): 84–91. ). Among the various methods for assessing tree health is that of the International Society of Arboriculture (ISA). A non-profit organization developed the ISA method in the State of Illinois, USA, providing a guide/framework on tree health ( International Society of Arboriculture, 2022 International Society of Arboriculture. Who We Are, Our Organization. [cited 2022]. Available from: https://www.isa-arbor.com/Who-We-Are/Our-Organization .
https://www.isa-arbor.com/Who-We-Are/Our...
). The ISA method focuses on assessment targets, tree health, species profile, site factors, and tree defects and conditions affecting the likelihood of failure. A target is a person, property, or activity likely to be injured, damaged, or disturbed by a tree failure within striking distance (target zone) of the part of the tree in question. Tree parts of the assessment objects in the ISA method, namely (a) crown and branches, (b) trunk, and (c) roots and root collar, were observed in determining the likelihood of failure ( International Society of Arboriculture, 2013 International Society of Arboriculture. Basic tree risk assessment form. [cited 2013]. Available from: https://wwv.isa-arbor.com/education/onlineresources/basictreeriskassessmentform .
https://wwv.isa-arbor.com/education/onli...
). Furthermore, it will be entered into the risk categorization matrix to determine the risk rating of these parts and the whole tree ( Rachmadiyanto et al., 2022 Rachmadiyanto AN, Setyanti D, Rahmaningtiyas L, Saripudin, Usman, Zuhanto. Asesmen kesehatan pohon pusaka Eucalyptus alba Reinw. ex Blume di Kebun Raya Bogor secara visual dan teknologi tomografi. Buletin Kebun Raya 2022; 25(2): 67–75. ). Meanwhile, the forest health monitoring (FHM) method assesses the health of trees in forest ecosystems. However, it can be focused on the individual tree level by assessing damage indicators ( Stuckle et al., 2001Stuckle IC, Siregar CA, Supriyanto, Kartana J. Forest health monitoring to monitor the sustainability of Indonesian tropical rain forest (Volume I). Bogor: International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) and Southeast Asian Regional Center for Tropical Biology (SEAMEO BIOTROP); 2001. ).

Only now, many studies have been on the equality of each tree health assessment based on the ISA or FHM methods. This creates confusion for botanical garden employees to choose between the two methods based on their reliability. Various recent research results are based only on one of these methods, such as the use of the FHM method to determine tree health in green open spaces/urban forests ( Abimanyu et al., 2019Abimanyu B, Safe’i R, Hidayat W. Aplikasi metode forest health monitoring dalam penilaian kerusakan pohon di hutan Kota Metro. Jurnal Sylva Lestari 2019; 7(3): 289–298. ; Cumming et al., 2008Cumming AB, Twardus DB, Nowak DJ. Urban forest health monitoring: Large-scale assessments in the United States. Arboriculture and Urban Forestry 2008; 34(6). ; Waruwu et al., 2021Waruwu E, Firdara EK, Octavianus R, Nuwa, Triyadi A. Evaluasi kesehatan pohon menggunakan indikator forest health monitoring pada ruang terbuka hijau Universitas Palangkaraya. Jurnal Hutan Tropika 2021); 16(1): 26–44. ) and botanic gardens ( Rachmadiyanto et al., 2021Rachmadiyanto AN, Hariri MR, Primananda E, Suhatman A, Kuswara U. Penilaian kesehatan 12 pohon ikonis dan bernilai sejarah di Kebun Raya Bogor. Buletin Kebun Raya 2021; 24(3): 104–116. ; Rachmadiyanto & Rinandio, 2019 Rachmadiyanto AN, Rinandio DS. Tree health identification of Intsia spp. on ex-situ conservation. In Setyawan AD, Sugiyarto, Pitoyo A, Widiastuti A, Windarsih G, Supadmi, editor. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Masyarakat Biodiversitas Indonesia 2019; 5:383–389. ; Zulkarnaen et al., 2021Zulkarnaen RN, Wardani FF, Hutabarat PWK, Martiansyah I, Hariri MR. Tree health assessment of lauraceae collections in Bogor Botanic Gardens using forest health monitoring method. Jurnal Sylva Lestari 2021; 9(3): 411–423. ). The ISA method has been widely used to detect tree risk ( Klein et al., 2021Klein RW, Koeser AK, Hauer RJ, Miesbauer JW, Hansen G, Warner, L et al. Assessing the consequences of tree failure. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2021; 65(127307). ; O’Herrin et al., 2020O’Herrin K, Wiseman PE, Day SD, Hauer RJ. Professional identity of urban foresters in the United States. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2020; 54(126741). ). This study aims to determine the reliability of the two methods in evaluating the health condition of old and large Dipterocarp trees grown in Bogor Botanic Garden, Indonesia, and evaluate the simultaneous use of these methods. The results are expected to contribute to the HT dipterocarp’s preservation and maintenance strategy in BBG for future benefits.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1. Research location and targeted trees

The research was conducted in the Bogor Botanic Gardens, with an area of 78.6 ha. It is located around latitude 6 o 35’ 32.7” - 6 o 36’ 14.4” and longitude 106 o 47’ 39.9” - 106 o 48’ 17.4”. The soil texture is dominated by clay, with soil fertility tending to be low to moderate ( Rachmadiyanto et al., 2020Rachmadiyanto AN, Wanda IF, Rinandio DS, Magandhi M. Evaluasi kesuburan tanah pada berbagai tutupan lahan di Kebun Raya Bogor. Buletin Kebun Raya 2020; 23(2): 114–125. ). Sixteen species (44 individual trees) from the dipterocarps family were selected as targeted trees based on the heritage tree (HT) criteria: old age (>100 years) ( Huang, Jin, et al., 2020Huang L, Jin C, Zhen M, Zhou L, Qian S, Jim, CY et al. Biogeographic and anthropogenic factors shaping the distribution and species assemblage of heritage trees in China. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2020; 50(126652). ; Huang, Tian, et al., 2020Huang L, Tian L, Zhou L, Jin C, Qian S, Jim, CY et al. Local cultural beliefs and practices promote conservation of large old trees in an ethnic minority region in southwestern China. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2020; 49(126584). ; Jin et al., 2020Jin C, Zheng M, Huang L, Qian S, Jim CY, Lin, D et al. Co-existence between humans and nature: Heritage trees in China’s yangtze River region. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2020; 54(126748). ; H. W. Lin et al., 2020Lin HW, Chuang YC, Liu WY. Assessing the economic value of an iconic urban heritage tree. Forest Policy and Economics 2020; 118(102216). ), historical, rare, or unique form ( Coates, 2006Coates P. Arboreal immigrants. In: American perceptions of immigrant and invasive species. Riverside: University of California Press; 2006. ; Lai et al., 2019Lai PY, Jim CY, Tang DT, Hong, W. J., & Zhang, H. Spatial differentiation of heritage trees in the rapidly-urbanizing city of Shenzhen, China. Landscape and Urban Planning 2019; 181: 148–156. ; Yaacob et al., 2016Yaacob WNAHWA, Hassan N, Hassan K, Nayan NM. The morphology of heritage trees in colonial town: Taiping Lake Garden, Perak, Malaysia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 2016; 222: 621–630. ). The criteria included live trees, multiple trees as replicates, and the selected tree species.

2.2. Parameter’s measurement

2.2.1. Tree growth and morphometry

Tree morphometry measured included diameter at breast height ( dbh ), height, live crown ratio ( LCR ), mean crown diameter ( DCR ) ( Coombes et al., 2019Coombes A, Martin J, Slater D. Defining the allometry of stem and crown diameter of urban trees. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2019; 44: 126421. ; Pretzsch et al., 2015Pretzsch H, Biber P, Uhl E, Dahlhausen J, Rötzer T, Caldentey, J et al. Crown size and growing space requirement of common tree species in urban centres, parks, and forests. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2015; 14(3): 466–479. ; Velkovski et al., 2017Velkovski N, Andonovski V, Vasilevski K. Research on the development and structure of the crown of old-growth beech trees on Maleshevski mountains. Proceedings of the 5th Congress of the Ecologists of Macedonia, with International Participation; 2017. ), crown projection area ( PCR ) ( Ritter & Nothdurft, 2018Ritter T, Nothdurft A. Automatic assessment of crown projection area on single trees and stand-level, based on three-dimensional point clouds derived from terrestrial laser-scanning. Forests 2018; 9(5). ), and slenderness ( Wang et al., 2011Wang Y, Titus S, LeMay V. Relationships between tree slenderness coefficients and tree or stand characteristics for major species in Boreal Mixedwood Forests. Aspen Bibliography 2011; 28, ). Trunk dbh (1.3 m) was measured using girth tape. Tree height and LCR were measured using a Nikon Forestry Pro tool. Crown length ( HCR ) was measured by tree height ( h ) minus the height of the first live branch. LCR was calculated by dividing the crown’s length by the tree’s height ( LCR = HCR / h ). Parameter DCR was measured using SNDWAY laser digital distance and calculated as the average diameter of the longest ( cl ) and shortest ( cs ) crown with the formula ( DCR = ( cl + cs )/2). Moreover, PCR was calculated by the formula PCR = ( DCR 2 x /4. The formula S = h/dbh calculated Slenderness (S).

2.2.2. Tree health

The measurement of tree health is based on forest health monitoring derived from individual trees. The parameters measured were the location of the damage ( Figure 1 ), the damage type, and the damage severity presented in Table 1 . Location of damage is where signs and symptoms of damage to the tree are found, with priority from the bottom (roots) to the top (bud). Damage type is the signs and symptoms of damage that can be seen visually at each location. At the same time, the severity of the damage is the percentage of signs and symptoms of damage to one type and location of the damage.

The measured data (location, type, and severity) are transformed into values and weights ( Table 2 ), then calculated to determine the value of the damage index ( DI ) ( Nuhamura & Kasno, 2001Nuhamura ST, Kasno. Stem Present status of forest vitality. In Stuckle IC, Siregar CA, Supriyanto, Kartana J, editor. Forest health monitoring to monitor sustainability of Indonesian tropical rain forest. Bogor: International Tropical Timber Organization and Southeast Asian Regional Center for Tropical Biology; 2001. ; Tallent-Halsell, 1994Tallent-Halsell NG. Forest health monitoring-field methods guide. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; 1994. ) using the formula:

Information:

x = value of damage location

y = value of damage type

z = value of damage severity

1,2,3 = damage to i

Figure 1.
Damage location classification ( Nuhamura & Kasno, 2001Nuhamura ST, Kasno. Stem Present status of forest vitality. In Stuckle IC, Siregar CA, Supriyanto, Kartana J, editor. Forest health monitoring to monitor sustainability of Indonesian tropical rain forest. Bogor: International Tropical Timber Organization and Southeast Asian Regional Center for Tropical Biology; 2001. ; Stuckle et al., 2001Stuckle IC, Siregar CA, Supriyanto, Kartana J. Forest health monitoring to monitor the sustainability of Indonesian tropical rain forest (Volume I). Bogor: International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) and Southeast Asian Regional Center for Tropical Biology (SEAMEO BIOTROP); 2001. )

Table 1.
Damage types, descriptions, and thresholds in the order from highest to lowest significance to the tree’s health ( Nuhamura & Kasno, 2001Nuhamura ST, Kasno. Stem Present status of forest vitality. In Stuckle IC, Siregar CA, Supriyanto, Kartana J, editor. Forest health monitoring to monitor sustainability of Indonesian tropical rain forest. Bogor: International Tropical Timber Organization and Southeast Asian Regional Center for Tropical Biology; 2001. ; E. I. Putra, 2021Putra EI. Metode penilaian kesehatan hutan. Bogor: Departemen Silvikultur Fakultas Kehutanan dan Lingkungan, IPB; 2021. ).

Indicators of tree health based on ISA methods include tree defects and conditions affecting the likelihood of failure, written in the ISA basic tree risk assessment form. The tree risk in each measurement section has two components: (1) the likelihood of the tree failing to reach the target, divided into the failure and then associated with the impact ( Table 3 ), and (2) the results of the likelihood matrix are then linked with the consequences of failure to determine the risk rating matrix ( Table 4 ). The result is a risk rating ( RR ), which relates to Table 4 and is converted into weighting.

Table 2.
The weighting of tree damage values ( Herliyana et al., 2022Herliyana EN, Ridwan ARA, Putra EI, Rachmadiyanto AN. Tree health analysis of five families in Bogor Botanical Gardens. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 2022; 959(012018). ; Nuhamura & Kasno, 2001Nuhamura ST, Kasno. Stem Present status of forest vitality. In Stuckle IC, Siregar CA, Supriyanto, Kartana J, editor. Forest health monitoring to monitor sustainability of Indonesian tropical rain forest. Bogor: International Tropical Timber Organization and Southeast Asian Regional Center for Tropical Biology; 2001. ; E. I. Putra, 2021Putra EI. Metode penilaian kesehatan hutan. Bogor: Departemen Silvikultur Fakultas Kehutanan dan Lingkungan, IPB; 2021. ).

Table 3.
Likelihood matrix ( Coelho-Duarte et al., 2021Coelho-Duarte AP, Daniluk-Mosquera G, Gravina V, Vallejos-Barra Ó, Ponce-Donoso M. Tree risk assessment: Component analysis of six visual methods applied in an urban park, Montevideo, Uruguay. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2021; 59: 127005. ; International Society of Arboriculture, 2013 International Society of Arboriculture. Basic tree risk assessment form. [cited 2013]. Available from: https://wwv.isa-arbor.com/education/onlineresources/basictreeriskassessmentform .
https://wwv.isa-arbor.com/education/onli...
).

Table 4.
Risk rating ( RR ) matrix ( Coelho-Duarte et al., 2021Coelho-Duarte AP, Daniluk-Mosquera G, Gravina V, Vallejos-Barra Ó, Ponce-Donoso M. Tree risk assessment: Component analysis of six visual methods applied in an urban park, Montevideo, Uruguay. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2021; 59: 127005. ; International Society of Arboriculture, 2013 International Society of Arboriculture. Basic tree risk assessment form. [cited 2013]. Available from: https://wwv.isa-arbor.com/education/onlineresources/basictreeriskassessmentform .
https://wwv.isa-arbor.com/education/onli...
).

2.2.3. Comparison of forest health monitoring and international society of arboriculture method

The similarity in the assessment between the forest health monitoring method and the International Society of Arboriculture lies in the object of observation in the form of signs of damage observed in the roots, trunk, and crown. The result of FHM in botanic gardens is the tree level index, which states whether the tree is healthy ( Abimanyu et al., 2019Abimanyu B, Safe’i R, Hidayat W. Aplikasi metode forest health monitoring dalam penilaian kerusakan pohon di hutan Kota Metro. Jurnal Sylva Lestari 2019; 7(3): 289–298. ; Helmanto et al., 2019Helmanto H, Rachmadiyanto AN, Mujahidin. Identification tree health in the Cimory Riverside natural tourism development area. Proceedings The 3rd SATREPS Conference 2019; 2(1): 84–91. ). The ISA is a risk rating that calculates the risk to its target and tree part ( International Society of Arboriculture, 2022 International Society of Arboriculture. Who We Are, Our Organization. [cited 2022]. Available from: https://www.isa-arbor.com/Who-We-Are/Our-Organization .
https://www.isa-arbor.com/Who-We-Are/Our...
; Rachmadiyanto et al., 2022 Rachmadiyanto AN, Setyanti D, Rahmaningtiyas L, Saripudin, Usman, Zuhanto. Asesmen kesehatan pohon pusaka Eucalyptus alba Reinw. ex Blume di Kebun Raya Bogor secara visual dan teknologi tomografi. Buletin Kebun Raya 2022; 25(2): 67–75. ). The final recommendation will be the same: our strategy in mitigating tree risks so trees remain sustainable and safe for humans. The risk rating is converted to value to compare the results of the two methods.

2.3. Data analysis

Data were analyzed using basic statistics such as average and standard deviation, which were processed with Microsoft Office Excel for Microsoft. Pearson correlation analysis determines the relationship between the damage index and the number of risk ratings. Categorize correlation values into five levels, namely negligible (0.00–0.10), weak (0.10–0.39), moderate (0.40–0.69), strong (0.70–0.89), and very strong (0.90–1.00) ( Schober et al., 2018Schober P, Boer C, Schwarte L. Correlation coefficients: Appropriate use and interpretation. Anesthesia & Analgesia 2018; 126(1). ). Statistical analyses were done using R 3.4 for Windows.

3. RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS

3.1. Tree growth and morphometry

The average growth and morphometric characteristics of the Dipterocarp Heritage trees ( DHT ) are presented in Table 5 . The average tree age was 109 years, with Shorea leprosula Miq. being the oldest tree (156 years), the youngest is Hopea sangal Korth. (101 years). Diameter at breast height ( dbh ) ranged from 57.0-194.7 cm with an average of 99.2 ± 22.1 cm, and height ranged from 22.4-44.5 m with an average of 34.4 ± 6,1 m. Dbh and tree height indicate that each DHT species has relatively uniform height characteristics but varied dbh . The dipterocarp family in East Kalimantan, Indonesia’s forests, can grow to 76 m and dbh up to 222.8 cm ( Yamakura et al., 1986Yamakura T, Hagihara A, Sukardjo S, Ogawa H. Tree size in a mature dipterocarp forest stand in Sebulu, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Southeast Asian Studies 1986; 23(4): 452–478. ).

Furthermore, the average live crown ratio ( LCR ) is 57.6% (± 13.3), so it is included in the category of high tree vigor (>50%) ( Nandika et al., 2020Nandika D, Kusuma H, Kusumawardhani DT, Rumiyati E, Tata, Karlinasari, L et al. Health asessment of large and old trees in Ragunan Zoo, Jakarta. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 2020; 935(012072): 1–13. ). LCR indicates that DHT has high strength in fair competition with surrounding trees ( Karlinasari et al., 2021 Karlinasari L, Adzkia U, Puspitasari T, Nandika D, Nugroho N, Syafitri, U et al. Tree morphometric relationships and dynamic elasticity properties in tropical rain tree (Samanea saman jacq. merr). Forests 2021; 12(12): 1–11. ). The high LCR also shows a higher photosynthetic capacity so trees can grow better, which is essential for their defense strategies ( Zhao et al., 2012Zhao D, Kane M, Borders B. Crown Ratio and Relative Spacing Relationships for Loblolly Pine Plantations. Open Journal of Forest Research 2012; 2: 107–112. ). Thus, LCR can be one of the essential variables in tree health assessment ( Karlinasari et al., 2021 Karlinasari L, Adzkia U, Puspitasari T, Nandika D, Nugroho N, Syafitri, U et al. Tree morphometric relationships and dynamic elasticity properties in tropical rain tree (Samanea saman jacq. merr). Forests 2021; 12(12): 1–11. ). The mean crown diameter ( DCR ) was 16.7 ± 3.8 m with a crown projection area ( PCR ) of 260.1 ± 109.3 m 2 . The PCR of each tree can exceed hundreds of square meters and indicates a tree’s coverage in its growing area. The PCR values ​​for DHT varied from 61.7 to 672.5 m 2 , even at relatively uniform tree age (101-123 years). The PCR value is not directly proportional to the tree’s age. PCR values ​​are thought to be determined not only by age but also by the size of the aperture, which affects light distribution received by a tree ( Karlinasari et al., 2021 Karlinasari L, Adzkia U, Puspitasari T, Nandika D, Nugroho N, Syafitri, U et al. Tree morphometric relationships and dynamic elasticity properties in tropical rain tree (Samanea saman jacq. merr). Forests 2021; 12(12): 1–11. ). Furthermore, the slenderness of the DHT ranged from 21.7 to 76.0, with an average of 41.0 ± 10.9. This slenderness value can be categorized as low ( Ige, 2017 Ige P. (2017). Relationship between tree slenderness coefficient and tree or stand growth characteristics for Triplochiton scleroxylon K.Schum stands in Oniganbari forest reserve, Nigeria. Journal of Forestry Research Management 2017; 14(2): 166–180. ), meaning slender trees have a higher failure rate ( Kontogianni et al., 2011Kontogianni A, Tsitsoni T, Goudelis G. An index based on silvicultural knowledge for tree stability assessment and improved ecological function in urban ecosystems. Ecological Engineering 2011; 37(6): 914–919. ). In addition, the greater the DHT, the greater the impact on the target ( Horacek, 2003Horacek P. Introduction to the tree statics & static assessment. Presentation. Proc. Workshop; 2003. ; Popa, 2000Popa I. The analysis of tree stability at the wind action by uniform couples method. Bucovina Forestiera 2000; 1–2: 21–31. ).

Table 5.
Morphometry characteristic.

3.2. Tree Health

Locations of damage in Dipterocarp heritage trees (DHT) were found from roots to branches. The lower and upper boles dominated the location of damage (35.3%) and were followed by the crown stem (29.4%) ( Figure 2 ). No damage was found to the location of the DTH tree’s leaves and buds/shoots, so it has high vigor. As with urban trees, healthy leaves indicate a healthy tree condition ( Petrova et al., 2014Petrova S, Yurukova L, Velcheva I. Assessment of the urban trees health status on the base of nutrient and pigment content in their leaves. Journal of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology 2014; 3(1): 69–77. ). The state of tree vigor and health can also be characterized by changes in morphological characteristics, especially in urban forests ( Cisneros et al., 2019Cisneros AB, Moglia JG, Álvarez JA. Morphometry of crown in prosopis alba griseb. Ciencia Florestal 2019; 29(2): 863–884. ; Musio et al., 2007Musio M, Von Wilpert K, Augustin NH. Crown condition as a function of soil, site and tree characteristics. European Journal of Forest Research 2007; 126(1): 91–100. ; Núñez-Florez et al., 2019Núñez-Florez R, Pérez-Gómez U, Fernández-Méndez F. Functional diversity criteria for selecting urban trees. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 2019; 38: 251–266. ).

Three types of damage dominate the DHT: a) conks, fruiting bodies, and other indicators of advanced decay; b) open wounds; c) termite gallery. All of this damage is found chiefly on the main trunk. A similar study by Rachmadiyanto & Rinandio (2019) Rachmadiyanto AN, Rinandio DS. Tree health identification of Intsia spp. on ex-situ conservation. In Setyawan AD, Sugiyarto, Pitoyo A, Widiastuti A, Windarsih G, Supadmi, editor. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Masyarakat Biodiversitas Indonesia 2019; 5:383–389. at the Bogor Botanic Gardens (BBG) revealed that damages in Intsia bijuga were dominated by open wounds and the presence of termites. Open wounds caused by lawnmowers and vandalism make it easier for wood rot fungi to infect the tree ( Núñez-Florez et al., 2019Núñez-Florez R, Pérez-Gómez U, Fernández-Méndez F. Functional diversity criteria for selecting urban trees. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 2019; 38: 251–266. ). Open wounds can also make it easier for organisms to move more quickly into the plant-carrying pathogen spores, ultimately causing wood rot ( Fernández-Fernández et al., 2019Fernández-Fernández M, Naves P, Witzell J, Musolin DL, Selikhovkin AV, Paraschiv, M et al. Pine pitch canker and insects: Relationships and implications for disease spread in Europe. Forests 2019; 10(8): 1–23. ; Hickman et al., 2011Hickman GW, Perry EJ, Dreistadt SH, Clark JK, Flint ML. Wood decay fungi in landscape trees. Davis: UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program; 2011. ). Ultimately, the decay fungus destroys cell wall components, including cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, that make up the woody portion of a tree ( Hickman et al., 2011Hickman GW, Perry EJ, Dreistadt SH, Clark JK, Flint ML. Wood decay fungi in landscape trees. Davis: UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program; 2011. ). Decaying can lead to decreased absorption of plant water and nutrients ( Sumardi & Widyastuti, 2007Sumardi, Widyastuti S. Dasar-dasar perlindungan hutan (2nd ed.). Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press; 2007. ), internal damage, and increased risk of hazards ( Hanum et al., 2020 Hanum SF, Iryadi R, Rahayu A, Bangun TM, Darma IDP, Sutomo. Wood decay diagnostic of Joannesia princeps Vellozo at Bali Botanical Garden using arborsonic acoustic 3D tomograph. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 2020); 935(012069). ). The conks and fruiting bodies suggest that the main stem has been damaged. The second damage is the discovery of a termite gallery, which reaches 25%. The termites indicate that the wood has experienced decay ( Zanne et al., 2022Zanne AE, Flores-Moreno H, Powell JR, Cornwell WK, Dalling JW, Austin, AT et al. Termite sensitivity to temperature affects global wood decay rates. Science 2022; 377(6613). ). Wood decay harms trees because the trunk can no longer support itself. It increases the risk of falling if stressed by wind, heavy rain, or other conditions ( Hickman et al., 2011Hickman GW, Perry EJ, Dreistadt SH, Clark JK, Flint ML. Wood decay fungi in landscape trees. Davis: UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program; 2011. ). Falling trees can cause economic losses in urban forest landscapes ( Bari et al., 2021Bari E, Karimi K, Aghajani H, Schmidt O, Zaheri S, Tajick-Ghanbary, MA et al. Characterizations of tree-decay fungi by molecular and morphological investigationsin aniranian alamdardeh forest. Maderas: Ciencia y Tecnologia 2021; 23(33):1–24. ; Kalleshwaraswamy et al., 2022Kalleshwaraswamy CM, Shanbhag RR, Sundararaj R. Wood degradation by termites: Ecology, economics and protection. In: Sundararaj R, editor. Science of wood degradation and its protection; Singapore: Springer; 2022. ). From the indicators, there is no doubt that there is decay so that tomography could estimate its extent ( Durlak et al., 2017Durlak W, Dudkiewicz M, Pudelska K, Dąbski M. Using PiCUS® sonic tomograph to assess the health state of trees of monumental sizes. Teka Komisji Architektury 2017;13(2): 73–82. ; Hanum et al., 2020 Hanum SF, Iryadi R, Rahayu A, Bangun TM, Darma IDP, Sutomo. Wood decay diagnostic of Joannesia princeps Vellozo at Bali Botanical Garden using arborsonic acoustic 3D tomograph. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 2020); 935(012069). ; C. J. Lin et al., 2008Lin CJ, Kao YC, Lin TT, Tsai MJ, Wang SY, Lin, LD et al. Application of an ultrasonic tomographic technique for detecting defects in standing trees. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 2008, 62(4): 434–441. ; Rachmadiyanto et al., 2022 Rachmadiyanto AN, Setyanti D, Rahmaningtiyas L, Saripudin, Usman, Zuhanto. Asesmen kesehatan pohon pusaka Eucalyptus alba Reinw. ex Blume di Kebun Raya Bogor secara visual dan teknologi tomografi. Buletin Kebun Raya 2022; 25(2): 67–75. ).

Figure 2.
Damage location and damage descriptions.

Regarding the description of the target, it was identified BBG employees, visitors, plant collection, and infrastructure (roads, sanitation channels). Damage to branches and crowns was found in only two trees, Shorea multiflora and Vatica teysmanniana . The average likelihood of failure on a DHT crown is possible, the impact is low, the possibility is unlikely, the consequences are negligible, and the risk rating is low. The average likelihood of failure in DHT trunks is improbable to probable, the impact is low to medium, the possibility is unlikely to somewhat likely, the consequences vary from negligible to significant, and the risk rating is low to moderate. No (or in a few trees) damage to tree roots was found, so the risk rating was low.

The average of the three parts of the tree (branches/crown, trunk, roots) has a low to moderate risk rating, meaning that mitigation measures do not need to be taken immediately and can be recommended to maintain and monitor progress ( Smiley et al., 2012 Smiley E, Matheny N, Lilly S. Qualitative Tree Risk Assessment. [cited 2012]. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/302508127_Qualitative_Tree_Risk_Assessment .
https://www.researchgate.net/publication...
). Mitigation measures for cutting down trees are also not recommended in the risk category like this because the potential damage from the impact of falling trees is relatively low ( Klein et al., 2019Klein RW, Koeser AK, Hauer RJ, Hansen G, Escobedo FJ. Risk assessment and risk perception of trees: A review of literature relating to arboriculture and urban forestry. Arboriculture and Urban Forestry 2019; 45(1): 26–38 ). However, one Shorea multiflora tree has a high-risk rating due to the root collar’s termite nests and open wounds.

3.3. Comparison tree level index and risk rating

The tree-level index and risk rating value are presented in Table 6 .

The results of calculating the health index value (HIV) and risk rating value (RRV) show that three tree species need to be watched compared to others, namely Shorea balangeran , S. guiso , and S. multiflora . All three have HIV values categorized as having mild damage ( Rachmadiyanto & Rinandio, 2019 Rachmadiyanto AN, Rinandio DS. Tree health identification of Intsia spp. on ex-situ conservation. In Setyawan AD, Sugiyarto, Pitoyo A, Widiastuti A, Windarsih G, Supadmi, editor. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Masyarakat Biodiversitas Indonesia 2019; 5:383–389. ). However, if not treated further, it is feared that this will increase to moderate damage. The same thing was also produced in measurements using the ISA method, which showed that S. guiso and S. multiflora had the highest risk rating. The risk rating value indicates that the tree poses a danger to surrounding targets, such as humans, trees, roads, and buildings.

Table 6.
Comparison of tree level index and risk rating.

The index correlation between the tree level index (FHM) and risk rating (ISA) resulted in a positive and very strong (0.93). So, the recommendation is that both methods are reliable for use simultaneously or separately. Only if we want to assess tree health in detail can we use the FHM method. Although FHM is used to determine forest ecosystem health, such as site quality, tree vitality, productivity, and biodiversity ( E. I. Putra et al., 2010Putra EI, Supriyanto, Purnomo H. Metode penilaian kesehatan hutan alam produksi berbasis indikator ekologis. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Kontribusi Litbang Dalam Pening-Katan Produktivitas Dan Kelestarian Hutan 2010; 89–94. ; I. E. Putra, 2004Putra IE. Pengembangan metode penilaian kesehatan hutan alam produksi. Bogor: Institut Pertanian Bogor; 2004. ; Putri et al., 2016 Putri KP, Supriyanto, Syaufina L. Penilaian kesehatan sumber benih Shorea spp. di KHDTK Haurbentes dengan metoda forest health monitoring. Jurnal Penelitian Hutan Tanaman 2016; 13(1): 37–48. ), we can use it at the scale of individual trees ( Herliyana et al., 2022Herliyana EN, Ridwan ARA, Putra EI, Rachmadiyanto AN. Tree health analysis of five families in Bogor Botanical Gardens. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 2022; 959(012018). ; Rachmadiyanto et al., 2021Rachmadiyanto AN, Hariri MR, Primananda E, Suhatman A, Kuswara U. Penilaian kesehatan 12 pohon ikonis dan bernilai sejarah di Kebun Raya Bogor. Buletin Kebun Raya 2021; 24(3): 104–116. ; Rachmadiyanto & Rinandio, 2019 Rachmadiyanto AN, Rinandio DS. Tree health identification of Intsia spp. on ex-situ conservation. In Setyawan AD, Sugiyarto, Pitoyo A, Widiastuti A, Windarsih G, Supadmi, editor. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Masyarakat Biodiversitas Indonesia 2019; 5:383–389. ). We can see the health of individual trees from the location of the roots to the tips of the leaves and see the type of damage and severity. The results of the health measurements will be calculated and produce a tree health classification, namely healthy, experiencing light, moderate, or even severe damage ( E. I. Putra, 2021Putra EI. Metode penilaian kesehatan hutan. Bogor: Departemen Silvikultur Fakultas Kehutanan dan Lingkungan, IPB; 2021. ; E. I. Putra et al., 2010Putra EI, Supriyanto, Purnomo H. Metode penilaian kesehatan hutan alam produksi berbasis indikator ekologis. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Kontribusi Litbang Dalam Pening-Katan Produktivitas Dan Kelestarian Hutan 2010; 89–94. ). His method is easy to do, but we need to pay attention to the characteristics of the damage types so that they can easily differentiate one from another.

However, if we want to know the level of danger of a tree to the target (humans, buildings, surrounding trees), we can use the ISA method. This method is based on the results of our visual observations based on a reference form ( International Society of Arboriculture, 2013 International Society of Arboriculture. Basic tree risk assessment form. [cited 2013]. Available from: https://wwv.isa-arbor.com/education/onlineresources/basictreeriskassessmentform .
https://wwv.isa-arbor.com/education/onli...
). Generally, this method is used by city managers for assessment of the risk condition of the urban tree, which is relevant for society, aiming to determine risks and their management impacts ( Calaza & Iglesias-Díaz, 2016Calaza P, Iglesias-Díaz M. El riesgo del arbolado urbano, contexto, concepto y evaluación. Madrid: Mundi-Pprensa; 2016. ). We must remember that no tree is risk-free because all trees carry risk ( Coder, 2013Coder KD. Tree risk & hazard assessment concepts. Georgia: University of Georgia Warnell School of Forestry & Natural Resources; 2013. ; Pokorny, 1992Pokorny JD. Urban tree risk management: A community guide to program design and implementation. Folwell : USDA Forest Service; 2003. ). Some situations allow the risk of a tree to be accepted and managed. In contrast, others require treatment to reduce risks, such as pruning or felling ( Coder, 2013Coder KD. Tree risk & hazard assessment concepts. Georgia: University of Georgia Warnell School of Forestry & Natural Resources; 2013. ). The final recommendations can serve as a basis for evaluating tree structure based on management practices, particularly pruning ( Coelho-Duarte et al., 2021Coelho-Duarte AP, Daniluk-Mosquera G, Gravina V, Vallejos-Barra Ó, Ponce-Donoso M. Tree risk assessment: Component analysis of six visual methods applied in an urban park, Montevideo, Uruguay. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2021; 59: 127005. ).

4. CONCLUSION

Dipterocarp heritage trees (DHT) growing in Bogor Botanic Gardens have high vigor but low slenderness, so the trees have a lower failure rate. The lower the slenderness, the lower the probability of failure if this variable alone is considered without the combined influence of other defects. The damage detected was predominantly in the trunk to the crown stem. The most frequent types of DHT damage were indicators of advanced decay, open wounds, and termite galleries. From the indicators, there is no doubt that there is wood decay so tomography could estimate its extent. The results of the correlation analysis show that the assessment of tree health using the forest health monitoring method with the International Society of Arboriculture has a very strong relationship. The two methods can be used together or separately according to the purpose of the assessment (tree level index or risk rating) in Botanic gardens.

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Edited by

Associate editor: Bruno Mendonça https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0288-0024

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    08 Mar 2024
  • Date of issue
    2024

History

  • Received
    15 June 2023
  • Accepted
    18 Jan 2024
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