Floresta e Ambiente, Volume: 26, Issue: 4, Published: 2019
  • Additive and Non-additive Biomass Equations for Black Wattle Original Article

    Behling, Alexandre; Péllico, Sylvio; Sanquetta, Carlos Roberto; Corte, Ana Paula Dalla; Simon, Augusto Arlindo; Rodrigues, Aurélio Lourenço; Caron, Braulio Otomar

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Os objetivos desse trabalho foram propor equações aditivas de biomassa dos componentes (fuste e copa) com a biomassa total para a espécie acácia negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) e demonstrar a inconsistência de equações de biomassa ajustadas independentemente. Dois procedimentos foram utilizados para ajustar equações não lineares de biomassa: i) independente e ii) sistemas de equações. O segundo procedimento, definido pela aplicação do modelo de regressão aparentemente não relacionada, apresenta melhores propriedades biológicas e estatísticas para estimar equações alométricas de biomassa dos componentes e biomassa total, quando comparado com a estimação independente. Uma propriedade efetiva desse procedimento é a aditividade, isto é, as estimativas de biomassa dos componentes são compatíveis com as de biomassa total. As equações ajustadas independentes não consideram a dependência entre os componentes de biomassa, assim, além das estimativas não serem aditivas, propriedade indesejável, resultarão em estimativas com maior variância.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objectives of this work were to propose additive equations for biomass components (stem and crown) and total biomass for black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) and show the inconsistency of independently adjusted biomass equations. Two procedures were used to fit nonlinear equations of biomass: i) independent and ii) systems of equations. The second procedure, defined by the application of the seemingly unrelated regression model, has better biological and statistical properties to estimate allometric equations of biomass components and total biomass when compared with the independent estimation. An effective property of this procedure is the additivity, i.e., the estimates of component biomass are compatible with those of total biomass. Independent fitted adjusted equations do not consider the dependence between the biomass components, thus, besides the estimates being non-additive, which is an undesirable property, they will result in estimates with larger variance.
  • Small-scale Management of Secondary Forests in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Original Article

    Fantini, Alfredo Celso; Schuch, Cristiano; Siminski, Alexandre; Siddique, Ilyas

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Sustainable management of tropical and subtropical secondary forests for multiple purposes, including timber, may encourage farmers to promote regeneration of native forest. We studied the population structures and commercial timber production in two adjacent 33 years-old Brazilian Atlantic Forest stands: a 26 ha forest managed through enrichment with three fast-growing commercial timber species, and a 10 ha naturally regenerated unmanaged forest. The tree species presented basal area of 26.9 m2 ha–1 and 23.8 m2 ha–1 in the enriched and the unmanaged forest, respectively. Timber volume (DBH ≥ 15 cm) in the enriched forest was 104 m3 ha–1 (3.7 m3 ha–1 year–1 rate of increment), 67% of which from the species planted in the enrichment process. The unmanaged forest presented 78.4 m3 ha–1 of timber (2.4 m3 ha–1 year–1 rate of increment) (45% from the planted species). Timber volumes and DBH distributions of both stands suggest that selective harvesting could produce valuable timber now, while stimulating growth of the next cycle.
  • Nanostructured Films Produced from the Bleached Pinus sp. Kraft Pulp Original Article

    Viana, Lívia Cássia; Muñiz, Graciela Ines Bolzon de; Magalhães, Washington Luiz Esteves; Andrade, Alan Sulato de; Nisgoski, Silvana; Potulski, Daniele Cristina

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Este trabalho investiga as propriedades físicas e mecânicas de filmes nanoestruturados produzidos a partir da polpa kraft branqueada de Pinus sp. Para obter a nanocelulose, a polpa kraft branqueada foi submetida a seis diferentes intensidades de desfibrilação pelo moinho: dois, cinco, dez, 20, 30 e 40 passes. A influência do número de passes foi avaliada por meio das propriedades físicas e mecânicas dos filmes. Os resultados indicam que a presença de nanofibrilas reduziu a espessura e aumentou consideravelmente os valores de densidade dos filmes fabricados. Observou-se aumento da resistência à tração de 300% e o índice de ruptura foi dez vezes maior em relação aos papéis normais. A estrutura mais compacta e a menor porosidade causada pela maior superfície de contato entre as nanofibrilas nos filmes resultaram em maiores valores de densidade, resistência à tração e resistência à ruptura.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study investigates the physical and mechanical properties of nanostructured films produced from Pinus sp. kraft pulp. To obtain the nanocellulose, the bleached kraft pulp was submitted to six different grinding regimes: two, five, ten, 20, 30, and 40 passes through the grinder. The influence of the number of passes was evaluated through the films’ physical and mechanical properties. The results show that the nanofibers reduced the thickness and considerably increased the density values of the fabricated films. The tensile strength increased more than 300% and the burst index was ten times higher in relation to normal papers. The more compact structure and lower porosity caused by the larger contact surface between nanofibers in the nanostructured films resulted in higher values of density, tensile strength, and burst resistance.
  • Crown Area as a Parameter for Biomass Estimation of Croton sonderianus Müll. Arg. Original Article

    Dombroski, Jeferson Luiz Dallabona; Pinto, José Rivanildo de Souza

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO As técnicas modernas para estimar biomassa arbórea geralmente usam dados de sensoriamento remoto e modelos alométricos para validação, que relacionam parâmetros não destrutivos com a biomassa da planta, normalmente empregando diâmetro basal ou diâmetro à altura do peito e altura da planta. No bioma Caatinga, muitas plantas apresentam múltiplas ramificações, o que dificulta a medição do seu diâmetro, e ramos perdidos, de difícil correção. Assim, são necessários modelos adequados para plantas da Caatinga, além de estudos sobre a possibilidade de uso de outros parâmetros. Para este estudo, foram mensurados diâmetro basal de plantas e ramos, altura das plantas e área da copa de indivíduos de Croton sonderianus, e plantas foram coletadas e pesadas. Vários modelos clássicos e variações foram testados. Os melhores modelos foram variações de Naslund (R2 = 0,92; rmse = 1.221) e Schumacher & Hall (R2 = 0,92; rmse = 1.217). Altura das plantas e área da copa permitem estimar melhor a biomassa do que diâmetro basal de plantas ou ramos.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Current tree biomass estimation techniques generally use remote sensing data and allometric models for validation, which relate non-destructive parameters to plant biomass, usually employing diameter at the plant base or breast height and plant height. In the Caatinga Biome, many plants present multiple stems, thus making it difficult to measure the plant diameter, and lost branches, which are difficult to correct for. Hence, there is a need for suitable models for Caatinga plants, as well as studies on the possibility of using other parameters. For this study, plant and branch basal diameter, plant height, and crown area of Croton sonderianus plants were measured, and plants were also collected and weighed. Several classic models and their variations were tested. The best models were variations of Naslund (R2 = 0.92; rmse = 1,221) and Schumacher & Hall (R2 = 0.92; rmse = 1,217). Plant height and crown area enables a better biomass estimation than using plant or branch basal diameter.
  • Competition Indexes to Evaluate Tree Growth in a Semi-Deciduous Seasonal Forest Original Article

    Lustosa, Ilvan Medeiros; Castro, Renato Vinícius Oliveira; Gaspar, Ricardo de Oliveira; Araújo, Juliana Baldan Costa Neves; Aquino, Fabiana de Gois

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO A maioria dos estudos que analisa o comportamento da competição arbórea é voltada para plantios homogêneos e equiâneos. Nota-se, portanto, uma carência de informações deste tipo em florestas naturais de elevada biodiversidade. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a competição em um fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, por grupo ecológico, grupos demandantes e não demandantes de luz para todas as espécies amostradas no fragmento. Foram empregados índices de competição independentes da distância e semidependentes da distância. O índice BAL (basal area in larger trees), sem raio de influência, obteve o melhor desempenho para analisar como a competição afeta o crescimento dos indivíduos no fragmento estudado. Concluiu-se que avaliar a competição por grupo ecológico é mais eficaz, e os resultados confirmam que a competição florestal não pode ser determinada apenas pela aplicação de um raio fixo de influência dos vizinhos em relação à árvore-objeto.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Most of the studies that analyze the behavior of tree competition approach even-aged plantations. Therefore, it is possible to notice a lack of this kind of information regarding natural forests with high biodiversity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the competition in a fragment of Semi-Deciduous Seasonal Forest, according to the ecologic group, light depending and non-depending groups for all species sampled in the fragment. The Distance Independent Competition Index and Semi-Distance Independent Competition Index were applied in this study. The basal area in larger trees index, without the radius of influence, was the most efficient to analyze how the competition affects the growth of the specimens in the studied fragment. It was stated that evaluating the competition per ecologic group is more efficient. The results confirm that the forest competition cannot be determined by considering only a fixed radius of influence that embraces the neighbors and the subject tree.
  • Correlations between Eucalyptus Clonal Cutting Quality and Performance after Planting Original Article

    Figueiredo, Fábio Afonso Mazzei Moura de Assis; Carneiro, José Geraldo Araújo; Penchel, Ricardo Miguel; Thiebaut, José Tarcísio Lima; Abad, Jupiter Israel Muro; Barroso, Deborah Guerra; Ferraz, Tiago Massi

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Este estudo avaliou as correlações de diferentes características de mudas, no viveiro, de três clones híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla e o crescimento em altura após o plantio. A característica que apresentou maior correlação com o crescimento inicial foi a relação entre o comprimento da copa e a altura da muda. Aos 12 e 24 meses no campo, o diâmetro do caule foi mais importante. Os parâmetros avaliados no viveiro que se correlacionaram positivamente com o crescimento no campo aos três e seis meses após o plantio foram altura, número de pares de folhas, número de deformações radiculares e comprimento de torrão. Aos 12 e 24 meses os parâmetros que se correlacionaram negativamente foram diâmetro, número de pares de folhas e número de deformações radiculares. Apesar de apresentar correlação significativa, as deformações das raízes não interferiram no crescimento inicial das plantas sob condições de alta pluviosidade, mas os efeitos se tornaram prejudiciais ao longo do tempo, resultando em uma redução no crescimento das plantas.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study assessed correlations of different characteristics of cuttings in the nursery of three hybrid clones of Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla and growth in height after planting. The characteristic that presented greatest correlation with the initial growth was the canopy height and cutting height ratio. At 12 and 24 months in the field, the stem diameter was more important. The parameters assessed in the nursery that correlated positively with growth in the field at three and six months after planting were height, number of leaf pairs, number of root deformations and clod length. At 12 and 24 months the parameters that correlated negatively were diameter, number of leaf pairs and the number of root deformations. Despite presenting significant correlation, root deformations did not interfere in the initial growth of the plants under high rainfall conditions, but the effects became harmful over time resulting in a reduction in plant growth.
  • Biological Control of Ceratocystis fimbriata by Bacillus subtilis on Acacia mearnsii Seedlings Original Article

    Mezzomo, Ricardo; Piveta, Graziela; Lazarotto, Marília; Walker, Clair; Maciel, Caciara Gonzatto; Muniz, Marlove Fátima; Araujo, Maristela Machado

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de isolados de Ceratocystis fimbriata obtidos de kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) em mudas de acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.), o potencial de biocontrole in vitro de Bacillus subtilis sobre C. fimbriata e o comportamento in vivo de B. subtilis contra C. fimbriata em mudas de acácia-negra. Isolados de C. fimbriata obtidos e identificados em plantios de kiwi foram utilizados em testes de patogenicidade em mudas de A. mearnsii. O potencial antagônico in vitro de B. subtilis sobre o patógeno foi analisado em testes de confrontação direta. Para avaliar o comportamento in vivo de B. subtilis, as mudas de acácia-negra foram inoculadas com Rizolyptus® sete dias antes e após a inoculação do patógeno. Nas mudas de acácia-negra os isolados de C. fimbriata exibiram percentuais de severidade que variam de 44,15% a 100%. Nos testes de confrontação direta as cepas mostraram-se eficientes no biocontrole in vitro sobre os isolados de C. fimbriata. In vivo, o produto Rizolyptus® não foi eficiente no controle de C. fimbriata.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Ceratocystis fimbriata isolates, obtained from Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit), on black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) seedlings, the potential biological control exerted in vitro by Bacillus subtilis on C. fimbriata, and the in vivo effect of B. subtilis against C. fimbriata on black wattle seedlings. Isolates of C. fimbriata obtained and identified from kiwi plantations were used in pathogenicity tests on A. mearnsii seedlings. In vitro, the antagonistic potential of B. subtilis on the pathogen was analyzed by direct confrontation tests. To evaluate the effect of B. subtilis in vivo, black wattle seedlings were inoculated with Rhizolyptus® seven days before and after pathogen inoculation. On black wattle seedlings, C. fimbriata isolates caused 44,15% to 100% severity. Direct confrontation tests revealed that the strains were effective in the biological control of C. fimbriata isolates in vitro. In vivo, Rizolyptus® was not efficient in controlling C. fimbriata.
  • Influence of Edaphic Attributes on the Distribution of Tree Species in a Riparian Forest in Southern Brazil Original Article

    Kelling, Mônica Brucker; Araujo, Maristela Machado; Rorato, Daniele Guarienti

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study aims at identifying the formation of clusters and to evaluate the influence of chemical attributes in the soil on the groups and species in a riparian forest fragment in Campos de Cima da Serra, Rio Grande do Sul (RS). Thirteen plots (10 × 20 m) were demarcated to carry out the study. Forest inventory data were employed in a multivariate analysis using the Twinspan method and the correlation between vegetation data and chemical characterization of the soil was carried out by Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). Thirty-one species were sampled (DBH ≥ 30 cm) and two floristic groups were identified. The results indicated a structural difference between the two environments, likely due to the steeper slope and less influence of groundwater. Variables such as sulfur, calcium and organic matter were explanatory of the vegetation grouping known as riparian forest of hillside and aluminum, aluminum saturation and copper of riparian forest with flat topography.
  • Floristic Differentiation of a Deciduous Seasonal Forest Tree Stratum, Jaguari, RS, Brazil Original Article

    Andrzejewski, Camila; Callegaro, Rafael Marian; Longhi, Solon Jonas; Biali, Leonardo Job

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study aims at determining and differentiating the floristic groups of a Deciduous Seasonal Forest’s arboreal component, located on the ridge of the Southern Plateau, in Southern Brazil. Individuals with diameter at breast height ≥ 5.0 cm were sampled in sixty-two plots measuring 10 m × 10 m, which were systematically installed in the forest. Three floristic groups were found: Middle Stage, including 54 species, with Casearia sylvestris as an indicator species; Advanced Stage, with 38 species and Pilocarpus pennatifolius as the indicator species; and Altered Forest, with 27 species and Apuleia leiocarpa, Helietta apiculata, and Machaerium paraguariense as indicator species. A higher proportion of climax light-demanding individuals was reported in the Middle Stage and Altered Forest groups, contrasting with the Advanced Stage group, in which climax shade-tolerant species were predominant. In addition, the groups were differentiated according to their dispersion strategy, with specific syndromes occurring in each group (Middle Stage: zoochory; Advanced Stage: autochory; Altered Forest: anemochory).
  • Elemental Chemical Composition of Forest Biomass at Different Ages for Energy Purposes Original Article

    Silva, Dimas Agostinho da; Eloy, Elder; Caron, Braulio Otomar; Trugilho, Paulo Fernando

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This work aimed to evaluate the elemental composition of different biomass components of the forest species Acacia mearnsii De Wild, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Mimosa scabrella Benth and Ateleia glazioviana Baill, at their first, third and fifth year after planting, aiming at bioenergetic use. The biomass elemental composition was determined by quantifying the levels of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen. The three ages, the four species, and the four compartments differ in relation to the elementary constituents. The use of trees at any age allows for energy use. The fifth year presents the best carbon and hydrogen values, being the best age for using the biomass energy of the different species. A. mearnsii presents the highest carbon values for the leaf and A. glazioviana presents the highest hydrogen values for all compartments. The leaf is the best compartment for energetic use.
  • Environmental Effect on Growth and Characteristics of Eucalyptus Wood Original Article

    Freitas, Thaís Pereira; Oliveira, José Tarcisio da Silva; Paes, Juarez Benigno; Vidaurre, Graziela Baptista; Lima, José Luis

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to evaluate environmental effect on growth, wood basic density and anatomical characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla clones for pulp production. The studied clones were from 6.5-year-old plantations of Fibria Celulose company, located in two places: Nova Almeida (ES) and Posto da Mata (BA). The total and commercial heights, diameter at breast height (DBH), wood and bark volume (dendrometric characteristics), heartwood and sapwood percentages, wood basic density and wood fibers and vessels were evaluated. The heartwood and sapwood percentage and vessel frequency were the only characteristics not influenced by the growth site among the studied parameters. On the other hand, tree height (total and commercial) was considered the most influenced by the environment.
  • Effects of Heat Treatment on the Relative Amounts of Cellulose in Nanosilver-Impregnated and Untreated Poplar Wood (Populus alba) Original Article

    Bayani, Siavash; Bazyar, Behzad; Mirshokraie, Seyed Ahmad; Taghiyari, Hamid Reza

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study investigated the effect of heat treatment on the relative amount of cellulose in untreated and nanosilver-impregnated poplar wood (Populus alba). The impacts on physical and mechanical properties were further studied. Specimens were heated at 145°C and 165°C in hot air medium. In order to enhance heat transfer to the inner parts of specimens, separate sets of specimens were first impregnated with nanosilver suspension in a pressure vessel. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses showed that due to high thermal resistance of cellulose, the cellulose relative volume percent increased along with the increase in thermal temperature and the consequent degradation of other wood polymers (hemicellulose and lignin). High correlation was found between the cellulose relative volume percent versus different physical and mechanical properties. Impregnation with nanosilver increased thermal conductivity in the specimens resulting in an enhanced thermal degradation of hemicellulose and lignin, translated into an increased cellulose relative volume.
  • Inventory of Organic Carbon in a Pterogyne nitens Tul. Plantation in Southwest Bahia, Brazil Original Article

    Barreto-Garcia, Patrícia Anjos Bittencourt; Matos, Priscila Silva; Sanquetta, Carlos Roberto; Monroe, Paulo Henrique Marques

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Carbon binding capacity varies between forest plantations, mainly in terms of species and climate and soil conditions. The objective of this study was to estimate the amount of organic carbon stored in aerial tree biomass in the litter and soil of a homogeneous planting of Pterogyne nitens Tul. located in the Southwest Bahia region of Brazil. The woody biomass was obtained by destructive method. Litter collection was carried out using a wooden template (0.25 m2). Soil samples were collected at four depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm). The carbon stored in all studied compartments totaled 47.1 Mg ha-1 with a greater contribution from the ground (31.4 t ha-1). The accumulated litter was the lowest carbon compartment, storing about 1.4% of the total. Among the different fractions of the biomass, the stem is the largest carbon reservoir, representing about 46% of fixed C biomass.
  • Seed Germination and Seedling Vigor of Magonia pubescens Original Article

    Arantes, Cárita Rodrigues de Aquino; Fava, Carmen Lúcia Ferreira; Camili, Elisangela Clarete; Scaramuzza, Walcylene Lacerda Matos Pereira

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The timbó (Magonia pubescens A. St.-Hil.) is a tree species of the family Sapindaceae occurring naturally in the Cerrados of Central Brazil. The objective of this study is to verify the influence of seed size, pre-soaking time in water and seedling production containers in the development of timbó seedlings. The experiment was completely randomized with a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial design (two seed sizes, three pre-soaking times in water and two seedling production containers) with four replicates composed of six containers, each containing one seed. Large seeds presented a better germination and a greater expressiveness of the characteristics evaluated in seedlings. The pre-soaking of seeds did not interfere with the final percentage of germination. However, it accelerated the germination process, favoring the formation of normal seedlings. The polyethylene bag favored base diameter, length and root fresh matter.
  • Effects of Glyphosate on Eucalyptus After its Application on Brachiaria (Signal) Grass Original Article

    Castro, Edicarlos Batista de; Carbonari, Caio Antonio; Velini, Edivaldo Domingues; Macedo, Gabrielle de Castro; Simões, Plínio Saulo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this article was to evaluate the effects of glyphosate on the initial development of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urograndis) after its application on brachiaria (signal) grass plants (Brachiaria decumbens). The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design. Glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and shikimic acid concentrations were determined, along with an intoxication evaluation of the eucalyptus plant pointers and dry mass of the plants. Glyphosate was detected in eucalyptus plants after its application on B. decumbens plants, but the eucalyptus plants only presented low intoxication levels in the pointer’s leaves. No AMPA was detected in eucalyptus leaves, and only a dose of 1,440 g e.a. ha-1 of glyphosate reduced the total dry mass of eucalyptus plants. Glyphosate has the potential to cause intoxication in the crop when applied to adjacent plants.
  • Wastewater from Fish Farms for Producing Eucalyptus grandis Seedlings Original Article

    Paulus, Dalva; Zorzzi, Ivan Carlos; Rankrape, Fabiana; Nava, Gilmar Antônio

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This work aimed to evaluate the development and quality of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings produced with different dosages of wastewater from fish farming. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates. The treatments were fish wastewater (FW); daily nutritional solution (DNS), combinations of 50% DNS + 50% FW; 25% DNS + 75% FW and solution with weekly application (WNS). The best growth and development results of the eucalyptus seedlings were observed for the solutions applied daily and weekly. The 50% DNS + 50% FW combination did not differ from daily and weekly nutritional solutions for Dickson’s quality index. Fertigation only with wastewater from fish farming resulted in lower growth and development of the seedlings, but the use of the combination of 50% FW + 50% DNS enabled the production of seedlings of similar quality to those fertigated with nutritional solutions.
  • Partial Volume Prediction Through Nonlinear Mixed Modeling Original Article

    Nicoletti, Marcos Felipe; Carvalho, Samuel de Pádua Chaves e; Machado, Sebastião do Amaral; Figueiredo, Afonso; Oliveira, Gustavo Silva

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the prediction of partial volumes with nonlinear mixed modeling for Pinus taeda. The volume of 558 trees was measured. The four-parameter logistic model was used in its modified form for the nonlinear mixed approach and, for comparison, the 5th degree polynomial was used. In the mixed modeling, the random effects diameter, age and place were inserted. The statistical criteria used to assess the quality of the adjustment were the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), standard error of the estimate (Syx) and residual graphical analysis. Among the random effects analyzed, age obtained the best adjustment. However, to predict partial volumes, it was noticed that, regardless of the analyzed portion of the trunk, the 5th degree polynomial had the best estimates, with a mean standard error of 20.1% of the estimate compared to 51.8% of the logistic.
  • Damage by Acromyrmex spp. to an Initial Pinus taeda L. Planting Original Article

    Cantarelli, Edison Bisognin; Costa, Ervandil Corrêa; Pezzutti, Raúl Vicente; Zanetti, Ronald; Fleck, Marciane Danniela

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study is to evaluate the damage caused by Acromyrmex heyeri Forel, 1899 and Acromyrmex lobicornis Emery, 1887 to Pinus taeda L. seedlings during the first two months after replanting. The experiment was conducted in the company Bosques del Plata, located in the province of Corrientes, Argentina. The evaluations were carried out at seven, 14, 21, 36, 50 and 65 days after replanting the seedlings, when the number of dead, alive, non-attacked, alive deneedled, and alive deneedled with cuts/damage to the apical bud by leaf-cutting ants was quantified. The results allow us to conclude that A. heyeri and A. lobicornis are responsible for losses to the order of 20.8% of the seedlings in an initial P. taeda stand at 65 days. The damage caused to seedlings by the two leaf-cutting ant species is constant over time, in which A. lobicornis is more voracious than A. heyeri.
  • Stem Modelling of Eucalyptus by Terrestrial Laser Scanning Original Article

    Buck, André Leonardo Bortolotto; Lingnau, Christel; Péllico, Sylvio; Machado, Álvaro Muriel Lima; Martins-Neto, Rorai Pereira

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to obtain the stem volume from 3D-cloud points generated by terrestrial laser scanning in Eucalyptus stands. The processing started with using algorithms for tree detection in plantation (TDP) and stem filtering (Filter Dmax). Then, the acquisition of the total height was made semi-automatically and tridimensional modelling was performed through the adjustment of circumferences (AC) and the so-called triangulated irregular network (TIN). The results were compared with field data and conventional stem volume measurements. The detection accuracy was 100% for the trees in the plots while filtering reached 70% of the stem surface. The total height presented R2 = 0.98 and residuals less than 5%. The estimated volumes, analyzed in sections with a length of 2 m, were in average smaller than that obtained by the conventional Smalian method. The occlusion of points in the tree crown precluded obtaining the total stem volume.
  • Economic and Environmental Analysis of Pellets’ Production in Rio Pardo Watershed, Brazil Original Article

    Dessbesell, Luana; Welter, Carline Andréa; Farias, Jorge Antonio de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Economic and environmental aspects of residues energetic use in Brazil are extremelly important. In one hand, the country is today a recognized bioenergy producer in a global scenario; on the other, it is still struggling to provide a reliable renewable energy supply to rural communities. Local demand could be supplied through small investments using local forest mill residues as feedstock to produce value-add bio-based energy fuels. Therefore, this work aims at evaluating wood pellets production as an alternative source for supplying regional heat demand for drying grains and tobacco in the Rio Pardo Watershed (RPW), Brazil. It presents techno-economic analysis and risk assessment for a pellet plant supplied by sawmill residues available at the RPW. The results showed the economic feasibility of pellets production in the RPW. The pellets can be a clean, renewable alternative energy source to firewood for supplying farms demand for drying grains and tobacco.
  • Biological Resistance of Two Reforestation Woods to Dry Wood Termites Original Article

    Oliveira, José Tarcisio da Silva; Paes, Juarez Benigno

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This work aimed to evaluate the biological resistance of Australian red cedar (Toona ciliata) and Eucalyptus woods to the Cryptotermes brevis (Kalotermitidae) dry wood termite species. The species used to evaluate natural resistance to insect attacks were Australian red cedar from 6 and 12-year-old plantations installed in the mountainous region of the Espírito Santo state, and commercial adult Eucalyptus sp. wood provided by a sawmill located in the South of Bahia state. Fitting and evaluation of the experiment followed the recommendations of the Institute for Technological Research of the State of São Paulo. The three woods differed as to their susceptibility to attack by dry wood termites when the damage caused in the samples was considered, with the most consumed species being the 12-year old Australian red cedar, while the Eucalyptus wood was less susceptible to damage.
  • Fertilization and Irrigation Affect Soil Carbon under Eucalyptus Plantation in the Cerrado Original Article

    Fialho, Ricardo Cardoso; Teixeira, Rafael da Silva; Teixeira, Ana Paula Mendes; Reis, Thalles Guimarães; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro da

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study aimed: i) to evaluate the influence of fertilization and irrigation management on eucalyptus plantations for soil carbon (C) dynamics; ii) to evaluate the impact of fertilization and irrigation management on eucalyptus plantations in the C allocation in depth compared to the Cerrado biome. This study was carried out in an eucalyptus plantation at the end of the third rotation (7 years), which received different fertilizations and irrigations, and a Cerrado area was used as reference. Soil samples were collected in trenches and the gases (CO2 and CH4) on the surface. The total organic carbon (TOC) is more influenced by the availability of water than nutrients. Soils under eucalyptus stands are more efficient at C stocks in depth than the Cerrado and act as a liquid drain of CO2 and CH4 from the atmosphere.
  • Phytosociology of Native Species in the Understory of a Corymbia citriodora Stand in Espírito Santo State, Brazil Original Article

    Carvalho, Daniel Costa de; Gaui, Tatiana Dias; Pereira, Marcos Gervasio; Simon, Cátia Aparecida; Toledo, Luciano de Oliveira; Nettesheim, Felipe Cito; Saiter, Felipe Zamborlini; Rodrigues, Johnny Silva

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study is based on the hypothesis that unmanaged plantations of commercial species do not prevent understory colonization by native species. The research aimed to describe the floristic composition and structure of native arboreal species in the understory of a Corymbia citriodora stand. To this end, 112 plots (10 × 10 m; 1.12 ha) were installed. Six hundred native tree individuals distributed in 54 species, 44 genera, and 20 families were recorded. The regeneration diversity and evenness indices were 3.23 and 0.81, respectively. Native regeneration of C. citriodora understory shows features typical of semideciduous seasonal forests and seems to be at the early stage of regeneration. Results suggest that C. citriodora stands do not prevent understory colonization by native species.
  • Edge Effect on the Litter Production of a Semi-Deciduous Seasonal Forest Fragment Original Article

    Barreto-Garcia, Patrícia Anjos Bittencourt; Oliveira, Monalisa Fagundes; Oliveira, Francisco Garcia R. B.; Lacerda, Laís Ribeiro Lima

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The edge effect makes forest communities more susceptible to changes and may cause changes in different ecosystem characteristics such as litter production. The objective of this work was to evaluate the edge effect on the contribution of litter and its temporal variation in a Semi-Deciduous Seasonal Forest fragment located in Vitória da Conquista, BA, Brazil. Four sampling ranges were delimited in the forest fragment: edge (0-10 m from the edge), transition 1 (40-50 m from the edge), transition 2 (80-90 m from the edge) and interior (400-410 m from the edge). The produced litter was collected monthly. The main litter components were leaves and branches in all sampling ranges. The contribution of the other fractions obeyed different orders at the edges (bark > reproductive structures) and interior (reproductive structures > bark). The edge effect did not influence the contribution of total litter and its temporal variation, only manifesting in the production of reproductive structures.
  • Respiratory Rates of Inga Vera Willd. Subsp. Affinis (DC.) T. D. Penn. Seeds Original Article

    Parisi, João José Dias; Biagi, João Domingos; Barbedo, Claudio Jose; Medina, Priscila Fratin; Lamarca, Edmir Vicente

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The deterioration process of recalcitrant seeds is not fully known, mainly regarding the relation between fungi activity and respiration. Inga vera seeds are characterized by their high degree of sensitivity to desiccation and for only maintaining viability for a few weeks. The objective of this study was to identify the fungus action on respiratory metabolism of I. vera embryos subjected to chemical treatment in order to extend their storability. The results showed that the presence of fungi increases embryo respiration rate, thus affecting their conservation during storage. Treatment with carbendazin + thiram, especially at a dose of 200 ml per each 100 kg of seeds, was effective in controlling fungi, reducing the respiration rate and metabolism of I. vera embryos, increasing the maintenance period of their viability in storage.
  • Diversity and Guilds of Ants in Different Land-Use Systems in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil Original Article

    Apolinário, Laiz da Cunha Messias Honório; Almeida, Ângela Alves de; Queiroz, Jarbas Marçal; Vargas, André Barbosa; Almeida, Fábio Souto

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the ant fauna in three different land-use systems: pasture, eucalyptus plantation and secondary forest, in southeastern Brazil. The ant fauna was collected with standardized pitfall traps. Forty-seven ant species were collected, belonging to 24 genera and six subfamilies. The total ant species richness was significantly higher in secondary forest (29 species) and eucalyptus plantation (25 species) when compared to the pasture (17 species), with no significant difference between the secondary forest and eucalyptus plantation. The species composition differed significantly between the three land-use systems. The frequency distributions of ant guilds in eucalyptus plantation and secondary forest differed significantly from the frequency in the pasture. The results demonstrated the importance of natural forests for the conservation of biological diversity of the Atlantic Forest, but they also indicated that eucalyptus plantations, with native understory plants, can harbor considerable ant diversity.
  • Bees Diversity on Flowers of Eremanthus spp. (Asteraceae) Original Article

    Santos, Ana Paula de Souza Medeiros; Assis, Sebastião Lourenço; Lourenço, Anete Pedro; Machado, Evandro Luiz Mendonça

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Bees are considered important pollinators due to their fidelity to plants, enabling the maintenance of gene flow between plant species. The objective of this study was to recognize the visit of bees in two Candeia species, Eremanthus erythropappus and Eremanthus incanus (Asteraceae), as well as to analyze the pollen content carried by bees in a regeneration area. Nine samplings were taken in each plant species using entomological nets. The pollen grains were obtained in 338 bees from their legs and bodies. The species Trigona spinipes, Apis mellifera, and Bombus pauloensis were most frequent. Candeias are essential in the study area because they have high adaptive potential, but besides them, other plants are also important for attracting bees searching for pollen and/or nectar.
  • Mapping of Permanent Preservation Areas on Hilltops: Technical Issues Original Article

    Oliveira, Guilherme de Castro; Fernandes, Elpidio Inacio; Francelino, Márcio Rocha

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Some technical issues that are inherent to the mapping of permanent preservation areas (PPAs) on hilltops in Brazil have not yet been properly regulated. This results in disparities in mapping an area depending on the technique used. This paper presents a case study that exposes the influence of the topographic database, mapping scale, and method of measuring the average slope on the results obtained. The total PPAs mapped on hilltops vary significantly as a result of these factors. Subjectivity in applying legislation leads to legal uncertainty, which can be resolved by establishing precise, complementary regulations on the issue. Accordingly, it is proposed that the method of measuring the mean slope and mapping scale should be defined by regulation.
  • Dominant Height Growth in Tectona grandis Plantations in Mato Grosso, Brazil Original Article

    Vendruscolo, Diogo Guido Streck; Drescher, Ronaldo; Carvalho, Samuel de Pádua Chaves e; Medeiros, Reginaldo Antonio; Môra, Rômulo; Soares, Alvaro Augusto Vieira

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Tectona grandis (teak) plantations have gained increased interest in recent decades in Brazil, bringing about the need for acquiring information regarding the growth and productive potential. The present work aims to evaluate the growth of dominant height in teak at various locations in the state of Mato Grosso, midwest Brazil. For this purpose, six stands were evaluated in distinct municipalities and the database was obtained from trunk analysis. Subsequently, the dominant height growth was estimated using nonlinear regression models, whose performance was evaluated, based on goodness-of-fit statistics and graphical analysis of residues. Tests for model identity were used to analyze the differences in growth rates between sites (municipalities). The studied teak stands displayed different dominant height growth trends, with differences reaching up to 37%.
  • Geotechnology as a Planning Tool in the Determination of Forest Extraction Costs Original Article

    Ferreira, Francisco de Assis Costa; Freitas, Luis Carlos de; Leite, Elton da Silva; Barros, Ana Paula da Silva

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to use the geotechnology study as a planning tool in determining the costs of forest extraction. The research was carried out in areas of the Forest Company that operates in the southern region of Bahia, Brazil. The work was developed in two stages, the first corresponding to the determination of production costs of the forwarder and the second in the machine’s productivity, taking as parameter the project area and the distance of extraction. The proposed methodology allowed to estimate with precision the distance of extraction, being this variable of great influence in the costs of forest extraction. The evaluated project presented 256.30 hectares of eucalyptus plantation, divided into 10 plots, with an extraction mean distance of 200 meters. According to the study, it would require the value of US$ 102,575.33 for the extraction of the wood from the project evaluated.
  • Physical-mechanical Properties of Plywood Produced With Acrocarpus fraxinifolius and Pinus oocarpa Original Article

    Reis, Abner Henrique Santos; Silva, Danillo Wisky; Vilela, Alan Pereira; Mendes, Rafael Farinassi; Mendes, Lourival Marin

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study has the objective of evaluating the physical-mechanical properties of plywood produced with Acrocarpus fraxinifolius wood, as well as the effect of combining their veneer with Pinus veneer. The wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius and Pinus oocarpa were used in the production of the panels. The plywood was produced with five veneers; the adhesive used was phenol-formaldehyde, weighing 320 g.m-2. The evaluated properties were: equilibrium moisture (EM), specific mass (SM), water absorption (WA), thickness swelling (TS), shear strength (SS), modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) both parallel and perpendicular to the fibers. No statistical difference was observed in the EM and TS, whereas all other properties showed statistical differentiation between the treatments. In general, the use of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius veneers improved the physical-mechanical properties of the compensated ones. Thus, the use of this species in the production of plywood is technically feasible.
  • Restoring Ecological Functions Using Agroforestry Systems in Riparian Forests Original Article

    Viégas, Lucas Bertacini; Silva, José Mauro Santana da; Pala, Marcio de Camargo; Piña-Rodrigues, Fatima Conceição Márquez

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Agroforestry systems and restoration models were compared with native forests by examining the restoration of ecological processes that generate stability, resilience and reliability. The stability assessment was obtained using indicators of diversity, structure and functionality. Indicators of soil protection and nutrient cycling were also used to estimate the resilience. The reliability was assessed by management and protection indicators, anthropic impact and canopy (percentage of light). Agroforestry systems did not promote the restoration of ecological functions due mainly to structural factors than management. The production of biomass and carbon storage were higher in the agroforestry system considering the association of trees with short cycle crops (3.2 t ha-1 yr-1; 39.81 t C ha-1) than trees with green manure system (2.4 ha-1 yr-1; 34.09 t C ha-1). After 36 months, the restoration methods and agroforestry systems did not provide resilience and stability for the riparian forests protection.
  • Establishment of Leguminous Trees in the Soil of a Shooting Range Original Article

    Scoriza, Rafael Nogueira; Correia, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Shooting range activities risk contaminating the soil, posing potential risks to human health, the local biota, and water sources. Considering that soil organisms are the first to be affected by contamination, this study aimed to evaluate the initial growth of the leguminous tree Albizia polycephala and its association with microbes in soil taken from this area. The collected soil was placed in 60-ml tubes with legume seeds and stored in a greenhouse for 60 days. The differences in the legumes’ growth were not related to the physical and chemical properties of the soil, nor to its metal content, but rather to mycorrhizal colonization and nodulation, which were shown to be effective in creating favorable conditions. This indicates that the site under study has great natural potential for the establishment of tree species, which could be impaired if it continues to be used for shooting practice.
  • Flora of Public Squares in the City of Areia, Paraíba, Brazil Original Article

    Gomes, Azenate Campos; Figueredo, Lucimara Ferreira de; Souza, José Thyago Aires; Souto, Jacob Silva; Lacerda, Alecksandra Vieira de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Public squares are important spaces in the cities and stand out for providing improvements in the quality of urban life. Thus, this study aimed to carry out the floristic survey of public squares in the city of Areia, Paraíba state, Brazil, and analyze the similarity between their flora. The species classification was performed by consulting experts and through comparative morphology. The floristic similarity was calculated using the Jaccard index. Twenty-nine species distributed in 26 genera and 20 families were recorded. Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter) Kuntze had the highest relative frequency (8.52%). Sixty-three percent of the species are exotic and 28% contain toxic substances. There was a significant similarity (1) only between Tenente Juvenal Espíndola and Simeão Patrício squares. The data evidence the need for better planning of floristic composition of the squares in the city of Areia, as well as for a tree planting manual.
  • Alternatives to Growth and Yield Prognosis for Pinus caribaea var. caribaea Barrett & Golfari Original Article

    Guera, Ouorou Ganni Mariel; Silva, José Antônio Aleixo da; Ferreira, Rinaldo Luiz Caraciolo; Lazo, Daniel Alberto Álvarez; Medel, Héctor Barrero

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to obtain regression equations and artificial neural networks (ANNs) for prediction and prognosis of the yield of Pinus caribaea var. caribaea Barrett & Golfari. The data used for modeling comes from measuring the variables diameter at breast height (DBH) and total height (Ht) in 550 temporary plots and 14 circular permanent plots with 500 m2 in Pinus caribaea var. caribaea plantations, aged between 3 and 41 years old. In growth prediction, the results indicated Schumacher model as the best fit to the data. On prognosis, the modified Buckman system was better than Clutter’s. ANNs presented a similar performance to the Buckman model in volume prognosis, however these were superior for basal area prognosis.
  • Soil Microbial Biomass as an Edge Effect Indicator in Semi-Deciduous Seasonal Forest Fragments Original Article

    Santos, Mayana Oliveira Duarte; Barreto-Garcia, Patrícia Anjos Bittencourt; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This work had the objective to evaluate the activity and microbial biomass of the soil as an indicator of edge effect in Semi-Deciduous Seasonal Forest fragments. Three fragments of different sizes (small, medium and large) located in the Southwest region of Bahia state were evaluated, in which three sampling ranges were defined in each, and soil samples were collected. The carbon and nitrogen contents of the microbial biomass were determined by the fumigation-extraction method and soil respiration. The microbial biomass carbon (MBC), metabolic carbon quotient (qCO2) and the microbial C:N and MBC:C ratios were discriminating indicators of the edge effect on the soil quality of the studied forest fragments. The integrated analysis of soil microbiological attributes is adequate to evaluate the edge effect in forest fragments. The size of the fragments and their isolation influence the MBC contents, showing greater vulnerability of the smaller fragments in relation to the actions of the external environment.
  • Deforestation Dynamics in the Nova Bonal Sustainable Development Project, Acre, Brazil Original Article

    Rocha, Silvania Arreco; Matricardi, Eraldo Aparecido Trondoli; Miguel, Eder Pereira; Lani, João Luiz; Oliveira, Charles Henderson Alves de; Gatto, Alcides

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study assessed the dynamics of the land use and cover changes, deforestation trends and the current status of the Legal Forest Reserves (LFR) and Permanent Protected areas (PPA) in the Nova Bonal Sustainable Development Project (SDP) between 1997-2014. Deforestation datasets and fieldwork were used in this analysis. Our results indicate that there was no trend in the estimated deforestation rate dataset for the SDP, but there was a decreasing trend in deforestation rates within its 10-km buffer zone, most likely due to the scarcity of native forests in that area. The negative environmental area balance of PPA and LFR were observed within the 10-km buffer zone of the SDP. Finally, we conclude that the alternative land and forest uses enforced within the SDP are more effective for environmental conservation than the commonly adopted land uses, especially pastures adopted by conventional colonization located around it.
  • Anatomical Differences Between the Wood of Three Species Commercialized as “Freijó” in the Amazon Region Original Article

    Nobre, João Rodrigo Coimbra; Melo, Luiz Eduardo de Lima; Figueiredo, Marcio Franck de; Couto, Allan Motta; Gomes, Joaquim Ivanir

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study aims to bring forward helpful anatomical characteristics to assist in the identification of Cordia goeldiana Huber, Cordia bicolor A.DC. and Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Cham., all of them commercialized by the popular name of “freijó” in the Amazon region. The anatomical study of the woods followed the orientations of the International Association of Wood Anatomists - IAWA Committee. The helpful wood’s characteristics found to distinguish the species were: the different types of growth layers; type of axial parenchyma; presence of sheath cells involving the rays; frequency and diameter of the vessel elements; lumen diameter; and fiber wall fraction. Quantitatively, the applied multivariate techniques were helpful, once they have evidenced greater similarities between C. goeldiana and C. alliodora distinguishing themselves from C. bicolor mainly because of the rays’ height (μm). From the anatomical study of the woods it was possible to differentiate the species. We were able to see important anatomical patterns that could be helpful in the macroscopic and microscopic identification of the woods of C. goeldiana, C. bicolor and C. alliodora.
  • Red-Yellow Latosol Penetration Resistance Under Different Subsoiling Depths Original Article

    Gonçalves, Saulo Boldrini; Lopes, Eduardo da Silva; Cavalieri-Polizeli, Karina Maria Vieira; Fiedler, Nilton Cesar; Stahl, James

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to evaluate the penetration resistance (PR) of a red-yellow latosol submitted to two subsoiling depths for implanting a forest plantation. The subsoiling was evaluated at 40 cm (S-40) and 50 cm (S-50) of depth by determining the soil moisture and soil density, while soil PR was evaluated before and after subsoiling at five points transversely to the subsoiling line (furrow) up to a depth of 60 cm using an electronic penetrometer. The soil density in both treatments was not altered by soil management. Before soil preparation, the soil presented PR values above the critical limit in the 0 cm to 30 cm layers, and after subsoiling a reduction in those values was verified at depth. It can be concluded that the 50 cm (S-50) subsoiling depth is the most suitable for soil preparation in a forest stand implantation.
  • Temporal Behavior of Tree Communities in Different Soil Classes Original Article

    Santos, Alisson Borges Miranda; Carvalho, Warley Augusto Caldas; Morel, Jean Daniel; Santos, Rubens Manoel dos; Figueiredo, Maria Auxiliadora Pereira; Cirne-Silva, Tainá Mamede; Souza, Cléber Rodrigo de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to evaluate if the soil heterogeneity expressed by the different soil classes would condition tree communities with different dynamic behaviors. The data were collected from 25 plots sized 20 × 20 (400 m²), 10 of them with Inceptisols, 9 with Ultisols, 5 with Entisols B and 1 with Entisols A. All individuals with DBH ≥ 5.0 cm in the plots were sampled in 2000, 2005, 2009 and 2015. Rates of mortality, recruitment, gain, loss and turnover dynamics in number of individuals and basal area were estimated for each soil class. The tree communities present in the soil classes showed no differences in the dynamic behavior to the point of expressing edaphic fragment heterogeneity. The differences are associated with stochastic fluctuations in rates caused by small disturbances, suggesting little influence of the soils on the dynamics of small-scale communities.
  • Effect of Leaf Quality on Herbivory of Three Atlantic Forest Species Original Article

    Nascimento, Aline Alves do; Luiz, Jefferson Cabral; Vega, Maria Raquel Garcia; Villela, Dora Maria; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study evaluated the relationship between herbivory and leaf quality of three abundant tree species (Cupania oblongifolia Mart., Siparuna guianensis Aubl. and Xylopia sericea St. Hill.) in the understory of a eucalyptus plantation and an adjacent Atlantic Rainforest fragment. Herbivory differed among species, since X. sericea was less attacked, while C. oblongifolia and S. guianensis were more. The species showed similar herbivory patterns between the investigated areas (eucalyptus plantation versus forest), although X. sericea showed higher herbivory rates in the forest fragment. Fiber values (NDF, CEL and LIG) varied significantly among the species, being lower in S. guianensis. X. sericea, the species with the highest C/N ratio, higher concentrations of total phenols, smaller leaf area and higher trichome density, showed the lowest leaf herbivory rates, corroborating the hypothesis that herbivory is lower in species with lower nutritional quality and a greater set of leaf defense features.
  • Estimating Above-Ground Biomass of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze Using LiDAR Data Original Article

    Rex, Franciel Eduardo; Corte, Ana Paula Dalla; Machado, Sebastião do Amaral; Silva, Carlos Alberto; Sanquetta, Carlos Roberto

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to test the performance of canopy data obtained from Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) in generating estimates of above-ground biomass (AGB) of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze individuals. A cloud of ALS points located in a fragment of native urban forest in Curitiba, Paraná was used. The procedures consisted of: classifying points; obtaining and smoothing the Canopy Height Model (CHM); detecting peaks and segmenting canopy using eCognition software. Mathematical models were adjusted to estimate the AGB from the crown areas. Two equations were required to estimate the individual AGB, while R2 (%) values of 96.19 and 98.89 were found. The total AGB stock found was 264.333 kg. The LiDAR technology and the methods for obtaining the information used in this work constitute non-destructive and precise tools for quantifying biomass in native forests.
  • Partitioning and Modeling of Biomass in Caatinga Legume Seedlings in Different Water Conditions Original Article

    Barros, João Paulo Alves de; Souza, Luciana Sandra Bastos; Silva, Thieres George Freire da; Moura, Magna Soelma Beserra de; Silva, Luzia Ferreira da

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The accumulation of dry biomass, its partitioning and the adjustment of equations were assessed for the initial growth of Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth) Ducke and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan under water availability variation. The experiment was conducted in pots arranged in a completely randomized design with three replicates. Water conditions were evaluated using the percentages of reference evapotranspiration. Samples of the biomass were taken at 10-day intervals and used for the achievement of partitioning data and model adjustments. The short period of water scarcity in the initial growth phase of P. stipulacea and A. colubrina does not affect the establishment of these species, but different water regimes alter their root growth dynamics. The A. colubrina allocates more dry matter to the roots, while P. stipulacea sends more dry matter to the aerial part. The Gaussian, Lorentzian, Log-Normal and Gompertz models had excellent adjustments for the biomass variables of the P. stipulacea species, whereas for A. colubrina, we recommend the Exponential model.
  • Palm (Arecaceae) Communities in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: a Phytosociological Study Original Article

    Elias, Guilherme Alves; Colares, Renato; Antunes, Altamir Rocha; Padilha, Peterson Teodoro; Lima, Joanna Marie Tucker; Santos, Robson

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of the structure and composition of native palm communities in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. This study was carried out at “Parque Estadual da Serra Furada” (PAESF), a protected area located in southern state of Santa Catarina. A palm community survey was carried out in Dense Ombrophilous Forest in five 20 m × 100 m sampling units, totaling 1ha. All palm individuals were measured, totaling 11,183 plants, belonging to four genera and five species: Bactris setosa Mart., Euterpe edulis Mart., Geonoma gamiova Barb.Rodr., Geonoma schottiana Mart. and Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman. Euterpe edulis was the most common species, contributing the most to all phytosociological parameters; however, relatively few large individuals were found. Our study demonstrates the limitations of traditional forest surveys that ignore smaller diameter palm species and highlights the importance of the role of this group in the floristic diversity, ecosystem function, environmental services and carbon dynamics.
  • Thermal Requirements and Photoperiod Influence in the Leaf Development of Two Forest Species Original Article

    Freitas, Cleverson Henrique de; Martins, Fabrina Bolzan

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of thermal time methods and to identify the phyllochron and photoperiod response in seedlings of two forest species: Corymbia citriodora and Eucalyptus urophylla. A field experiment was installed under a completely randomized design, in a 2 × 11 factorial scheme, with two forest species and eleven sowing dates (E). Phyllochron is influenced by thermal time methods. The best thermal time method is the one that considers the base and optimum temperature and compares them with daily extreme temperatures. In addition, the influence of photoperiod and air temperature on phyllochron values was also verified. The lowest value occurred in E1 (Corymbia citriodora: 24.6 and Eucalyptus urophylla: 13.2 °C day leaf-1) and the highest in E10 (Corymbia citriodora: 46.4 °C day leaf-1) and E7 (Eucalyptus urophylla: 29.2 °C day leaf-1), suggesting that the phyllochron is influenced by sowing dates.
  • Mimosa scabrella Benth. as Facilitator of Forest Successional Advance in the South of Brazil Original Article

    Ferreira, Paula Iaschitzki; Gomes, Juliano Pereira; Stedille, Lilian Iara Bet; Bortoluzzi, Roseli Lopes da Costa; Mantovani, Adelar

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Pioneer species have the potential to colonize disturbed environments, contributing to the establishment of other species and driving the dynamics and advancement of the structure of forest communities. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of floristic-structural composition in the regenerating stratum of communities formed in the Mimosa scabrella Benth. understory with different ages. The study was carried out in four municipalities located in the Santa Catarina State South Plateau, on communities with different successional ages. The plot method was applied to the survey of all arboreal individuals with height ≥ 10 cm. The floristic-structural patterns found were compatible with the expected trend of Araucaria Forest successional dynamic, showing higher richness and abundance of regenerating individuals in the older understories.
  • Carbon and nitrogen distribution pattern in soil profile cultivated with Eucalyptus Original Article

    Wink, Charlote; Reinert, Dalvan José; Minella, Jean Paolo Gomes

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution pattern of total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in the native field soil profile and Eucalyptus sp. The study was carried out in native field and in eucalyptus plantations with 20, 44, 180 and 240 months, located in Santa Maria and Manoel Viana, RS, Brazil. The decay rate (k) of the TOC and TN contents up to 1.2 m depth was determined by the graphical, numerical and mathematical method using the third order negative exponential model. The content of TOC and TN deep in the soil showed a third order negative exponential distribution. However, the methods used to estimate the decay rate generate differences in TOC and TN contents along the soil profile.
  • Analysis of Infestation of Nematode Meloidogyne exigua in a Rubber Tree Plantation in the Triângulo Mineiro Region Original Article

    Duarte, Daiane Marques; Silva, Claudionor Ribeiro da; Lemes, Ernane Miranda; Coelho, Lísias; Rodrigues, Fabrício

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study analyzed the use of the water balance, precipitation, temperature and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to determine the optimum moment for evaluating infestation by the nematode Meloidogyne exigua in a rubber tree plantation by remote sensing. Nineteen sampling points were defined, divided into three areas, with high and low defoliation degrees, on a property in the Triângulo Mineiro region, where soil and root samples were collected for nematological analysis. Monthly digital images (OLI - Landsat 8 sensor) were obtained from August 2015 to August 2016. Rainfall, temperature and water balance were analyzed. The latter had no correlation with the indices; in contrast, temperature and precipitation correlated directly with NDVI. The best months for nematode soil infestation analysis were December, January and February, while for root infection it was August.
  • Accelerated Aging as a Vigor Test in Encholirium spectabile Seeds Original Article

    Araújo, Ariana Veras de; Silva, Monalisa Alves Diniz da; Ferraz, André Pereira Freire

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective was to verify how differences in the accelerated aging test, traditional method (water) or saturated NaCl solution influence the differentiation of the physiological potential of Encholirium spectabile seeds from two geographic regions of Brazil (Graça-CE and Serra Talhada-PE). The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 × 2 × 5 factorial scheme, in which two methods (water and saturated NaCl solution), seeds from two geographic regions and five aging periods (0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h) were evaluated. Results indicated that seeds from Graça-CE were less vigorous than those from Serra Talhada-PE. However, both aging methods (water and saturated NaCl solution) increased the physiological potential of seeds harvested from Graça-CE. E. spectabile seeds presented different levels of physiological potential by the accelerated aging test.
  • Microbial Properties of Soil in Different Coverages in the Colombian Amazon Original Article

    Cruz, Lised Guaca; Bastidas, Amara Tatiana Contreras; Suárez, Leonardo Rodríguez; Salazar, Juan Carlos Suárez

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Changes in coverage affect the activity of soil’s microbial communities, affecting the carbon and nitrogen cycle. The variability of biochemical properties in different coverages (native forest, forest plantation, silvopastoral system and pasture) located in the northwest of the Colombian Amazon was evaluated. Edaphic properties were determined as: organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) using the fumigation method. A significant effect was found to land use × depth interaction for the variables moisture, pH, CO and MBC/OC ratio (p < 0.05), while MBC and dCO2 showed differences only for land use and NT, MBN and MBN/TN ratio at depth (p < 0.05). In general, when modifying the soil cover, changes were made in the chemical properties that affected the microbial activity.
  • Pastures Degradation and the Relation with Pedo-Geomorphological Attributes in Watershed Original Article

    Souza, Cristiano Marcelo Pereira de; Francelino, Marcio Rocha; Costa, Liovando Marciano da; Fernandes, Elpidio Inacio

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to map the levels of degradation of pastures and its association with chemical properties of the soil and relief. We selected a sub-basin located in the municipality of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, and we mapped the degradations through Ikonos images that were submitted for classification. Soil samples were collected and analyzed chemically; the results were transformed in spatial data using cokriging, based on variables of the digital elevation model. We associated the maps (cokriging) with data from exposure of the hillside, levels of solar radiation and levels of the pastures’ degradation. The pastures were mainly classified in moderate (44%) and very strong (30%) degradation levels. The areas with mild degradation tend to increase when there is a higher sum of bases, cationic exchange capacity and organic matter. The portions facing North and the increase of solar radiation showed more advanced stages of degradation.
  • Canopy Architecture After Selective Logging in a Secondary Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil Original Article

    Silva, Daniel Augusto da; Vibrans, Alexander Christian

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Sustainable forest management promotes financial revenues while keeping the forest cover and environmental services. Nevertheless, the logging operation causes changes in the forest and canopy horizontal and vertical structure. Our objective is to evaluate the changes in the forest canopy and its consequences to the forest management, following logging in a secondary Atlantic Rainforest. We used hemispherical photography to determine the Canopy Openness (CO), Leaf Area Index (LAI) and the radiation absorption (fAPAR) in nine experimental plots before and after logging. We did not find a clear correlation between the forest horizontal structure and the canopy architecture. Despite this, there was an increase in CO and decrease in LAI and fAPAR after logging. The variation in CO and fAPAR were affected by logging intensity, but LAI did not show the same pattern. We suggest a conservative maximum logging intensity of 30% of the basal area and tree density.
  • Lauraceae Along an Altitudinal Gradient in Southern Brazil Original Article

    Brotto, Marcelo Leandro; Lozano, Eduardo Damasceno; Marinero, Felipe Eduardo Cordeiro; Uhlmann, Alexandre; Blum, Christopher Thomas; Roderjan, Carlos Vellozo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We performed a phytosociological study on an altitudinal gradient in Lauráceas State Park (Parque Estadual das Lauráceas/PR), aiming to describe the Montane Atlantic Rain Forest, to verify the importance of Lauraceae, and to evaluate the communities’ successional stage. We distributed survey units (2,000 m2 quadrats) along an altitudinal gradient and surveyed all individuals with DBH ≥ 10 cm, which composed the arboreal component. In smaller quadrats (250 m2), we surveyed regeneration individuals. The community at 800 and 900 m a.s.l. shows typical characteristics of Montane forest in an advanced successional stage, and the abundance of Ocotea catharinensis is its main indicator. At 1,000 and 1,100 m a.s.l., the forest is characterized as Montane with short stature in an advanced successional stage, with the occurrence of typical upper montane species such as O. porosa and O. vaccinioides.
  • Homegardens as a System for Restoration of Legal Reserves: Aspects of Forest Legislation Original Article

    López, Alex Mauri Tello; Piotrowski, Ivonir; Silva, José Mauro Santana da; Calvo, Manuela de Jesus Solano; Piña-Rodrigues, Fátima Conceição Marquez

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The homegardens result from collective learning and fulfill environmental services, contributing to the agrobiodiversity conservation and food security. The present study analyzed whether legal mechanisms incorporate concepts on environmental services and if legal frameworks in the state of São Paulo include homegardens as a feasible system for restoration of legal reserve (RL) area. Revisions of Law nº 12.651/2012 and resolutions SMA nº 44/2008 and SMA nº 32/2014 were carried out. For each attribute regarding the environmental services, grades from zero (absent) to two (explicitly described) were assigned. In the legal frameworks, the concepts concerning production, regulation and support were present, with the absence of cultural ones. For the adoption of homegardes as a viable system for restoration in legal reserve area, precepts should be changed regarding the presence of exotic species, management and monitoring practices required in legal frameworks.
  • Soil Seed Banks in a Forest Under Restoration and in a Reference Ecosystem in Southeastern Brazil Original Article

    Silva, Kelly de Almeida; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Miranda, Aurino; Lopes, Aldo Teixeira

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The current study aims to characterize the soil seed banks in a forest under restoration and in a seasonal semideciduous forest remnant, as well as to quantitatively and qualitatively compare them in order to evaluate the seed bank potential to influence the restoration process. In total, 60 samples of soil seed banks were collected in two adjacent forests (30 in a 2.18-ha forest undergoing restoration process based on the planting of seedlings belonging to different tree species, after the forest was subjected to bauxite mining activity; and 30 in a 5.30-ha preserved forest fragment). The soil seed bank of the forest undergoing restoration recorded higher density of emerged seedlings than that of the reference ecosystem. Although the shrub-tree species in the investigated forests lacked floristic similarity, the highly similar dispersal syndrome distribution and the successional category of shrub-tree species in them have indicated that both forests underwent ecological processes. Therefore, the restoration process implemented in the mined area has successfully recovered the soil seed bank after a few years.
  • Urochloa decumbens Has Higher Mycorrhizal Colonization in Degraded than in Pristine Areas in the Brazilian Cerrado Original Article

    Leite, Matheus Roberto; Cassiolato, Ana Maria Rodrigues; Lannes, Lucíola Santos

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Brazil has extensive degraded areas, where vegetation fails to establish due to harsh soil conditions. However, some invasive species such as Urochloa decumbens are successful pioneers in such areas, but the reasons deserve investigation. Mycorrhizal fungi are abundant in Cerrado soils, and their association with plants are beneficial for their establishment in natural and degraded areas. This study investigated whether arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of native and exotic plants in the Cerrado differs between pristine and degraded areas. We collected 135 plants from four functional groups in 68 areas and determined the percentage of mycorrhizal colonization. The invasive grass Urochloa decumbens had significantly higher colonization rates in degraded than in native areas, and higher colonization than the native species. These results are important for soil management since Urochloa decumbens is widely used in early soil restoration efforts, and for nature conservation concerning the management of invasive plants in restoration areas.
  • The Causal Agent of Damping-off in Pinus patula (Schiede) and Pinus tecunumanii (Schwerdtf.) Original Article

    Fajardo, Maria Alejandra; León, Juan Diego; Correa, Guillermo Antonio; Morales, Juan Gonzalo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Damping-off is considered one of the most serious risks for production of Pinus seedlings due to the significant losses it can cause in forest nurseries. In Colombia there is little information about the etiology of this limiting disease. Different species of the genus Fusarium have been reported as causal agents, which makes the study of the pathogenicity of this genus relevant. In this study, strain 001F of Fusarium oxysporum was obtained from the diseased tissues of P. patula seedlings. The identity of the species was determined by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Pathogenicity tests confirmed the ability of strain 001F to cause damping-off symptoms in P. patula and P. tecunumanii. Thus, F. oxysporum strain 001F represents a significant risk to produce tree species in Colombia and in other parts of the world.
  • Edaphic Macrofauna as a Recovery Indicator of Abandoned Areas of Corymbia citriodora in the Southeastern Brazil Original Article

    Sardo, Paola Maia Lo; Lima, Juliano Silva

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The edaphic macrofauna may reflect changes in soil use. This study aimed to answer two questions: (1) Has the management of eucalyptus by girdling, promote stimulation or inhibition in the guilds of the edaphic macrofauna? (2) Can soil macrofauna be used as an indicator of the recovery of abandoned eucalyptus areas? For that purpose, we compared the composition and diversity of the edaphic macrofauna in areas of secondary forest, abandoned non-girdled eucalyptus plantations and girdled eucalyptus plantations. The secondary forest presented greater richness, abundance and diversity of edaphic macrofauna, followed by areas of girdled eucalyptus, with the lowest values found in areas with non-girdled eucalyptus. Therefore, the edaphic macrofauna responded to the management by girdling, through the stimulation of the taxonomic groups in the different guilds and can be indicated as a good indicator of the recovery of disturbed areas.
  • New Contours of the Native Vegetation Protection Law of 2012 Review Article

    Laudares, Sarita Soraia de Alcântara; Borges, Luís Antônio Coimbra; Rezende, José Luiz Pereira de; Bicalho, Marcondes Lomeu; Barros, Vanessa Cabral Costa de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The conservation of natural resources within rural properties is a constitutional obligation. Among the social function criteria required for the exploitation of rural properties, besides the rational use and respect of working conditions, there is a need to ensure environmental protection. The current guidelines regarding the exploration and the environmental adequacy of the rural property are in the Native Vegetation Protection Law (NVPL - Law no. 12,651/2012) also known as Forest Code of 2012. This study aims to analyze different aspects of the Brazilian forestry legislation, with emphasis on the main points of the new legislation regarding the use and conservation of rural properties, highlighting the Rural Environmental Registry replacing the old model of Legal Reserve Registration. It is an update of the article “Ambient protection areas inside rural properties: the APP and RL case” published by Floram in 2011.
  • Biodiversity Conservation in Agricultural Landscapes: the Importance of the Matrix Review Article

    Tavares, Patricia Dias; Uzêda, Mariella Camardelli; Pires, Alexandra dos Santos

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Agricultural matrices can lead to landscape homogenization, culminating in losses of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Agricultural management is determinant for developing conservation strategies. In this review, we discuss the influence of the agricultural matrix on biodiversity at different scales. Intensive agriculture under agrochemicals and synthetic fertilizers aggravates forest fragmentation processes, compromising conservation habitats. On the other hand, managed matrixes with greater agricultural biodiversity and reduced synthetic inputs tend to favor species’ persistence. There is discord regarding the best model to conserve biodiversity in agricultural landscapes, but the land sharing system increases the landscape heterogeneity, ensures food production, and constitutes a safer approach from the socioecological perspective. Future studies should consider the matrix identity and management to assess fragmentation effects and its ability to harbor biodiversity.
  • First Report of Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor) on Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) Short Communication

    Castro, Marcelo Tavares de; Montalvão, Sandro Coelho Linhares; Navia, Denise; Flechtmann, Carlos Holger Wenzel; Monnerat, Rose Gomes

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Texas citrus mite, Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae: Tetranychinae), considered a serious pest of the citrus crop in some countries, is reported for the first time on mahogany seedlings (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae) in Brazil, causing foliar tanning with chlorotic spots and premature fall of leaves.
  • Decline in Giant Tree Numbers: Status Report for Santa Catarina State and Perspectives for Brazil Short Communication

    Scipioni, Marcelo Callegari; Salomão, Rafael de Paiva; Vibrans, Alexander Christian; Uller, Heitor Felippe

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Loss of large trees due to indiscriminate timber cutting and opening of new areas for human use is a global problem. Brazil is well known for tree species richness within its extensive forested areas composed of various biomes. Giant trees are “key” to recognize the original forest structure. Decline of their populations in Brazil may be estimated by comparing data of the National Forest Inventory (NFI) with those of regional data and other surveys. In fact, Santa Catarina is the first state in Brazil to have currently completed its forest inventory. However, only few large trees were sampled systematically. Recognition of the maximum tree growth is important for their ecological management and tourism potential. Public policies for cataloging and management of these resources must be developed before it is too late.
  • ERRATUM Erratum

Instituto de Florestas da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro Rodovia BR 465 Km 7, CEP 23897-000, Tel.: (21) 2682 0558 | (21) 3787-4033 - Seropédica - RJ - Brazil
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