Abstract in English:Abstract This study aims to evaluate the effect of substrates and container content on growth and quality of Peltophorum dubium seedlings. The design was completely randomized in a factorial arrangement (2 × 9), with two containers sizes (125 cm3 and 280 cm3) and nine substrates formulated from the mixture of subsoil (S), vermicompost (V) and commercial substrate (CS), in the following proportions (v:v): S100, V100, CS100, S75 + V25, S50 + V50, S25 + V75, CS75 + V25, CS50 + V50 and CS25 + V75, with nine replicates. We assessed seedling height, stem diameter, root and shoot dry matter, height/shoot dry matter ratio; Dickson quality index; and percentages of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in the shoot. The use of the 125 cm3 dibble tube containing 100% vermicompost allowed for higher quality of Peltophorum dubium seedlings.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the changes in the floristic composition at the Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah) stricto sensu and Cerradão (xeromorphic forest) phytophysiognomies. In the first inventory in 2010, 15 soil plots of 20 × 50 m in the Cerrado stricto sensu (CSS) and 10 soil sample plots of 20 × 50 m in the Cerradão (CD) were separated, and individual samples with diameter at soil height ≥ 5 cm were measured. The second inventory, conducted in 2015, used the same criteria. A fire hit both phytophysiognomies after the first inventory. Species loss and a mortality rate higher than recruitment rate were observed in both phytophysiognomies. Species richness and individual density have been diversified over time. Floristic changes were more intense in CD, with significant alterations between mortality and recruitment rates - the species that disappeared were represented by a few individuals; in the CSS, the changes were not significant.
Abstract in English:Abstract The dynamics of land use and cover at different spatial and temporal scales allows us to evaluate changes in landscapes, socioeconomic system and impacts on the natural environment. Land use and land cover changes and socioeconomic activities of the Northern Region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil were analyzed over a 20-year scale. Using images from the Landsat 5 sensor TM, land use and land cover maps were obtained for 1991, 2001 and 2011, in which agricultural uses, native vegetation and pasture presented a significant difference between the years. We identified two scenarios for the region: the northern portion presents a reduction in agricultural areas and an increase in pasture and native vegetation, while the southern portion presents a constancy of agricultural areas. The predominant agricultural uses and socioeconomic factors determined the major changes in landscape structure. The effects of these changes resulted in a reduction in the area of agricultural uses and expansion of native vegetation and pasture areas.
Abstract in English:Abstract The mate (Ilex paraguariensis) market of Rio Grande do Sul has experienced the structuring of a productive chain of mate, from the implantation of the herbs, through industrialization, until they reach the final consumer. Thus, more advanced methods of productive and organizational development are necessary, such as the institutionalization of Local Productive Systems. Our study sought to identify and characterize the industrial settlement of the Alto Vale Taquari. The mechanisms adopted to identify the Local Productive Arrangements (LPA) were based on the evaluation of the data of the Annual Social Information Report, on-site verification of the existence of industries and indicators of industrial agglomeration. We identified 33 mate industries, in 5 municipalities. The industrial agglomerate was characterized as a Local Development Vector. Therefore, we observed a need to implement actions that promote the structuring of the agglomerate, especially regarding the institutionalization of governance.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Cerrado biome increasingly suffers from the environmental impacts of human action. Burning is known as an action used to destroy native vegetation and to clean areas mainly with the purpose of growing soybeans, corn, or raising cattle. In this study we aimed to investigate the influence of low-intensity burning on the chemical composition of a Red-Yellow Latosol in a region characterized as Cerrado sensu stricto. A total of 14 parcels of land were demarcated. In order to analyze the effects of fire on the soil chemical properties, soil samples were collected before and within 24 hours of the burning by means of the same methodology. An increase in organic matter and in the levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Mn2+, Zn2+, B+, S, as well in the ratios characterizing the soil (CECt, SB, Ca+/T, Ca+/Mg+, V, and Ca+/K+), was observed. Variables that determine the acidity of the soil, such as pH and H + Al, presented changes, although not significant (p > 0.05).
Abstract in English:Abstract In producing forest seedlings, the use of residues may be an option to improve seedling quality. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the initial growth and quality of Toona ciliata seedlings on different substrates. The experimental design was completely randomized with seven treatments consisting of commercial substrate (CS), vermicompost (VC), urban waste compost (UWC) and mixtures in proportions of 50% (CS + VC, CS + UWC and VC + UWC) and 33% (CS + UWC + VC), with twelve replications. The use of substrates composed of organic residues 120 days after sowing shows potential for producing Toona ciliata seedlings. The combination of substrate components provides higher seed growth and quality than unmixed substrates. Compositions of 50% UWC or 50% VC + 50% CS are efficient in growth and seed quality.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study evaluates the potential of fauna attractiveness according to brushwood transposition in an abandoned mining area under restoration in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Sixteen areas of brushwood measuring 2 m² area and 1 m high were installed. The occurrence of fauna groups under and around the brushwood piles was then observed with use of bi-monthly surveys. Data were collected using a non-destructive method and the animals were identified by order and separated by taxonomic units. Twenty-three fauna orders were found, with the most frequent being Anura, Araneae, Hymenoptera and Isoptera. There was an increase in the number of taxonomic units found in each survey, with a significant difference after ten months of installation. The results indicate that the brushwood was attractive to the fauna and provided new habitats and coexistence between different fauna groups during the monitored period.
Abstract in English:Abstract Studies about crop residue management have become essential due to the possibility of their use in forest seedlings production. This study evaluated the effect of coffee moinha (MO) on substrates composed of vermiculite (VE), coconut fiber (CF) and carbonized rice husk (CRH) in the development of Eucalyptus seedlings. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, with five treatments of increasing proportions of MO/decreasing proportions of CRH (0/28, 7/21, 14/14, 21/7 and 28/0%) and fixed proportions of VE (36%) and CF (36%) in the substrate. At 85 days after planting, the following parameters were assessed: shoot height, stem diameter, root dry mass, shoot dry mass, emergence percentage and Dickson’s quality index (DQI). The results showed CRH could be fully substituted by MO (28%) in the substrate composition because the assessed variables presented lower values than the control treatment (0% MO + 28% CRH + 36% VE + 36% CF). Moreover, the maximum vegetative development in Eucalyptus seedlings was achieved when CRH was replaced by up to 20% MO. In this way, MO becomes an alternative as a substrate component for Eucalyptus seedlings production.
Abstract in English:Abstract Our study sought to evaluate parameters of mycorrhizal growth and colonization of Gallesia integrifolia under different light and water availability conditions. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, with the following treatments: three light levels (0%, 50% and 80% shading), and two water regimes (watering daily and twice a week), in a completely randomized experimental design. The results showed that the plants kept under 50% shading and the ones kept under full light, both watered daily, had the best performance. Mycorrhizal association was observed in all treatments, which favored the establishment of seedlings even in environments with less water availability. G. integrifolia showed acclimation to higher levels of shading and lower availability of water, which may be related to the species plasticity and its wide distribution.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the abundance and diversity of Coleoptera in five land use systems (LUS) and the soil properties that explain the distribution of these organisms. Uses involved native forest (NF), Eucalyptus plantation (EP), perennial pasture (PA), integrated crop-livestock (ICL) and no-tillage (NT) in western Santa Catarina, Brazil. Coleopterans were sampled by the methods of pitfall traps and soil monoliths during the winter and summer. Regardless of the LUS, 1,441 individuals were captured, with Staphylinidae being the most representative family (~47%). The use of NF showed higher abundances of coleopterans. The land use systems PA, NT, and ICL obtained high values of diversity of Coleoptera families, depending on the method and season of collection. The distribution of families was influenced by the sampling season, and some soil properties such as biopores, water content and phosphorus can explain the variation of abundance among the LUS.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study analyzed the role of Caatinga vegetation structure in the accumulation, composition and distribution of litter along an elevation gradient in the Brazilian semi-arid region. Fifty sampling units were established for shrub-tree vegetation analysis, and 50 1-m2 plots for sampling litter. Sampled litter was screened in fractions of leaves, stems, reproductive structures, miscellaneous and animal remains and then weighed. Total accumulated litter weighed 72.3 kg and was composed mainly of stems (45.2%). A positive correlation was found between total litter and elevation, as well as between leaf fraction and richness and basal area, while the stem fraction was negatively associated with richness, abundance and basal area. The results reflect a joint effect of abiotic factors and community structure, which produces heterogeneous environments that favor variation in litter production and quality along the elevation gradient.
Abstract in English:Abstract As native tree species are often used for densification, enrichment and degraded areas recovery, a better understanding of the behavior of their seedlings in response to light exposure is needed. This study evaluates the growth and morphological behavior of five native forest species of the Brazilian Mixed Ombrophilous Forest under shading levels of 90%, 50%, and 0%. The species were measured for height to root collar diameter (RCD) ratio (H:D), leaf area (LA), Dickson’s quality index (DQI), and stem, leaf, and root biomass. The LA did not differ among the treatments for three species and did not differ among species in full sun. The results for H:D ratio, DQI, and biomass indicate better growth in treatments with greater light availability. The species are recommended to be used as follows: Cedro-vermelha in full sun; Tarumã-azeitona, Ingá-doce, and Ocotea-guaicá in varying environmental conditions; and Branquilho-bravo in 50% shade and full sun conditions.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to quantify the effects of water management during hardening on seedlings of Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng.) Harms, evaluating leaf temperature, morphometric variables, and their performance after hardening in sandy and clayey soil. Water regimes included irrigation for four weeks (daily, every two, three, and four days). Leaf temperature was recorded at the end of each irrigation cycle. Increases in height, root collar diameter, root dry mass, and aerial part dry mass were measured at the end of the hardening period. The seedlings irrigated every two and three days did not significantly differ (p > 0.05) from those irrigated daily. Irrigation every four days reduced the speed of aboveground growth and increased leaf temperature. The seedlings irrigated every three and four days were more resistant to water deficit than those from other treatments, showing severe symptoms of water deficit later.
Abstract in English:Abstract There has been an increase in the occurrence of fungal diseases in Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hill. (yerba mate) resulting from their domestication. Seed health tests may indicate pathogens prior to sowing, enabling their control. Our study sought to compare the efficacy of fungi detection methods on yerba mate seeds. Seeds from four lots were subjected to the following detection methods: BDA, V8 and filter paper; as well as the performance of asepsis with 1% sodium hypochlorite and 70% alcohol. The fungi found in the lots were: Penicillium spp., Cladosporium spp., Aureobasidium melanogenum, Aspergillus spp., Pestalotia spp., Nigrospora spp., Trichoderma spp., Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum and F. guttiforme. The asepsis in the seeds reduced the occurrence of contaminating organisms. There were differences between the evaluated lots regarding fungal incidence. In general, the BDA and V8 culture media showed better results in fungal detection.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the influence of canopy openness on the survival and growth of Bertholletia excelsa seedlings, through experimental plantings in tree-fall gaps and forest understory in Madre de Dios, Peru. Sixty-four seedlings were planted within the experimental design, with eight repetitions each with four seedlings in two treatments of canopy openness. Basal diameter, height, and incidences of seedlings mortality and regrowth were evaluated for twelve months. Survivorship, and the annual increase in height and diameter were significantly higher in gaps than in the understory (p < 0.05). Regression analysis showed a direct and highly significant relation between canopy openness and diameter increment (r2 = 0.61), and between canopy openness and height increment (r2 = 0.34). Due to the greater performance and high survival rate of Brazil-nut seedlings in the tree-fall gaps, we recommend enrichment planting in the clearings of natural forests in Madre de Dios.
Abstract in English:Abstract Copper damages plants when present in high concentrations in the soil. This study assessed the growth and tolerance of Eucalyptus grandis, E. saligna, E. dunnii, and Corymbia citriodora seedlings in soil contaminated by copper. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme (4 × 6), with four eucalyptus species and six copper doses (0, 80, 160, 240, 320, 400 mg kg-1) with eight replications. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse for 120 days. The height, stem diameter, root dry mass and shoot dry mass, root specific surface area, Dickson quality index, and tolerance index were assessed. The results showed that the morphological parameters of the studied eucalyptus species were reduced by the copper doses added in the soil. However, the Corymbia citriodora and the Eucalyptus saligna species had a higher tolerance index to the metal.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the potential and the alterations of the soil seed bank as a mechanism for the regeneration of tree species in disturbed forest fragments after Eucalyptus grandis harvest. Soil samples were collected in two periods, during the winter and summer, in areas with different ages after E. grandis harvest. In each environment, 20 samples of soil were collected, with 60 samples per period (winter and summer), this samples were distributed in trays and arranged in open air for germination analysis. A total of 2,002 individuals were identified, belonging to 36 species and 17 families. The highest densities occurred during the summer, which also showed higher similarity between the environments. More species and diversity in relation to the ages of regeneration was observed during this period. Therefore, this study represents a contribution for further experiments in the field of conservation and restoration.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to quantify the aboveground biomass and organic carbon of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze in a Mixed Ombrophilous Montane Forest in the state of Paraná. The aboveground biomass determination was carried out according to the direct method, using 29 trees with Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) ≥ 40 cm. The trees were felled, cubed and weighed by compartments, which were sampled for determining moisture and carbon content. The average aerial biomass and carbon were 2,126.5 kg ind-1 and 935.8 kg ind-1, respectively. The moisture content resulted in a mean individual accumulation of 2,376.6 liters ind-1 of water. Age did not necessarily result in higher volume production but resulted in higher stem biomass production. Organic carbon accumulation by native A. angustifolia trees should support carbon credits as an incentive for the conservation of araucaria and Mixed Ombrophilous Forest fragments.
Abstract in English:Abstract Fire behavior prediction models can assist environmental agencies with fire prevention and control. This study aimed to adjust a fire prediction model for the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Using the R program and hotspots provided by the National Institute for Space Research (INPE) for 2010, prediction of the probability of fires through the Random Forest algorithm was conducted using the Bootstrapping method. The model generated a prediction map with global kappa value of 0.65. External validation was performed with hotspots in 2015. Results showed that 58% of the hotspots are in areas with ignition probability > 50%, being 24% of them in areas with 25-50% probability, and 17% in areas with < 25% probability. These results were considered satisfactory, demonstrating that the model is suitable for predicting fires.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the effect of subdoses of 2,4-D + picloram on the emergence and initial growth of Hymenaea stigonocarpa. Three experiments were carried out. In the first one, the seeds were planted in sand with residues of 2,4-D + picloram (0; 0.02; 0.10; 0.20 and 0.40 L ha -1 ). The second experiment was conducted with seedlings, using the same treatment of experiment I. In experiment III, the seeds were planted in Red Latosol contaminated with subdoses of 2,4-D + picloram (0; 0.02; 0.08; 0.24; 0.48 and 0.96 L ha-1). The contamination of the sand substrate with subdoses of 2,4-D + picloram inhibits the emergence and senescence of Hymenaea stigonocarpa plants. Moreover, when seeds of this species were cultivated in Red Latosol with residual doses between 0.04 and 0.96 L ha-1, emergence and emergence speed index declined.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to assess soil chemical attributes, organic matter fractions and carbon stocks of forest in three different regeneration stages in the Serra de Itabaiana National Park, Sergipe. The study was conducted in three areas: open white sands, intermediate white sands, and closed white sands, with a history of differentiated degradation. Soil samples were collected at 0-20 cm depth for chemical characterization and for fractionation of soil organic matter and C stock. The open white sands obtained the best results regarding levels of macronutrients, total organic carbon, and total soil nitrogen, as well as higher carbon/nitrogen ratio compared with intermediate white sands and closed white sands, with such effects being attributed to recent exposure to fire. Carbon concentrations in humic fractions of organic matter were little influenced by different vegetation in regeneration, except the carbon fraction of humic acid, which is more sensitive to different management and soil usage.
Abstract in English:Abstract Because of the lack of agronomic information regarding cultivation of the pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius), this study aimed to verify the effect of gypsum and phosphorus on the initial growth and how they affect soil fertility. The treatments consisted of four levels of agricultural gypsum (0; 750; 1,500, and 2,250 mg kg-1) and P2O5 (0; 41.7; 83.4, and 125.1 mg kg-1), with a 4 × 4 factorial arrangement, in a completely randomized design with four replications. Morphological variables and nutritional content taken at 165 days after transplant were shown to be adequate to assess the initial growth and to show their nutritional requirements, indicating that plants are responsive to phosphorus. The association of higher gypsum and P2O5 levels promoted higher plant vigor and their application to the soil increased the availability of calcium, phosphorus, and base saturation.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this study was to assess hypoxia tolerance in Gymnanthes klotzschiana seeds harvested in two areas (Area 1 - subject to flooding; and Area 2 - not subject to flooding) by the imbibition curve, vigor and germination. Seeds of the two areas were submitted to: one (T-1d), three (T-3d), five (T-5d), ten (T-10d) and twenty days under hypoxia (T-20d); in addition to the control (T-0d). All treatments presented three germination stages. The highest germination was achieved in Area 1 T-1d (90%) and the lowest in Area 2 T-20d (31%). The Area 1 seeds required less time and water content to finish their germination, and they presented greater tolerance to hypoxia; a fact proven by the germination and vigor results. G. klotzschiana seeds harvested in an area subject to flooding are more tolerant to hypoxia and are recommended for restoration projects in this type of area.
Abstract in English:Abstract Gymnanthes klotzschiana is a tree native to the Atlantic Forest Biome. The objective of this study was to analyze the synchronization of five phenophases and their correlation with environmental factors during two years of survey in two distinct areas (Area 1: Mixed Alluvial Ombrophilous Forest; Area 2: Montane Semi-deciduous Seasonal Forest). Ten individuals were randomly selected in each area, with the following variables being studied: leaf fall and budding, flowering, and immature and ripe fruit production. The activity index and the intensity index were determined for each phenological event. Timing and interactions with environmental factors were tested using Spearman’s correlation. The photoperiod correlated with all phenophases and precipitation did not correlate with any. There was synchronization in the foliar fall and foliage in the two areas. The species can be characterized as semi-deciduous. Flowering and fruiting were annual, with the highest intensity of fruit production occurring in Area 1.
Abstract in English:Abstract Our study aimed to evaluate the influence of rubber tree plantations (Clones IAN 873 and FX 3864) on microbial activity, total organic carbon (TOC), and soils chemical attributes, using as reference pasture and secondary forest, in Rio de Janeiro. The plantations areas showed pH; Mg2+, Ca2+, K+ levels; sum of bases; base saturation, basal respiration; metabolic quotient; and arylsulfatase and FDA activities in the soil similar to or greater than the values found in the forest. In contrast, showed lower P and TOC levels; carbon and nitrogen in the microbial biomass; and β-glucosidase activity than of forest and pasture. Higher acid phosphatase and laccase enzymes activities was observed in the forest and plantations than in the pasture. Thus, we verified that the rubber tree plantations (Clones: IAN 873; FX 3864) maintain or improve the quality of some chemical and microbiological attributes of the soil regarding secondary forest and pasture.
Abstract in English:Abstract Beekeeping is affected by adverse climatic conditions and availability of floral resources. This study aimed to survey and characterize the flora in São João do Piauí, a semi-arid region in Piauí, Brazil, and to identify species providing resources to bees. Flowering plants were observed for 18 months, and records were taken of flowering date, growth habit, visitation and resources collected by bees. Melissopalinological analysis of honey produced in the area was performed. A total of 67 flowering plant species were recorded, of which 49 were considered as bee plants, with a predominance of herbs and shrubs. The low rainfall reduces the number of flowering species, which makes important the conservation and multiplication of species which bloom in dry season, such as Ipomoea glabra, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Sida cordifolia and Ziziphus joazeiro, as well as species that contribute to honey production such as Mimosa tenuiflora, Mesosphaerum suaveolens and Croton sonderianus.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the influence of drip irrigation and micro-sprinkler on the dendrometric parameters of two Eucalyptus hybrids at 45 months. The experiment was carried out in Aquidauana, MS, using an experimental design of randomized blocks in split plot scheme. The dendrometric attributes of the trees evaluated were height, diameter at breast height, volume, shape factor, taper, and dry mass production. The Grancam hybrid has the highest growth in height, and the Urograndis has the largest diameter at breast height. Drip irrigation provides an increase of 36.7% in the wood volume of eucalyptus hybrids when compared to those that were not irrigated.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to evaluate enzyme activity, glomalin-related soil proteins (GRSP), soil chemical attributes, and total organic carbon (TOC) in two Agroforestry systems (AFS) (AFS-1 and AFS-2), in a traditional agriculture area (TA), and secondary forest (SF) area in Paraty (RJ). Soil samples (from 0 to 5 cm depth) were collected during the rainy and dry seasons. AFS improves and/or maintains soil chemical indicators based on pH increase, reduces aluminum saturation and maintains soil nutrient content (Ca, Mg and K), when compared with SF. The contribution of organic material and the biodiversity of the AFS provide the maintenance of the total organic carbon content of the soil. AFS maintain the activity of the enzymes protease, β-glucosidase, acid phosphatase, and total enzyme activity (FDA), and the production of glomalin-related soil protein at levels similar to those observed in SF, especially during the rainy season.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this study was to assess and compare two methodologies to predict the mortality of individual trees in a seasonal semi-deciduous forest located in the municipality of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The data came from 10 permanent plots and were randomly divided into two groups: fitting (6 plots) and validation (4 plots). When assessing Methodology 1, the mortality was considered a dichotomous variable in a logistic model, assuming a value of 1 for a dead tree and 0 for a living tree. In Methodology 2, the mortality probability was estimated by the group of trees for each plot and for each measurement interval. After the analysis, it was observed that Methodology 2 provided more consistent mortality estimates when compared to the mortality estimated by Methodology 1.
Abstract in English:Abstract Litter decomposition restores part of the elements absorbed by the plant back into the soil, acting as a regulator of the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients. This study aimed to evaluate the litter quantity and quality of Eucalyptus grandis in Northern Fluminense region, RJ. Three rotational sequences were studied, the first after 8 years (FR8), the second after 1.5 years (SR2), and a 5year old regrowth (R5). Leaf litter was divided into whole leaves (WL), fragmented pieces (FP), twigs/branches (TB), reproductive structures (RS) and bark (B). The total litter in FR8 was 9.56 Mg ha-1, in SR2, 13.85, and in R5, 22.97 Mg ha-1, corresponding to 83, 163 and 75 kg ha-1 of N, respectively. FP represented 38%, 48% and 55% of N, respectively, in SR2, R5 and FR8. The WL and FP fractions have high recycling potential of organic matter and nutrients due to their lower C/N and Lig/N quality index values.