Abstract in English:Abstract Estimating leaf area is essential to evaluate vegetal growth. Our study sought to obtain statistical models to allow the leaf area estimation of Palicourea racemosa, considering its length (L) and width (W). For such purpose, we collected 200 leaves of this species in the State Park Mata do Pau-Ferro, in the municipality of Areia, Paraíba, Northeast of Brazil. The regression models used were: linear, linear without intercept, power and exponential. The choice of the best equation was based on the values of the coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), Akaike information criterion (AIC), Willmott concordance index (d) and BIAS ratio. All linear and power models may be used to measure the P. racemosa leaf area; however, the power model LA=0.609*(L.W)0.995 is the most recommended to estimate this species’ leaf area.
Abstract in English:Abstract Following a disruption on November 5, 2015, the Gualaxo do Norte and Carmo Rivers received iron tailings from the Fundão Dam in Mariana, Minas Gerais, which affected the water’s physiochemical attributes. This study aimed to better understand the impact of this event by evaluating water quality variations, comparing results from previous studies and the limits established in the National Environmental Council (Conama), Resolution 357. For six months, water samples were collected monthly at six points, three in the Gualaxo do Norte River and three in the Carmo River. Turbidity, color, and dissolved metal values were recorded for thirty-six samples, and it was determined that the Gualaxo do Norte River had higher contamination levels than those established in the Conama Resolution 357. According to the results, this study recommends the development of specific analyses and a special water quality classification system.
Abstract in English:Abstract Urban trees/vegetation are one of the factors related to a better quality of life of the population. Therefore, knowledge on the structure and quality of urban green areas is important to implement actions that intensify this benefit. This study aimed to quantify the floristic composition of the Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, in Cuiabá. A census was conducted to count individuals with soil circumference ≥ 15.7 cm, wherein 190 species were identified, with Fabaceae being the most representative family at 24.2%. Of the total, 23.7% are exotic species to Brazil and 62.6% are native to the Cerrado. The most abundant species were Licania tomentosa, with 8.9% of individuals, Mangifera indica at 7.8%, Jacaranda cuspidifolia with 6.3%, Handroanthus impetiginosus with 5.4%, and Anadenanthera peregrine with 4.4%. The university campus houses a high floristic richness and diversity of species, with an adequate proportion of Brazilian native species. However, its composition needs to be adapted to comply with municipal legislation.
Abstract in English:Abstract We used seed rain to monitor a conserved forest and a 5-6-year-old forest undergoing natural regeneration after fire. The sampled species were classified according to regionality, life forms, dispersal modes, and successional stage, and the forests were compared. The type of forest and time since disturbance had significant effect on the abundance of seeds - 67.3% being produced in the forest under restoration. Biological diversity was higher in the conserved forest. On the other hand, species richness was not affected by the type of forest, and the species composition was similar between forests. In addition, we found similar proportions of life forms, zoochorous species, and non-pioneer species in the forests. Our study shows that natural regenerating forests can recover different attributes of the seed rain in few years when in forest matrices. Thus, to accelerate restoration and create trustworthy forests we should conserve the remaining mature fragments and use them to facilitate ecological restoration.
Abstract in English:Abstract The influence of Guarea guidonia (L.) Sleumer diaspore abundance on ants’ preference was studied in a secondary tropical forest area in Brazil. We offered seeds in stations with different abundances (one, two, five or 10 diaspores) for interactions with ants. The number of interactions and of ants were influenced by diaspore abundance during the observation period. Stations with 10 diaspores maintained a high number of interactions throughout the experiment. Incidence of seed cleaning differed among the four groups. Moreover, the number of interactions was positively related to the average percent of seeds cleaned. Diaspore abundance proved to be important for promoting more interactions with ants. Considering that the proportion of seeds cleaned increased with the number of interactions, further experiments should observe ant activity for a longer period. Furthermore, diaspore abundance should be considered in future studies of interactions with ants.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the floristic and structural differences between two fragments of Seasonal Deciduous Forest in the São Francisco river, Minas Gerais. A total of 25 plots of 20×20 m in each fragment were allocated and all living individuals with Circumference at Breast Height (CAP) ≥ 15.7 cm were considered. The Shannon-Wienner indices and the Pielou equitability were equal among sampled areas. The Jaccard and Bray-Curtis similarities were 20.7% and 41%, respectively, indicating a high β diversity. Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) resulted in two floristic groups, distinguishing the flora of Presidente Juscelino and Paracatu. These results showed that the areas are floristically different but resemble each other in terms of diversity and structure.
Abstract in English:Abstract Climate projections predict shifts in environmental conditions, with cascade effects on forest growth dynamics. As such, Pinus pinea L., an ecologically important low-elevation Mediterranean tree, can be threatened by drought events. The occurrence of negative stem growth anomalies (“negative pointer years”, or NPY) and its relation to climatic conditions were analyzed, as well as the influence of extreme dry spells upon the species growth. NPY were temporally independent among the analyzed forest stands, likely due to local factors. We observed that NPY depended on dry and hot conditions during the spring-summer period at both sites, while differences in the NPY-climate reflected the species medium term dendroclimatological signal. Extremely dry years directly reduced stem growth rates. Water stress differentially affected growth at each site, likely reflecting local adaptation to droughts. Because of the increasing drought trend expected for the Mediterranean basin, our findings must be considered regarding the conservation and management of these forests.
Abstract in English:Abstract The diameter increments of Euterpe edulis was characterized in order to understand the influence of reproduction and forest basal area on its growth and to represent its development through polynomial models. For up to 14 years three populations were studied using permanent plots. To identify the effect of reproduction, the diameter increments of young and reproductive palms, as well as the effect of productivity on growth, were compared. To characterize the effect of basal area, subpopulations under different basal area conditions were compared, as was the effect of their evolution over time. Reproductive activity and forest basal area interfered with plant growth, being smaller in more productive plants and under more advanced successional conditions. Fifth-degree models were more suitable for ecological studies or for fruit harvesting. Quadratic models were restricted to estimates of palm heart management.
Abstract in English:Abstract Economic analysis assists the administration of forest projects (mainly long-term ones) in providing solidity to the investment. This study aimed to analyze the economic viability of an eucalyptus plantation used for pulp production in the mesoregion of Southern Pará, Brazil. Financial analysis was performed using the following methods: net present value (NPV), equivalent annual value (EAV), soil expectation value (SEV), internal rate of return (IRR), and benefit-cost ratio (BCR). Additionally, sensitivity analysis was conducted to identify the cost and revenue values that would represent the interface regarding the viability of the project. To this end, a cash flow was created for different scenarios of cost and revenue. The economic indicators demonstrated that the investment, as proposed in the marketing of standing timber, proved to be economically viable. Sensitivity based on the updated net revenue, despite fluctuations, made the project profitable.
Abstract in English:Abstract Catingueira (Poincianella pyramidalis Tul. L. P. Queiroz) is an endemic species of the Caatinga, with great economic potential. Research on the development of this species under conditions of water restriction, common in the Northeastern semi-arid region, is still scarce. This study evaluated the effects of water restriction on the morphological and biochemical characteristics of catingueira seedlings subjected to water restriction. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design, with five treatments and four replicates. The treatments consisted of periods of water restriction (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 days without irrigation). The characters evaluated were shoot height, leaf diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, total dry mass, ratio between shoot height and dry mass, Dickson quality index, chlorophylls a and b content, total soluble sugars and free proline. Periods of water restriction longer than six days caused damage to the seedlings development, with reduced growth and quality.
Abstract in English:Abstract The management of eucalyptus harvest residues can affect the initial growth and nutrient content of new eucalyptus plantations. We investigated the initial growth and nutritional status of Eucalyptus saligna plantation according to five alternative strategies for management of harvest residues on sandy soil, in the municipality of Barra do Ribeiro, RS. The total height, diameter at breast height (DBH), individual volume and nutrient content in the leaves were evaluated after twelve months. We observed that the maintenance of harvest residues increased growth in height, DBH and individual volume. The levels of calcium in leaves of eucalyptus were higher in the treatments in which harvest residues were removed, whereas the opposite was confirmed for sulfur. The differences found in our study point that the maintenance of harvest residues increase the eucalyptus growth, especially in sandy soils.
Abstract in English:Abstract Calacarus heveae is considered the most common pest mite in rubber tree crops in Southeast and Midwest Brazil. We evaluated the population dynamics of mites in GT 1, PB 235, PR 255 and RRIM 600 rubber tree clones from crops in the Goiás State, Brazil. We sampled leaves between June 2013 and June 2014 in 10 trees for each rubber tree clone. Calacarus heveae and Tenuipalpus heveae populations were counted in four 1 cm2-areas distributed on each middle leaflet sampled, whereas all other mites were found on lateral leaflets. Calacarus heveae reached a population peak between March and May 2014. PR 255 and RRIM 600 sheltered the densest population of C. heveae. We sampled six predatory mite species, highlighting Euseius citrifolius. GT 1 and PB 235 had higher abundance of predatory mites. This is the first study carried out on the population dynamics of phytophagous mites associated with rubber trees in the state of Goiás.
Abstract in English:Abstract Local Productive Arrangements nowadays are targets for local and regional development politics. This study aimed to identify, qualify and geographically limit the municipalities that are part of a potential Local Productive Arrangement of Forestry Base in the southeast of Rio Grande do Sul. The hierarchical grouping analysis was used to identify the existence of groups and the analysis of main components to qualify them. Afterwards, industrial cluster indicators were used to quantify the specificity of a sector within a region for the formed groups. The hierarchical grouping analysis established four groups of municipalities, presenting different levels of development referring to the forestry sector. It is concluded that there is a Local Productive Arrangement of Forestry Base in the studied area limited by the municipalities of Cachoeira do Sul, Pantano Grande, Dom Feliciano, Amaral Ferrador, Encruzilhada do Sul, Piratini and Canguçu.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aims to estimate the effect of different land uses around watercourses on runoff following extreme precipitation events and, consequently, on the mitigation of these effects. The study area is a rural watershed in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. After characterizing the area, we estimated the surface runoff of the January 2009 precipitation event, which caused two casualties: losses in soil and productive area, as well as over US$ 300,000.00 in damages to the water supply system. Subsequently, simulations were performed considering different land uses and riparian areas under different precipitation levels. The results indicate that conserving riparian forests in the surroundings of watercourses decreases direct surface runoff, whereas intense soil use in these areas favors runoff increase.
Abstract in English:Abstract The situation of native orchids from natural environments becomes more vulnerable each day, especially those not protected by conservation units. Thus, studies on the propagation of species, especially on in vitro germination and initial establishment, are necessary for maintaining species in their habitat and reintroduction in restoration areas. This study verifies the influence of the nutritional composition of the culture media on in vitro germination and initial establishment of Miltonia flavescens. Seeds from natural pollination were sown in four different culture media and put in a growing room under controlled photoperiods and temperature. The germination was evaluated 30 days after sowing, and the initial growth of the seedlings at 120 and 180 days after sowing. The results indicated the Murashige and Skoog medium, complete and with half of the salt concentrations, promoted a higher germination percentage and were more effective in the initial development of M. flavescens seedlings.
Abstract in English:Abstract Our study sought to evaluate the rooting capacity of indole butyric acid (IBA)-treated stem cuttings and the efficiency of the vegetative rescue technique of adult and transitional parent trees of Lecythis pisonis. Softwood, hardwood, and semi-hardwood leafless cuttings treated with IBA (0; 2,000; 4,000; 6,000; and 8,000 mg kg-1) were tested in a randomized block design with four replicates and 10 cuttings per plot. The growth of epicormic shoots was also evaluated in 60-cm branches removed from the tree canopy and kept in greenhouse for 60 days. Cuttings from adult trees did not form roots. Softwood cuttings from transitional trees had a very low rooting percentage. In both cases, no influence of IBA concentrations were observed. The use of the sectioned-branch technique was feasible for inducing sprouts.
Abstract in English:Abstract Annona crassiflora is a medicinal species and source of food with little information about its nutritional requirements during the initial phase. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate liming, phosphate fertilization and its interaction in A. crassiflora seedlings. The experiment was in a 4 × 4 factorial scheme with four replications in a randomized block design. The base saturations were: 8.3%, 25%, 50% and 75% and phosphorus: 0 mg dm-3, 100 mg dm-3, 200 mg dm-3 and 400 mg dm-3. The variables evaluated were biometrics, biomass and nutritional analysis. The species responded to the factors in isolation, and the increase in base saturation levels and phosphorus doses promoted significant effects for biometric variables, biomass, calcium, magnesium, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content. The saturation level promoted the best results, being 75% base saturation, while the highest phosphorus dosage was 400 mg dm-3.
Abstract in English:Abstract This experiment assessed the effects of biosolids in the soil’s chemical and physical characteristics. Soil was mixed to a biosolid in a totally randomized design, within a 5× 4 factorial scheme: five doses of biosolid (0, 60, 120, 180, and 240 m3 ha-1) and four depths (0-0.10; 0.10-0.20; 0.20-0.30; 0.30-0.40 m). Soil was placed in 50 L-tubs imitating the soil profile. Doses of biosolid were added to the soil and samples were retrieved after 120 days. Biosolid tended towards acidification, with very low P and K rates. Nutrient leaching, such as Mg, increases microporosity and the reduction of soil macroporosity should be considered in high doses of biosolid.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study has evaluated the richness of Cerrado woody species engaged in ecological restoration in the Brazilian Federal District (BFD). A survey gathered information on plant species traded by local nurseries, species recommended in restoration plans (PRADs), species effectively introduced in areas under restoration, and species present in preserved fragments of Cerrado. Results summed 566 Cerrado woody species from 80 botanical families of which 171 species were traded by local nurseries, 277 were recommended in PRADs, 190 were effectively used in restoration projects, and 434 species were sampled in fragments of native Cerrado. We found low similarity between species composition available in nurseries, recommended in PRADs, used in restoration projects and present in preserved fragments of native Cerrado. Such results indicate a poor connection between steps related to the selection of native woody species that make up initial plant communities on sites under ecological restoration.
Abstract in English:Abstract The biota of the humid mountain ranges of the Brazilian semiarid is still poorly understood. In order to fill this scientific gap, we carried out an extensive survey along altitudinal ranges (400m - 1,000 m) on both the windward and the leeward slopes of the Baturité Mountain Range, in the state of Ceará state. We registered 400 plant species and 92 families. The Myrtaceae (36 spp.), Fabaceae (25 spp.), Rubiaceae (20 spp.) and Bromeliaceae (15 spp.) families predominated on the windward slope; while Fabaceae (19 spp.), Myrtaceae (14 spp.) and Euphorbiaceae (11 spp.) were the most abundant on the leeward slope. As we expected, the species richness of trees, shrubs, subshrubs, epiphytes and terrestrial herbs was positively correlated with the altitude (R2 > 0.60). Above 800 m, we registered 273 species exclusive to the windward slope, 81 exclusive to the leeward slope, and 46 shared species. Therefore, management actions must consider the spatial heterogeneity, distribution and taxa richness.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Caatinga (dryland) vegetation of northeastern Brazil has become highly anthropized while still poorly studied, with little research evaluating its potential for natural regeneration. This study sought to compare the compositions and structures of the shrub-arboreal components of two Caatinga areas with different histories of anthropic disturbance in the Negreiros National Forest, Pernambuco State, Brazil. Twelve 4 × 50 m plots were established in each area, sampling all individuals ≥ 1 m tall with stem diameters at ground level ≥ 3 cm. A total of 34 species were sampled. The two areas had very distinct structures, with different dominant species: Croton blanchetianus, Poincianella pyramidalis, and Croton sp. in the conserved area; and Cnidoscolus quercifolius and Aspidosperma pyrifolium in the anthropogenically impacted area. The presence of cattle grazing appears to be negatively interfering with the recuperation of the anthropized area, which continues as a phytophysiognomically open site more than 30 years after discontinuing agricultural activities.
Abstract in English:Abstract In view of the economic and environmental importance of Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. for the Amazon and the reducing natural habitat area of this species, the present study proposes to examine genetic variability among accessions of Brazil nut from the Amazon rainforest. Seventeen native Brazil nut genotypes were sampled from Sinop-MT and the genomic DNA were amplified using 15 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The percent polymorphism and the polymorphism information content (PIC) of each primer were determined. The primers amplified 84.62% of the polymorphic bands and 15.38% of the monomorphic bands. The PIC for each primer ranged from 0 to 0.68. The Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) was the most efficient in group representation, as it showed the highest cophenetic correlation coefficient (CCC = 0.92), the lowest stress (12.31%) and the lowest distortion (1.51%). The use of ISSR markers was an efficient tool in the study of genetic diversity among Brazil nut genotypes, and the genetic diversity found can be used for conservation and pre-breeding programs for this crop.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a preservative treatment with Chromated Copper Borate (CCB) in different concentrations and autoclave pressure time on the biological resistance of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (called urograndis). Urograndis fence posts were submitted to industrial autoclaving in nine treatments as a function of CCB concentration and pressure time: 1.5% (30, 60 and 90 minutes); 2.0% (30, 60 and 90 minutes); and 2.5% (30, 60 and 90 minutes). Then the obtained specimens were submitted to an accelerated laboratory decay test. The industrial preservative treatment increased the resistance of the wood to decay and the concentration of 1.5% CCB and 30 minutes of autoclave pressure can be applied to treat urograndis wood without compromising its resistance to the attack of white-rot and brown-rot fungi.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This research aimed at evaluating the quality of bonded joints of Eucalyptus wood by using different faces and adhesives to produce EGP (Edge Glued Panels). Glue line shear specimens were obtained from bonded joints glued with PVAc (Polyvinyl Acetate) and EPI (Emulsion Polymer Isocyanate) adhesives, using pieces oriented with tangential, radial and intermediary faces, as well as the combination between them. The specimens were submitted to two pretreatments in order to simulate the use of joints in dry and wet environments. For shear tests, 12 treatments were obtained. The results indicated that the use of tangential x tangential and tangential x intermediary bonding faces and EPI adhesive presented better glue line shear strength for EGP in dry and wet pretreatments, respectively. The joints bonded in the radial x radial direction presented statistically inferior values when compared to the other treatments.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a general applicability equation to represent the hypsometric relationship of Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden et Cambage stands in Irani, Santa Catarina. The data came from a continuous forest inventory, with a simple random sampling design and the Bitterlich method. The functions to represent the hypsometric relationship were adjusted with their parameters linear function of stands variables, based on the Gauss-Newton algorithm. The models were evaluated according to the criteria of adjustment and precision, accuracy and validation. In general, the Harrison model, adjusted with the coefficient “c” linear function of age, dominant diameter and basal area, presented the best statistical performance to represent the hypsometric relationship of Eucalyptus benthamii.
Abstract in English:Abstract Forest replacement is a public policy consisting of a set of measures that ensure the continuity of forest raw material supply to the consumers of native species. It is currently required through Art. 33 of the Federal Law 12,651/2012. Thus, this study aimed to characterize the main legislations and facts related to the forest replacement policy, addressing their responsible bodies and indicating their contributions to the forest sector, based on an extensive bibliographical and documentary research. Three federal bodies stood out as being responsible for such policy: INP, IBDF, and Ibama; being the responsibility of the third one shared with similar state agencies. The planted area was significant, especially during the period in which the IBDF was the responsible body, due to its encouraging performance and the incentives in force. We observed there are still problems related to transparency and implementation effectiveness due to the lack of joint actions between stakeholders and the incipient technical assistance.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study sought to determine the possible causes of the low seed quality of I. paraguariensis A. St. Hil. Seeds from six samples collected at different sites were classified as empty, decayed, herbivorous and full. Viability was assessed by tetrazolium test in seeds filled with a visualized embryo. High amounts of empty and deteriorated seeds (54% to 93%) were verified in four of the evaluated samples, and insect attack was observed in two samples. The viability of visualized embryo-filled seeds was 83% to 100%. Low quality generally results from the presence of empty and deteriorated seeds, as well as dormancy.