Abstract in English:Abstract We investigated the spatial distribution of population data and diameter classes and modeled the diameter structure of Vouacapoua americana Aubl. (Acapu) trees in a community forest management area. A forest census of trees with diameters ≥ 33 cm was carried out in the 2015 Annual Production Unit (APU-2015). Ripley’s univariate K function and the global Moran’s index were used to describe spatial autocorrelation. Three harvest intensities (50, 70, and 80%) were simulated for the potential trees. The Weibull (3P) function provided the best performance to describe the diameter distribution of the original tree population, as well as in the harvested 50 and 70% intensities. In general, the spatial pattern of V. americana was aggregated. However, other natural factors, as population size, dynamics, geographic distribution, should be used as indicators for forest management and conservation of the specie.
Abstract in English:Abstract Nutritional balance interferes positively in obtaining high-quality seedlings of wood species. This study aimed to evaluate nitrogen fertilization during the production of L. divaricata seedlings. The experiment was conducted in a shade house located at 24°33’S and 54°04’W, in a randomized block design formed by two forms of fertilization plus a control applied during three months, totaling nine applications, with seven replicates of five seedlings each. Both exponential and conventional fertilization regimes supported the hypothesis of growth induction of L. divaricata seedlings in relation to the control during the growth phase, with exponential fertilization as a valid option to reduce initial nutrient loss by leaching.
Abstract in English:Abstract The vegetation structure is a good indicator of the conservation condition of an ecosystem, since it reflects alterations caused by anthropic action. This study proposes to analyze the phytosociological aspects of the Caatinga domain under anthropic disturbance and their correlations with hydrological variables. Twenty-five 400 m 2 plots were sampled in the municipality of Floresta - PE, Brazil. Phytosociological parameters such as density, frequency and dominance were calculated. The seasonality of plant area index was analyzed for six species. The association between structural characteristics and hydrological variables (throughfall, stemflow and interception loss) in the species was evaluated by multivariate analysis. A total of 930 individuals, six families and 10 species were recorded. The abundance of the species Cenostigma pyramidale in the area may be an indicator of the degree of change in the vegetation. The structural characteristics of the species revealed little association with rainfall partitioning.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study investigated the water and radiation use efficiencies by Erythrina velutina and Enterolobium contortisiliquum under four water regimes. The experiment was carried out in the municipality of Serra Talhada, PE, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized with a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement and three replications. The water regimes were imposed from water replenishments based on the reference evapotranspiration (25, 50, 75 and 100% ET0). Water and radiation use efficiencies were calculated to the 120 days of growth. E. velutina showed a greater accumulated dry biomass (4.89 g pl-1) than E. contortisiliquum (2.22 g pl-1). The 75% ET0 water regime can be adopted without damage to the growth of both species. E. velutina was more efficient in the conversion of water (0.42 g l-1) and radiation in dry biomass (0.028 g MJ-1), indicating high environmental resilience, which is important features to choose species more adequate for reforestation activities.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim this study was to evaluate the effect of salicylic acid (SA) in Schinus terebinthifolia seedlings subjected to irrigation intervals. The experiment was performed by 78 days, under four irrigation intervals: 0, 4, 8, and 12 days, in combination with four concentrations SA: 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg L-1. The irrigation was individually maintaining water retention capacity of 100%, under each irrigation intervals. The maximum height across the irrigation intervals was 24.74 cm at 7-days intervals, and 24.31 cm with 200 mg L-1 of SA. The largest leaf areas were 116.03 cm2 at 12-day interval and 123.71 cm2 with 200 mg L-1 of SA. The highest production of dry masses of leaves, stem and roots was without and 12-days intervals, both with 200 mg L-1 of SA. Exogenous application of 200 mg L-1 of SA contributed on increased growth in S. terebinthifolia seedlings subjected to 12-days irrigation interval.
Abstract in English:Abstract In the larval stage, bruchines can cause several damages to the seeds of their host plants due to the consumption of the embryo. The aim of this study was to identify the species of seed-feeding insects in Senna corymbosa (Fabaceae) and quantify the damage caused to seeds. For this purpose, ripe fruits of S. corymbosa were collected monthly from May to August 2014. The fruits were stored in containers to obtain the adult insects and quantify the damage to the seeds. A total of 3,548 seed beetles emerged from the fruits, around 89% belonging to Sennius lateapicalis. Insects consume up to 43.2% of the internal seed content. Moreover, the seed beetles Hymenoptera parasitoids emerged. In this study, seed-feeding insects are recorded for the first time in S. corymbosa. In addition, it contributes to describing fruits and seeds, as well as associated bruchine species and the damage they cause to seeds.
Abstract in English:Abstract Cabreúva (Myrocarpus frondosus Allemão) is a native species with ecological, ornamental, medicinal, and timber potential. This study aimed to evaluate the physical, physiological, and sanitary quality of Myrocarpus frondosus diaspores over 360 days in different storage environments. The initial characterization of the batch included the weight of 1,000 seeds, moisture content, electrical conductivity, germination potential (with substrates being between and on sand or vermiculite, and a paper roll) and sanitary quality (blotter test). The diaspores were stored in a room with ambient conditions, a dry and cold room, a wet and cold chamber, and a refrigerator. Evaluations were performed at 0, 90, 180, 270, and 360 days. The substrates between sand and between vermiculite are recommended for the germination of diaspores. Diaspores showed no recalcitrant behavior in relation to storage and can be stored in a dry and cold room (18 °C and 49% RH) for 360 days, with 57% germination. Fungal incidence increased the deterioration of the diaspores after 180 days of storage in a cold and dry environment.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim of this research was to evaluate the relationship between the biometrics of vessel-ray pits (RVP) and intervessel pits (IVP) with the water flow in different axes of Corymbia citriodora wood. C. citriodora wood specimens were used to correlate RVP and IVP dimensions with free water (FWFR), adsorbed (AWFR) and total (TWFR) flow. Correlations were made for three wood axes. Larger diameters of RVP facilitated FWFR, AWFR and TWFR in axial and tangential axis, however reduced permeability in radial direction of wood. Larger openings of IVPs reduced FWFR, AWFR and TWFR in axial axis of wood. Larger IVPs openings allowed higher FWFR and TWFR in wood radial and tangential directions, however, concomitantly reduced AWR. Effect of diameter of RVP and IVP on wood permeability should be evaluated for each axis. Thus, the opening of the C. citriodora wood pits can interfere in its permeability and consequently in its processing.
Abstract in English:Abstract During a period of 5 years, we monthly monitor the phenology and the stem diameter increment of 12 of Schinus terebinthifolius trees. Dendrometer bands were used for it. This study was aimed to answer the following questions: (i) Are there conflicting demands for resource allocation in different phenophases? (ii) In which period does the stem diameter increment occur? (iii) Which phenophases are more likely related to stem radial growth? The phenological observations were carried out using the Activity Index. In order to identify patterns in phenology and diameter increment over the assessment period (2010-2015), we performed an analysis of seasonal decomposition, followed by Pearson’s correlation analysis. Apparently, there is no conflicting demand for resources, but an optimized distribution of them, regulated mainly by the allocation of nutrients derived from leaf senescence, as well as, temperature rise and photoperiod. Higher diameter growth rates occurred from December to March which coincided with the flowering period.
Abstract in English:Abstract Many factors can influence the structures and distributions of plant communities. Plant diversity of swamp forests reflect responses to water stress conditions. We evaluated the floristic diversity, structure, and composition of the regenerating shrub-tree species of six swamp forests in veredas ecosystems (northern Minas Gerais, Brazil), and the floristic similarities between them. All individuals ≥ 1 cm in diameter at ground level and < 3 cm in diameter at breast height were sampled in one hundred 25 m2 plots in each area. A total of 5442 individuals were recorded, distributed among 134 species, 85 genera, and 47 botanical families, with a diversity (Shannon) of 3.38 and equability (Pielou) of 0.69. Beta diversity was high, while similarities between the areas were low, with only two species common to all six sites. The forests showed different compositions, diversities, and natural regeneration structures, reflecting their ecotone nature and past anthropic impacts.
Abstract in English:Abstract Urban growth promotes changes in the environment and in the quality of life. Urban afforestation enables environmental services. But afforestation requires planning and maintenance to avoid conflicts with other urban equipment. The objective of this work was to analyze the interaction between urban afforestation and energy distribution systems in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte. The state-owned energy concessionaire’s database was used, seeking to analyze the relationship between the history of outages in energy supply and the environmental factors associated with the fact, in the period between 2010 and 2015. It was found that the most relevant factors were the type of electrical energy distribution system (bare or isolated) and the maintenance (pruning) of the trees. The size of the tree and the strength of the wood are decisive in defining the demand for maintenance pruning to ensure a harmonious relationship between the trees and the electrical energy distribution system.
Abstract in English:Abstract The study evaluated the ecology of soil invertebrate faunal communities in periodically flooded forest (CF) fragments and anthropic fields (AF) in the Atlantic Forest. The sampling occurred in the rainy and dry seasons using pitfall traps. We estimated the total activity, richness, diversity, and evenness as well as the activity of the taxonomic and functional groups. Total activity and richness varied as a function of seasonality. Entomobryomorpha, Poduromorpha, and Symphypleona were the most representative taxonomic groups. Enchytraeidae and Blattaria were exclusive to CF. Auchenorrhyncha, Chilopoda, Heteroptera, and Thysanoptera were exclusive to AF. The functional group of microphagous/saprophagous (M/S) showed the highest activity, independent of the environment and season. Greater dissimilarity was observed among the invertebrate fauna in AF when compared to CF. Periodically flooded areas favored groups from the saprophagous trophic guild, while AF areas favored predator and herbivore groups. Soil fauna present in forest environments presented less seasonal variability.
Abstract in English:Abstract Tabebuia rosea is a native tropical tree species with high potential of implementation in commercial reforestation and ecological restoration. We studied the effect of the suppression of essential nutrients on the growth of T. rosea in the nursery. The design was completely randomized with ten treatments: one that included full fertilization, another without fertilization, and the others with the suppression of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, and cationic microelements. Biometric variables (height, stem diameter, shoot dry weight, root dry weight) and functional traits (leaf area and relative growth rate) were evaluated. Phosphorus was the most limiting element. On the contrary, the suppression of Ca generated plants with growth and development similar to those of the FF treatment. Our results confirmed the importance of knowing the particular nutritional needs of individual species, which is to support nursery fertilization practices that produce highly vigorous and quality plants.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this research was to evaluate the survival and growth of native tree saplings planted in a drained Mauritia flexuosa palm swamp (vereda) in southeastern Brazil, and to identify suitable species for restoration projects in these hygrophilous environments. Total sapling survival at one-year post-planting was 48%. The species with highest sapling survival and growth were Croton urucurana, Cecropia pachystachya, Erythroxylum citrifolium, Hirtella gracilipes and Tapirira guianensis. Lowest survival and growth were found in Mauritia flexuosa, Piper aduncum, Calophyllum brasiliense, Calyptranthes brasiliensis, Myrsine umbellata, Ladenbergia cujabensis and Ficus sp. We indicate the high-survival species for the restoration of these environments. Typical wetland species attained low survival and growth, indicating the negative influence of anthropization on this ecosystem’s resilience, and highlighting the importance of studies investigating suitable strategies to restore them.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the initial growth of Agonandra brasiliensis Miers ex Benth. & Hook. F. in response to different levels of shading and doses of controlled-release fertiliser (CRF). The experiment was conducted at Embrapa Roraima in Boa Vista, in a completely randomised experimental design and a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, of two luminosity levels (50 and 30%) and five doses of CRF (formulation 18-05-09, NPK) (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 g L-1 substrate), with five replications, each consisting of five plants. At 240 days after transplanting, the growth characteristics were evaluated, and the influence of the light levels and the CRF dose was recorded on these characteristics, either individually or interactively. It is suggested that plants of Agonandra brasiliensis be fertilised with a dose of 2 g L-1 CRF and grown in an environment with 50% of luminosity to maximize growth and efficiency in the production of high-quality seedlings.
Abstract in English:Abstract Fertilization can be a sustainable management practice for the maintenance of the threatened species such as Araucaria angustifolia. Our objective was to evaluate the elemental composition of A. angustifolia fertilized with N, P, and K, and how the fertilization altered the soil fertility. Seven-month-old seedlings were transplanted to 16 dm3 soil pots, and three experiments were carried separately (one for each cited element) in a completely randomized design. Overall, the seedlings tended to accumulate nutrients differently among the compartments in the following order: needles > branches > stem. Application of N reduced the soil pH, boosted Mn concentration in more 10 times, decreased the P uptake, and changed the C:N and C:P ratios. Increased doses of P led to higher uptake rates but promoted a reduction in the absorption of Mg. High rates of K diminished of P, Ca, Mg, Mn, and B, confirming antagonism interaction with Ca and Mg.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study evaluated the production of Inga laurina (Sw.) Willd seedlings in 110 and 280 cm3 tube containers and growing doses (0, 3, 6 and 12 kg m-3) of controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) (15-09-12) and their performance at 5 and 12 months after outplanting. The experiment was conducted using a randomized split-plot design, in a 2 x 4 arrangement (tube volumes x CRF doses). Stabilized sewage sludge from urban origin was used as substrate. It was assessed growth and biomass of the seedlings in nursery, as well as survival and growth after outplanting. Containers of 280 cm3 and doses between 6 to 12 kg m-3 produced seedlings in less time, with higher growth and biomass. At 12 months after outplanting, seedlings presented acceptable growth and mortality rate with doses equal or greater than 6 and 3 kg m-3 of CRF, respectively, for the 110 and 280 cm3 tube.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to define a methodology that, when combined with temperature, can overcome the dormancy and also to determine the adequate substrate and light conditions for germination of Colubrina glandulosa Perkins, contributing to seed analysis and restoration projects. In the experiment of dormancy and temperature, seeds were immersed in sulfuric acid for 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes and set to germinate at temperatures of 20-30 °C, 25 °C and 30 °C. The used substrates were sand, vermiculite, Tropstrato® substrate, coconut powder, blotting paper and paper towel. As for the light supplied, the seeds were subjected to four luminosity regimes: white light, far-red light, red light and light absence. Temperatures of 20-30 °C and 30 °C achieved better results, with exposure in sulfuric acid for 120 and 150 minutes. The substrates sand and vermiculite were the most suitable. The species germinated in all light regimes treatments used.
Abstract in English:Abstract Phenological studies are considerably complemented through field data and herbarium collection databases. We examined the seasonality and relationships between leafing and reproductive phenophases using field observations and herbarium data of Campomanesia eugenioides var. desertorum, Eugenia punicifolia, and Psidium schenckianum, all native species of Myrtaceae. Field observations were performed in a caatinga remnant in Bahia State, Brazil; HUEFS herbarium collections were examined. In general, all species showed seasonal reproductive phases and aseasonal leaf phases, and Spearman correlations were observed between those phases. Field observations and herbarium collections were similar and complementary, providing clues about seasonality and the relationship between leaf and reproductive phases of Myrtaceae species.
Abstract in English:Abstract Heliocarpus americanus is a fast-growing native tree, excellent for recovering degraded areas and its wood can be used as firewood or in the production of charcoal. For its use it is necessary identify the fungus will cause diseases. This work aimed to make the first report of the occurrence of the fungus Nigrospora sphaerica in seeds of H. americanus in Brazil. The fungus was detected in a batch of seeds collected from the native species. The fungus were analyzed by the Blotter test. Then, the fungus was isolated from the seeds and it characterized by morphology of colony and conidia and, molecular tests, what confirmed the identity of the pathogen. To conclude the study, the Koch’s postulates test was performed, where it was observed its transmission of seeds to H. americanus seedlings, elucidating the fungal damage in the seeds and later seedlings of this species.