Abstract in English:Abstract The aim was to evaluate the effect of chicken manure and substrate liming in the Campomanesia xanthocarpa (‘gabiroba’) physiology, nutrition and growth. Five dosages of chicken manure (0; 5; 10; 15 and 20 Mg ha-1) were studied without and with substrate liming. The treatments were arranged in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, in a randomized block design with four replications. There was an improvement on the chemical attributes in the substrate and nutrients contained in the plants where liming was performed. The highest plant height of C. xanthocarpa occurred with liming and 9.03 Mg ha-1 of chicken manure. The diameters were liming-grown plants and 4.57 mm with 5 Mg ha-1 of chicken manure. The photochemical efficiencies of PSII occurred in plants grown on liming substrate. It was concluded that C. xanthocarpa plants had their development optimizes with substrate liming and incorporation of 5 Mg ha-1 chicken manure.
Abstract in English:Abstract In Maranhão babassu forest, the decomposed babassu biomass (DBB) has been used empirically by several farmers for the production of Jacaranda mimosifolia seedlings. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of DBB as a substrate. The substrate compositions were S1: 100% soil (control); S2: 20% DBB; S3: 40% DBB; S4: 60% DBB; S5: 80% DBB and S6: 100% DBB. The experiment was carried out from October to December 2019 at Federal University of Maranhão, Chapadinha, Maranhão, Brazil. It was observed the use of DBB enhances the emergency speed index and germination percentage, besides resulted in the development of the aerial part and the root development. Thus, DBB may be used as an alternative substrate for the production of Jacaranda mimosifolia seedlings. It is recommended to include 40% babassu biomass with 60% soil in the composition of the substrate to improve the morphological development of Jacaranda mimosifolia seedlings.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This work was carried out in a teak plantation in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The objective was to evaluate technical and economic indicators of the cutting and processing of trees with a track harvester. Twenty complete work shifts were evaluated using direct thinning to determine operational cycle times. Other information was also recorded for the calculation of production costs. The second thinning was performed at 12 years, with a volume of 0.1648 m³/tree, and the third thinning at 18 years with 0.3408 m³/tree. The main finding was an increase in productivity and decrease in production costs with rising tree volumes. For each hour of effective work, 53 trees were cut (339 trees/day), and processed into 1,047 logs. The decrease in the cost of cutting and processing trees in proportion to the increase in the average volume of trees to be extracted was confirmed.
Abstract in English:Abstract The use of native species’ stem cuttings in riparian forests disturbed by silting could be a promising low-tech alternative for restoration practitioners in riverscape rehabilitation. In this study, we evaluated the vegetative propagation of Amazonian native plants (Buchenavia parviflora, Euterpe oleracea, Ficus insipida and Socratea exorrhiza) with the addition of a bio-fertilizer, and humic and fulvic acids in soil disturbed by human-induced silting. We found that F. insipida and B. parviflora were able to grow and showed high survival percentage with the development of leaves, buds, and roots; even in nutrient deficient and clayey soils. We also found that the frequency of application and the concentration of the organic additives did not show significant influence on plants’ development. Thus, advance in situ tests with both species could be an interesting step to contribute to riverine ecosystems restoration practices.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) biome suffers intense degradation due to several anthropic activities and its recovery is extremely important for the restoration of environmental quality. Therefore, the present study tested the survival and growth of seedlings of the grass Schizachyrium tenerum produced by the division of clumps. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using Reddish Oxisol, dystrophic of “cerrado sensu stricto” and Litholic Neosol dystrophic of quartzitic rupestrian grassland with and without the addition of limestone and NPK. Survival of S. tenerum was also compared between being grown in a greenhouse and directly in the field in full sun. Seedlings of S. tenerum had greater survival, total growth, number of tillers and accumulation of biomass when cultivated in Reddish Oxisol and Reddish Oxisol with limestone added than in the other treatments. Seedling survival was three times greater when grown in a greenhouse than in full sun.
Abstract in English:Abstract Bioindicator organisms, such as edaphic invertebrates, are constantly used to assess disturbance, as they exhibit responses such as reduced community and changes in diversity, affecting the local ecosystem. The aim of this study was to compare the impacts of disturbance on the edaphic invertebrate community in both a pasture area and a native forest area, during summer and winter. Samplings were conducted for nine days using pitfalls. Bray-Curtis analyses, NMDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER were applied. There was difference in richness and diversity between areas and seasons. Native forest pitfalls had higher similarity in abundance and diversity in both seasons than pasture pitfalls. Specimens belonging to 20 orders were collected; of those, Collembola, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera had the highest number of individuals. Seasonal influence on the organisms was evident. The impact on edaphic invertebrate community located in the pasture area showed that native forest has higher complexity and structural stability.
Abstract in English:Abstract Natural events associated to environmental disasters has increased with climate changes. Understanding the watershed behavior allows the managers to execute an efficient land use planning. By using as a study area the municipality of São Luiz do Paraitinga, the study’s goal was apply the Height Above the Nearest Drainage Model, which allows categorizing areas based on simulations of water level variations, to evaluate flooding risks at the municipality. The data were processed using ArcGIS Desktop v. 10.3, System for Automated Geoscientific Analysis and TerraHidro. The flood susceptibility map was generated with spatial resolution of 30 m. It was simulated water level variations of 7, 9, 12 and 15 meters and, according to the model, areas with high or very high flood susceptibility cover approximately 13% of the study area (81 km2). In general, the methods used afforded coherent results given the resolution of source data and available information.
Abstract in English:Abstract Mangrove forests are ecosystems naturally susceptible to environmental stresses, such as rising sea level and coastal erosion. However, the anthropic stresses, such as real estate speculation, deforestation and water pollution, put at risk this environment’s stability, interfering with its balance. The present work’s aim is to perform a temporal analysis of the mangrove forest that is a part of the Mocajuba river hydrographic basin and its buffer zone, as well as identifying natural and anthropic stresses to which the mangroves are susceptible. It was verified that the mangrove forest areas presented a substantial reduction between 1984 and 1999, and a small loss between 1999 and 2018. Thus, in the mangrove forest buffer zone, the anthropized areas increased while the forest areas decreased, demonstrating the deforestation in these areas. It can be concluded that the mangrove forest in the study region present a regression.
Abstract in English:Abstract Comparative studies of tree dynamics can be useful for the conservation of forest fragments in the Cerrado. We tested if the successional dynamics in fragments of semideciduous forest (SF) and cerradão (CE) are influenced by edge effects (EE). Two surveys were carried out with plots allocation in both physiognomies, from the edge towards the interior of the fragments. All trees with diameter at breast height ≥ 5cm were measured, identified and classified (ecological groups). Both physiognomies showed high recruitment and mortality rates when compared with other forests in Cerrado. We found an EE on tree density (SF), and on mortality, total basal area and basal area of dead (CE), although do not so notorious on a short-term scale. Probably because EE did not influence the ecological groups and canopy cover. Our results suggest that the forest fragmentation can act as a disturbance agent, causing changes in the tree dynamics of the Cerrado forests.
Abstract in English:Abstract Soil organic matter has great importance in chemical, physical and biological processes in soil-plant system. This study aimed to evaluate changes in carbon humic fractions of soil organic matter under different vegetation coverings in Cerrado in Tocantins, Brazil. The work was developed in Eucalyptus sp., Pasture, Agriculture and Cerrado sensu stricto areas. Soil samples were collected in dry period, October, 2018, in trenches 70 x 70 cm at depths 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 and 40-50 cm, with six replications. The vegetation cover in Eucalyptus sp. area showed higher levels of total carbon in soil humic fraction. Respectively fulvic acid, humic acid and humin in Eucalyptus sp. area had stocks of 22.09; 2.71 and 20.01% higher than native forest, 32.04; 2.57 and 35.59% higher than pasture and 10.59; 19.19 and 7.61% higher than the agriculture area. Among the different areas evaluated, the soil of Eucalyptus sp. has great potential to increase carbon storage in soil humic fractions.
Abstract in English:Abstract A promising alternative for insect pest control in agriculture is the use of entomopathogenic fungi. The objectives of this work were to isolate and identify morphologically and molecularly strains of entomopathogenic fungi from crops of agricultural and forestry interest for the development of insect biocontrol technologies in Argentina. Three strains of Beauveria bassiana, and two strains of Metarhizium anisopliae were isolated and morphologically identified. Identity values greater than 99% with strains of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae were obtained in molecular databases. It was also confirmed by phylogenetic methods that the sequences obtained from these strains were positioned within the clade that contained the sequences of reference of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae respectively. These results deepen the knowledge of the mycobiota of Argentinian crops as a basis for the development of biotechnological products in the area of biological control.
Abstract in English:Abstract Fragmentation of natural areas alters the natural landscape, removing native vegetation and creating an anthropic matrix. In order to better understand the consequences of grazing in areas of campo rupestre and forest, the present study aimed to analyze changes in the vegetation of Cerrado and Atlantic Forest, in the Southern Espinhaço, between 1979 and 2015. The vegetation of the study area was identified as arboreal (forest), or herbaceous or shrubby (campo rupestre) by visual classification of a mosaic of aerial photographs from 1979 and the supervised classification of land use from a Landsat 8 image from 2015. Differences in vegetation were analyzed using a transition matrix based on the “Markov model”, which indicated conversions of vegetation classes due to the misuse of land, mainly as pasture. The results indicate the conversion of arboreal vegetation area into areas of exotic herbaceous vegetation, and stability in the area of shrubby vegetation.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to determine the tree structure, floristic composition and species diversity in the Araucaria State Park, southern Brazil. We allocated 100 plots of 100 m2 (1 ha) each one, and we recorded all trees with diameters at breast height ≥ 5 cm. We sampled 1368 individuals of 106 species, 75 genera and 44 families. Fabaceae, Lauraceae and Myrtaceae showed the greatest richness of species. The diversity of tree species was high (H ‘= 3.96), although the observed richness was less than the estimated one. The basal area was 46.88 m2 ha-1. We observed an intrinsic association between Araucaria angustifolia and Nectandra megapotamica, and a predominance of secondary and zoochorous (> 70%) species. Endangered and vulnerable species in the Santa Catarina state, such as Araucaria angustifolia, Cedrela fissilis, Dicksonia sellowiana and Ocotea porosa were sampled in the Park, highlighting its importance for the conservation of the Mixed Ombrophylous Forest.
Abstract in English:Abstract The success of seedlings establishment for commercial planting and forest restoration depends on the availability of nutrients during seedlings production. The objective was to evaluate the efficiency in controlled-release fertilizer use in Cordyline spectabilis seedlings production and what is the additional cost per seedling produced. Seedling production was performed with doses of 0.0 (control); 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0 and 12.5 kg m-³ of Basacote® Plus 9M (16-08-12) controlled-release fertilizer added to the substrate. The experiment was placed in a greenhouse and we evaluated morphological parameters to determine seedlings growth. The dose of 10.7 kg m-3 provided a greater number of leaves (11.4) and leaf length (24.9 cm), higher values of shoot (4.64 g), root (2.32 g) and shoot root ratio (1.99) were obtained above 10.7 kg m-3 fertilizer. We recommend the use of 10.7 kg m-3 controlled-release fertilizer for seedlings production with an increase of R$ 0.05 per seedling produced.
Abstract in English:Abstract The study aimed to analyze the honey of Melipona subnitida to identify the plants visited by these bees in colonies installed in a restinga vegetation in Maranhão state. Honey was collected monthly from July/2017 to June/2018. The honey samples were submitted to the acetolysis method and the pollen grains were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The pollen analysis of honey resulted in 54 pollen types and 26 families. The largest pollen variety was registered in Fabaceae. Quantitative analyzes of pollen grains in honey samples revealed that three were monofloral, in July/2017 with Avicennia germinans honey and December/2017 and January/2018 with Copaifera martii honey. In the other months, the heterofloral honeys. Melipona subnitida proved to be general in food gathering. Knowing the flora used by M. subnita contributes to the meliponiculturists to improve the handling of the colonies, the increase and quality in the production of honey.
Abstract in English:Abstract The effect of hydrogel (0, 3, 6, and 9 g per seedling) on the survival and growth of Cariniana pyriformis seedlings under different water regimes (absence of irrigation, 60% and 100% field capacity) in a sandy loam soil was assessed. The experiment was carried out in an agricultural nursery with drip irrigation, implementing a completely randomized block design in a split-plot scheme. After 20 weeks of evaluation in both treatments with irrigation, the maximum dose showed a slight increase (9%) in stem diameter and seedling height compared with the control treatment, although the aerial and root dry biomass did not show differences. For the treatment without irrigation, the survival had a linear response with increasing doses, from 24% (0 g per seedling) to 65% (9 g per seedling). C. pyriformis responds positively to hydrogel when a severe water deficit occurs.
Abstract in English:Abstract Eucalyptus globulus is the second most important economic forest species in Chile. Its main use is in the kraft pulp industry, where large amounts of bark waste are generated. Due to its fibrous characteristics, E. globulus bark is proposed as an alternative source of fibres for papermaking. This study focuses on obtaining fibres for liner paper manufacture. A neutral sulphite semi-chemical (NSSC) process was performed, varying the sodium sulphite (5% to 16%) and the sodium carbonate (2% and 4%) concentrations using two reaction temperatures (160°C and 170°C). The NSSC process at 170°C, 16% of sulphite, and 2% of sodium carbonate proved to be the best condition to obtain higher mechanical performance of papers. As the pulping conditions become more drastic, the yield drops, and the physicomechanical properties of paper increases. Results showed that pulps from E. globulus bark could turn into source of fibres for papermaking and other related products.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to evaluate different container sizes and substrates formulated with agro-industrial residues to produce Handroanthus heptaphyllus and Schinus terebinthifolius seedlings. The experiment had a completely randomized design with four replications (48 seedlings each), in a factorial scheme (containers × substrates), with two containers (110 and 180 cm3) and ten substrates (agro-industrial residues (crushed peach pits and peel rice) mixed with organic compost). Carbonized and hydrolyzed rice husk (CRH and HRH, respectively) were used. At 90 and 108 days after the emergence of the S. terebinthifolius and H. heptaphyllus seedlings, the morphophysiological attributes were evaluated. Considering the attributes evaluated in this study, the 180 cm3 container promoted more significant seedling growth for both species. Substrates containing up to 20% CRH, HRH, or crushed peach pits (CPP) are indicated for S. terebinthifolius, and those with up to 30% CRH or 10% HRH or CPP are indicated for H. heptaphyllus.
Abstract in English:This study aimed to verify the genetic variability of matrix trees of Caryocar brasiliense, best known by the popular name of “pequi”, in a completely random delineation, with 20 treatments (matrices), and 50 repetitions (collected fruits in each matrix). We have evaluated the following traits of each fruit: weight (g), diameter (cm), length (cm), width (cm), and thickness (cm). As results we obtained a coefficient of experimental variation (CV e (%)) that showed advantageous values of 2.82 to 7.80, and the genotype heritability (h2 g (%)) of 55 to 95; both results can indicate favorable genetic control in the traits of the fruit. At the same time certain traits have significant genotypic and phenotypic correlations, which can be understood as an advantage for the improvement of the specie. In conclusion, we have noted that the population of Caryocar brasiliense has a high genetic variation, these results support the planning for genetic improvement programs.
Abstract in English:Abstract We present a case study focusing on collection methods and phenological data analyses. Qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative approaches were compared in terms of their efficiencies for describing flowering and fruiting intensities and phenophase synchrony in Himatanthus drasticus growing in a gallery forest in the Chapada Diamantina mountains, Brazil. Our results showed that phenophase intensity and synchrony were respectively each best. Determined using quantitative and qualitative methods We reinforce the importance of clearly defining research aims, as quantitative data collections require considerably greater field efforts than qualitative evaluations, especially concerning forest trees.