Excessive pronation and varus alignment of foot and shank: relationship with development of musculoskeletal pathologies - literature review

Thales Rezende de Souza Rafael Zambelli de Almeida Pinto Renato Guilherme Trede Priscila Albuquerque de Araújo Haroldo Leite Fonseca Sérgio Teixeira da Fonseca About the authors

The literature proposes biomechanical mechanisms that link excessive subtalar joint pronation to the development of several musculoskeletal pathologies. The presence of forefoot varus, rearfoot varus and tibiofibular varum can lead to the occurrence of excessive subtalar pronation. However, there is no consensus about the contribution of the movement pattern and/or the presence of these anatomical misalignments to the development of pathologies. The aim of the present study was to conduct a literature review in order to investigate the influence of increased varus alignment of forefoot, rearfoot and shank and of excessive subtalar pronation on the development of musculoskeletal pathologies. A systematic literature search was performed in the databases Medline, ISI - Web of Science, Lilacs and Scielo, and 13 analytic studies were selected. Ten studies found significant associations of lower-limb musculoskeletal pathologies with one or more of the anatomical misalignments analyzed or with one or more kinematic parameters related to excessive subtalar pronation. The analysis of the studies suggests that excessive pronation and/or the presence of these anatomical misalagniments should be regarded as possible risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal pathologies in the lower limb.

Pronation; foot; bone malalignment; pathology

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