Abstract in English:The expression of the ABH and Lewis blood groups was determined in blood and saliva samples from two semi-isolated Black communities of Northern Brazil: Cametá and Alcântara. The distributions of ABO blood group phenotypes and the ABH secretor status frequencies showed no significant differences between these populations. In contrast, there was a difference regarding the frequency of the red blood cell Le(a-b-) phenotypes, associated with erythrocyte/saliva discordance, as confirmed by the observation that individuals with Le(a-b-) red cells have the Lewis antigen in their saliva, resulting in a nongenuine Le(a-b-) phenotype, whose frequency was higher in Alcântara.
Abstract in English:Cytogenetic analyses were performed on a bone giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) and on three bone giant cell tumors (GCT). The present GCRG case is the second to be described cytogenetically. A modal chromosome number of 46 was observed in all samples. Clonal chromosome abnormalities were detected in all cases. The numerical alterations most frequently observed involved the loss of chromosomes 17 and 18. Among the structural anomalies observed, there was preferential involvement of chromosomes 6 and 10. Three GCT cases presented del(10)(p13) and two cases presented del(6)(q25) (1 GCRG and 1 GCT). These breakpoints mapped on 10p and 6q may harbour genes of importance in the development of bone giant cell tumors.
Abstract in English:Aphidicolin (APC)-induced chromosomal breakage was analyzed for women representing three generations of a single family and carrying a Robertsonian translocation rob(14q21q). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed the dicentric constitution of the derived chromosome and indicated the absence of beta-satellite signal at the translocation region. Per-individual analysis of metaphases from APC-treated peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures identified significantly nonrandom chromosomal breakage at the translocation region in all three individuals examined. The APC-inducible fragility at the 14q21q translocation region suggests that this rearrangement was the result of chromosomal mutation at fragile site(s) in the progenitor chromosomes, or that this fragility was the result of the fusion of nonfragile progenitor chromosomes.
Abstract in English:Fixed bin frequencies for the VNTR loci D2S44, D4S139, D5S110, and D8S358 were determined in a Minas Gerais population sample. The data were generated by RFLP analysis of HaeIII-digested genomic DNA and chemiluminescent detection. The four VNTR loci have met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and there was no association of alleles among VNTR loci. The frequency data can be used in forensic analyses and paternity tests to estimate the frequency of a DNA profile in the general Brazilian population.
Abstract in English:The frequencies of mitomycin C and cyclophosphamide-induced kidney and gill erythrocyte micronuclei were compared in Tilapia rendalli and Oreochromis niloticus. Cyclophosphamide (CP) and mitomycin C (MMC) were previously used to investigate fish sensitivity to micronuclei induction in kidney erythrocytes. Fish were treated with a single dose of cyclophosphamide (40 mg/kg) or mitomycin C (2 mg/kg). Peripheral blood samples and kidney blood samples were obtained, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 15 days after the intra-abdominal injection of MMC. T. rendalli showed to be more sensitive than O. niloticus to micronuclei production. Both compounds were used at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and mitomycin C proved to be more toxic than cyclophosphamide. The frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes observed varied significantly among the treated individuals. The difference between the kidney and gill micronuclei frequencies was not significant. Higher levels of micronucleated erythrocytes were observed in Tilapia rendalli than in O. niloticus. T. rendalli produced erythrocytes with deformed nuclei, which O. niloticus did not.
Abstract in English:Evolution of metazoan 5S rRNA sequences was analyzed through base composition and types, location and frequency of clustered bases. Characters from sequences of protostomes did not show regular trends as compared with paleontology dating or organism complexity. Trends of increasing G and C, stronger in G clusters, and decreasing A and U, were detected in deuterostomes, in parallel with evolution of complexity. The multifunctional domain 71-104 was highlighted among conserved stretches. Clusters of C were typical of helices. Those of G were longer, extending from helices into loops or related to bulges, which is suggestive of functional significance. Deuterostomian trends were installed early in the lineage and reached full development in aquatic organisms, not increasing further after reptiles. It can be suggested that ribosomal RNA structures participated in deuterostomian high regulatory complexity, either specifically or as part of the widespread processes of chromosomal regionalization.
Abstract in English:In this study, we describe the use of a STAT5 responsive element (LHRE) reporter gene to monitor the activity of the growth hormone (GH) transduction pathway following expression of heterologous fish GH and rat STAT5b in tilapia embryos and fish fibroblast cells. Our results indicate that both GH and STAT5b are able to activate the LHRE at high levels when transferred separately, demonstrating the substantial level of conservation of the GH signal transduction pathways between fish and mammals. Unexpectedly, co-expression experiments show a strong inhibition of the GH-dependent activation, suggesting that simultaneous GH and STAT5b overexpression can counteract effects of GH expression in tilapia embryos.
Abstract in English:The family Gasteropelecidae is composed of three genera and eight species. This study shows that Thoracocharax cf. stellatus has 2n = 52 chromosomes for both sexes. The five males studied showed 8 metacentric, 16 submetacentric, 4 subtelocentric, and 24 acrocentric chromosomes; the seven females showed only one submetacentric chromosome, belonging to pair 11, and one extra acrocentric chromosome, smaller than all the other chromosomes, characterizing the presence of a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in this species. Nucleolus organizing regions (NORs) were detected on the short arms of the subtelocentric chromosome pair 13. Constitutive heterochromatin was identified at pericentromeric and terminal positions in almost all chromosomes. The W chromosome was almost entirely heterochromatic, except for a small terminal euchromatic segment. The analyses of the amount of nuclear DNA found 2.18 ± 0.09 pg of DNA per diploid nucleus, without significant differences between sexes. A discussion about the evolution of the sex chromosomes in this group is presented.
Abstract in English:The GTG-banding and 5-BrdU incorporation patterns of the late-replicating X-chromosome were studied in female dogs and cattle, and compared to human female patterns. The replication patterns of the short arm of the X-chromosomes did not show any difference between human, dog and cattle females. As to the long arm, some bands showed differences among the three studied species regarding the replication kinetics pattern. These differences were observed in a restricted region of the X-chromosome, delimited by Xq11 -> q25 in humans, by Xq1 -> q8 in dogs, and by Xq12 -> q32 in cattle. In an attempt to find out if these differences in the replication kinetics could be a reflection of differences in the localization of genes in that region of the X-chromosome, we used the probe for the human androgen receptor gene (AR) localized at Xq12, which is in the region where we observed differences among the three studied species. We did not, however, observe hybridization signals. Our study goes on, using other human probes for genes located in the region Xq11 -> Xq25.
Abstract in English:The mitochondrial control region sequence was compared between the two surviving matrilineal lineages of the Sorraia horse. Two haplotypes were found, showing three differences between them. The reduced number of surviving maternal lineages emphasizes the importance of establishing a conservation plan for this endangered breed.
Abstract in English:Molecular diagnostics are performed by using DNA from different body tissues. However, it is necessary to obtain genomic DNA of good quality. Due to the impossibility of collecting blood from slaughtered animals, DNA extraction from solid tissues is necessary. The objective of this study was to describe a protocol of DNA extraction from swine skin, adipose, brain, liver, kidney and muscle tissues. We obtained high molecular weight DNA of good quality, shown by agarose gel and amplification of two DNA fragments, 605bp and 891pb, by PCR. Spectrophotometric analysis of DNA concentration showed variation among the DNA from different tissues, with the liver and adipose tissues presenting the greatest and the smallest concentration, respectively. The described protocol has proven to be advantageous due to its simplicity, quickness, affordable reagents and absence of phenol, resulting in a high molecular weight DNA of good quality from several tissues.
Abstract in English:The soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) frogeye leaf spot is caused by the fungus Cercospora sojina Hara and is a widespread disease in Brazil and other countries, causing severe losses in grain yield and also affecting seed quality. The availability of DNA markers linked to genes for resistance to this disease would accelerate breeding programs, particularly when other traits are also being evaluated. Bulked segregant analysis was applied to 3 F2 populations derived from crosses between the resistant cultivars Parana, Cristalina and Uberaba, and the susceptible cultivar Bossier. In the cross 'Parana' x 'Bossier', 2 RAPD markers were identified, CSOPA1(800C) and CSOPA2(1,250C), located at 4.4 ± 1.8 centiMorgans (cM) and 3.4 ± 1.7 cM respectively from the resistance locus. DNA fragments of similar molecular weight were observed in the population derived from the cross 'Cristalina' x 'Bossier' at 2.3 ± 1.2 and 4.7 ± 1.5 cM from the resistance locus, respectively. In the offspring of the cross 'Uberaba' x 'Bossier', a DNA fragment corresponding to marker CSOPA1(800C) was detected at 5.6 ± 2.1 cM from the resistance locus. Although marker CSOPA2(1,250C) was not observed in this population, an additional marker was detected (CSOUB1(1,100C)) at 6.7 ± 2.2 cM from the resistance locus. The 1,250 bp fragment of CSOPA2(1,250C) was cloned and converted into a SCAR marker, which amplified a single fragment whose size corresponded to the cloned segment of the crosses involving cultivars Cristalina and Parana. Markers CSOPA1(800C), CSOPA2(1,250C) and CSOUB1(1,100C) were mapped to soybean linkage group J with the aid of known SSRs linked to the Rcs3 locus, indicating that the RAPD and SCAR markers identified in our research also tag this resistance gene.
Abstract in English:Earliest possible prediction of seed-yield potential of autogamous crop populations increases breeding program efficiency by saving time and resources. Alternatives for obtaining seed-yield predictions were compared by evaluating four common-bean populations in F1 and F2 generations together with the parents. Mean components (m + a' and d) and variances were estimated. The potential of each population was predicted by using both these and the Jinks and Pooni (1976) procedure, which allows probability estimation of each population of originating lines surpassing a determined standard. Estimate efficiency was determined by evaluating performances of 62 F5:7 families from each population. Mean component m + a' estimates obtained for the F1 and F2 generations proved efficient in predicting seed yield of F7 generation lines as did d for estimate variance among F7 generation families. In addition, the Jinks and Pooni (1976) procedure proved efficient in early prediction of common bean population genetic potentials, especially when using the m + a' estimate.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to generate information relative to the allele distribution and dynamics within and among populations of Araucaria angustifolia, a naturally-occurring conifer in the south of Brazil, being known popularly as "pinheiro-do-Paraná", "araucaria" or pine tree. In order to elucidate the levels and the distribution of the genetic variability, the population's genetic structure and the genetic distance among natural populations of this species with different levels of disturbance in different geographical areas were studied in detail. For this, samples of leaf tissue were collected from 328 adult individuals in nine natural populations in Santa Catarina State. To analyze the samples, the allozyme technique was applied in starch gel electrophoresis (penetrose 13%), with citrate/morfholine buffer. Nine enzymatic systems (PGM, PGI MDH, PRX, SKDH, 6PGDH, ACP, IDH and G6PDH) revealed 15 loci. The analysis provided values for He and Ho of 0.084 and 0.072, respectively. The general average of polymorphic loci was 73% in the species and 26.6% in the studied populations and the allele number per locus was 1.6. Wright's F-statistical estimates indicated the existence of inbreeding in populations (F IS= 0.148) and a low divergence among populations (F ST = 0.044). However, the inbreeding values were variable in different populations. Taken together, the results indicated that the greater part of the genetic variability is contained within populations. The working hypothesis that originally there was greater genetic diversity can be supported by these results which indicate that in the degraded populations the diversity indexes are lower in the degraded populations than those found in better-conserved populations. Thus the fragmentation of the forest followed by "araucaria" exploitation could have contributed to the genetic differentiation expressed through the allele frequency of the studied population.
Abstract in English:Crosses between resistant and susceptible soybean cultivars were performed and the F2 populations were obtained to study the inheritance of soybean resistance to powdery mildew and to estimate the number and action of genes related to resistance. The reaction to powdery mildew was studied in a greenhouse and pots carrying plants with symptoms were distributed among the pots carrying the genotypes to be tested as a source of inoculum. Individual plants were scored according to the method of Yorinori (1997), with modifications, and classified as resistant or susceptible. The results showed that adult soybeans plants can present resistance to powdery mildew, which is controlled by one major gene with a dominant effect.
Abstract in English:Natural selection takes place while advancing generations of segregant populations of self pollinating species by the population (bulk) method. There is evidence that it maintains the individuals with greater grain yield. The question arises whether natural selection preserves the individuals which are more adapted only to the environment where the generation advance occurred, that is, if it contributes to increasing the genotype x environment interaction in the family assessment. This study was carried out to check this hypothesis in the common bean plant using families derived from a segregating population from a cross between the Carioca MG x ESAL 686 cultivars. The segregating populations increase in homozygosity was obtained by the population (bulk) method until the F14 generation, in three distinct locations in Minas Gerais state: Lavras, Lambari and Patos de Minas. Forty-seven F14:15 families were randomly taken from the population in each location and later multiplied to obtain F14:16 families. These families were jointly assessed with three controls using a triple 12 x 12 lattice design in the three locations of generation advance in the wet season of 1998/1999. All the estimated parameters showed that while advancing segregant populations by the population (bulk) method, natural selection acted to preserve the individuals which are more adapted to the environment in which they were advanced.
Abstract in English:Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) was used to establish the genetic relationships among 20 species from seven of the nine sections of genus Arachis. The level of polymorphism among nine accessions of the cultivated peanut, A. hypogaea L., was also evaluated. Three combinations of primers were used to amplify the AFLPs. The fragments were separated in 6% denaturing acrylamide gels. A total of 408 fragments were analyzed. An average of 135.3 fragments per primer combination were scored, and the largest number of fragments was 169 using primer combination Eco RI - ACC / Mse I - CTG, while the lowest was 108, with Eco RI - ACT / Mse I - CTT. In general, the genetic relationships established using AFLPs agreed with the classification established using morphology and crossability data. The results indicated that AFLPs are good markers for establishing the relationships among Arachis species. The polymorphism detected in A. hypogaea by this method was higher than the one found with other markers, like RAPDs and RFLPs. However, our data suggest that the polymorphism detected be using AFLP with only three primer combinations is still too low to be used for any kind of genetic study in this species.