• Genomic imbalances in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma identified by molecular cytogenetic techniques Review Article

    Bellini, Marilanda Ferreira; Silva, Ana Elizabete; Varella-Garcia, Marileila

    Abstract in English:

    This review summarizes the chromosomal changes detected by molecular cytogenetic approaches in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the ninth most common malignancy in the world. Whole genome analyses of ESCC cell lines and tumors indicated that the most frequent genomic gains occurred at 1, 2q, 3q, 5p, 6p, 7, 8q, 9q, 11q, 12p, 14q, 15q, 16, 17, 18p, 19q, 20q, 22q and X, with focal amplifications at 1q32, 2p16-22, 3q25-28, 5p13-15.3, 7p12-22, 7q21-22, 8q23-24.2, 9q34, 10q21, 11p11.2, 11q13, 13q32, 14q13-14, 14q21, 14q31-32, 15q22-26, 17p11.2, 18p11.2-11.3 and 20p11.2. Recurrent losses involved 3p, 4, 5q, 6q, 7q, 8p, 9, 10p, 12p, 13, 14p, 15p, 18, 19p, 20, 22, Xp and Y. Gains at 5p and 7q, and deletions at 4p, 9p, and 11q were significant prognostic factors for patients with ESCC. Gains at 6p and 20p, and losses at 10p and 10q were the most significant imbalances, both in primary carcinoma and in metastases, which suggested that these regions may harbor oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Gains at 12p and losses at 3p may be associated with poor relapse-free survival. The clinical applicability of these changes as markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of ESCC, or as molecular targets for personalized therapy should be evaluated.
  • NS3 protease from flavivirus as a target for designing antiviral inhibitors against dengue virus Review Article

    Natarajan, Satheesh

    Abstract in English:

    The development of novel therapeutic agents is essential for combating the increasing number of cases of dengue fever in endemic countries and among a large number of travelers from non-endemic countries. The dengue virus has three structural proteins and seven non-structural (NS) proteins. NS3 is a multifunctional protein with an N-terminal protease domain (NS3pro) that is responsible for proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein, and a C-terminal region that contains an RNA triphosphatase, RNA helicase and RNA-stimulated NTPase domain that are essential for RNA replication. The serine protease domain of NS3 plays a central role in the replicative cycle of dengue virus. This review discusses the recent structural and biological studies on the NS2B-NS3 protease-helicase and considers the prospects for the development of small molecules as antiviral drugs to target this fascinating, multifunctional protein.
  • Inbreeding levels in Northeast Brazil: strategies for the prospecting of new genetic disorders Human and Medical Genetics

    Santos, Silvana; Kok, Fernando; Weller, Mathias; Paiva, Francisco Rennan Lopes de; Otto, Paulo A.

    Abstract in English:

    A new autosomal recessive genetic condition, the SPOAN syndrome (an acronym for spastic paraplegia, optic atrophy and neuropathy syndrome), was recently discovered in an isolated region of the State of Rio Grande do Norte in Northeast Brazil, in a population that was identified by the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) as belonging to the Brazilian communities with the highest rates of "deficiencies" (Neri, 2003), a term used to describe diseases, malformations, and handicaps in general. This prompted us to conduct a study of consanguinity levels in five of its municipal districts by directly interviewing their inhabitants. Information on 7,639 couples (corresponding to about 40% of the whole population of the studied districts) was obtained. The research disclosed the existence of very high frequencies of consanguineous marriages, which varied from about 9% to 32%, suggesting the presence of a direct association between genetic diseases such as the SPOAN syndrome, genetic drift and inbreeding levels. This fact calls for the introduction of educational programs for the local populations, as well as for further studies aiming to identify and characterize other genetic conditions. Epidemiological strategies developed to collect inbreeding data, with the collaboration of health systems available in the region, might be very successful in the prospecting of genetic disorders.
  • Association of homocysteine and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T) gene polymorphism with coronary artery disease (CAD) in the population of North India Human and Medical Genetics

    Tripathi, Rajneesh; Tewari, Satyendra; Singh, Prabhat Kumar; Agarwal, Sarita

    Abstract in English:

    The implications of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the level of homocysteine in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) have been extensively studied in various ethnic groups. Our aim was to discover the association of MTHFR (C677T) polymorphism and homocysteine level with CAD in north Indian subjects. The study group consisted of 329 angiographically proven CAD patients, and 331 age and sex matched healthy individuals as controls. MTHFR (C677T) gene polymorphism was detected based on the polymerase chain reaction and restriction digestion with HinfI. Total homocysteine plasma concentration was measured using immunoassay. T allele frequency was found to be significantly higher in patients than in the control group. We found significantly elevated levels of mean homocysteine in the patient group when compared to the control group (p = 0.00). Traditional risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, smoking habits, a positive family history and lipid profiles (triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol), were found significantly associated through univariate analysis. Furthermore, multivariable logistics regression analysis revealed that CAD is significantly and variably associated with diabetes, hypertension, smoking, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. Our findings showed that MTHFR C677T polymorphism and homocysteine levels were associated with coronary artery disease in the selected population.
  • Frequencies of BCR-ABL1 fusion transcripts among Sudanese chronic myeloid leukaemia patients Human and Medical Genetics

    Osman, Emad-Aldin I.; Hamad, Kamal; Elmula, Imad M. Fadl; Ibrahim, Muntaser E.

    Abstract in English:

    The incidence of one or other rearrangement in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients varies in different reported series. In this study we report the frequencies of BCR-ABL1 fusion transcript variants studied in 43 CML patients from Sudan. The study includes 46 Sudanese patients, three of which negative for the BCR-ABL1 fusion transcript. More than half of 43 positive patients showed b2a2 fusion transcript (53.5%), while (41.9%) showed b3a2 transcript and the remaining (4.6%) coexpression of b3a2/ b2a2 and b3a2/b2a2/e19a2. We detected neither coexpression of p210/p190 nor e1a2 alone. Male patients showed a tendency to express b2a2, while female tende to express b3a2 (p = 0.017). Moreover, a single nucleotide polymorphism was detected in BCR exon 13 in one out of four patients and this patient showed only b2a2 expression. In conclusion, we observed a significant correlation between sex and type of BCR-ABL1 transcript, an observation that deserves further investigation.
  • Novel mutations in the TBX5 gene in patients with Holt-Oram Syndrome Human and Medical Genetics

    Porto, Marianna P.R.; Vergani, Naja; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos C.; Cernach, Mirlene C.S.P.; Brunoni, Decio; Perez, Ana Beatriz A.

    Abstract in English:

    The Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by upper limb and cardiac malformations. Mutations in the TBX5 gene cause HOS and have also been associated with isolated heart and arm defects. Interactions between the TBX5, GATA4 and NKX2.5 proteins have been reported in humans. We screened the TBX5, GATA4, and NKX2.5 genes for mutations, by direct sequencing, in 32 unrelated patients presenting classical (8) or atypical HOS (1), isolated congenital heart defects (16) or isolated upper-limb malformations (7). Pathogenic mutations in the TBX5 gene were found in four HOS patients, including two new mutations (c.374delG; c.678G > T) in typical patients, and the hotspot mutation c.835C > T in two patients, one of them with an atypical HOS phenotype involving lower-limb malformations. Two new mutations in the GATA4 gene were found in association with isolated upper-limb malformations, but their clinical significance remains to be established. A previously described possibly pathogenic mutation in the NKX2.5 gene (c.73C > 7) was detected in a patient with isolated heart malformations and also in his clinically normal father.
  • Cytogenetic analysis of Astylus antis (Perty, 1830) (Coleoptera, Melyridae): Karyotype, heterochromatin and location of ribosomal genes Animal Genetics

    Mendes-Neto, Ernani de Oliveira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Campaner, Carlos; Nogaroto, Viviane; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Almeida, Mara Cristina

    Abstract in English:

    Cytogenetic analysis of Astylus antis using mitotic and meiotic cells was performed to characterize the haploid and diploid numbers, sex determination system, chromosome morphology, constitutive heterochromatin distribution pattern and chromosomes carrying nucleolus organizer regions (NORs). Analysis of spermatogonial metaphase cells revealed the diploid number 2n = 18, with mostly metacentric chromosomes. Metaphase I cells exhibited 2n = 8II+Xyp and a parachute configuration of the sex chromosomes. Spermatogonial metaphase cells submitted to C-banding showed the presence of small dots of constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of nearly all the autosomes and on the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp), as well as an additional band on one of the arms of pair 1. Mitotic cells submitted to double staining with base-specific fluorochromes (DAPI-CMA3) revealed no regions rich in A+T or G+C sequences. Analysis of spermatogonial mitotic cells after sequential Giemsa/AgNO3 staining did not reveal any specific mark on the chromosomes. Meiotic metaphase I cells stained with silver nitrate revealed a strong impregnation associated to the sex chromosomes, and in situ hybridization with an 18S rDNA probe showed ribosomal cistrons in an autosomal bivalent.
  • Meiotic chromosomes and nucleolar behavior in testicular cells of the grassland spittlebugs Deois flavopicta, Mahanarva fimbriolata and Notozulia entreriana (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha) Animal Genetics

    Castanhole, Márcia Maria Urbanin; Pereira, Luis Lênin Vicente; Souza, Hederson Vinicius de; Valério, José Raul; Barbosa, Leonardo Rodrigues; Itoyama, Mary Massumi

    Abstract in English:

    Spittlebugs annually infest pastures and cause severe damage, representing a serious problem for the tropical American beef cattle industry. Spittlebugs are an important biotic constraint to forage production and there is a lack of cytogenetic data for this group of insects. For these reasons, we conducted this work, in which the spermatogenesis and nucleolar behavior of Deois flavopicta, Mahanarva fimbriolata and Notozulia entreriana were studied. The males possessed testes in the shape of a "bunch of grapes"; a variable number of testicular lobes per individual and polyploid nuclei composed of several heteropycnotic bodies. A heteropycnotic area was located in the periphery of the nucleus (prophase I); the chiasmata were terminal or interstitial; metaphases I were circular or linear and anaphase showed late migration of the sex chromosome. The chromosome complement had 2n = 19, except for N. entreriana (2n = 15); the spermatids were round with heteropycnotic material in the center and elongated with conspicuos chromatin. The analysis of testes after silver nitrate staining showed polyploid nuclei with three large and three smaller nucleolar bodies. Early prophase cells had an intensely stained nucleolar body located close to the chromatin and another less evident body located away from the chromatin. The nucleolar bodies disintegrated during diplotene. Silver staining occurred in two autosomes, in terminal and subterminal locations, the latter probably corresponding to the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs). The spermatids were round with a round nucleolar body and silver staining was observed in the medial and posterior region of the elongated part of the spermatid head.
  • Cytogenetic characterization of Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera, Apidae) by fluorochromes Animal Genetics

    Marthe, Jefferson de Brito; Pompolo, Silvia das Graças; Campos, Lucio Antônio de Oliveira; Salomão, Tânia Maria Fernandes; Tavares, Mara Garcia

    Abstract in English:

    Four colonies of the stingless bee Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were cytogenetically analyzed using conventional staining and the fluorochromes CMA3 e DAPI. The females have 2n = 34 chromosomes (2K=32<img border=0 src="../../../../../../../img/revistas/gmb/2010nahead/ah06a04CarM.gif" align=absmiddle>+2<img border=0 src="../../../../../../../img/revistas/gmb/2010nahead/ah06a04CarA.gif" align=absmiddle>). Some females, however, presented an additional large B acrocentric chromosome, to a total of 2n = 35. Chromosome B and the chromosomal pairs 2, 9 and 10 showed CMA3+ bands, indicating an excess of CG base-pairs. A clear association was verified between the P. helleri B chromosome SCAR marker and the presence of a B chromosome in P. cupira. The data obtained suggests that B chromosomes in P. helleri and P. cupira share a common origin.
  • Thaptomys Thomas 1915 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae, Akodontini) with karyotypes 2n = 50, FN = 48, and 2n = 52, FN = 52: two monophyletic lineages recovered by molecular phylogeny Animal Genetics

    Ventura, Karen; Silva, Maria José de Jesus; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo

    Abstract in English:

    A novel karyotype with 2n = 50, FN = 48, was described for specimens of Thaptomys collected at Una, State of Bahia, Brazil, which are morphologically indistinguishable from Thaptomys nigrita, 2n = 52, FN = 52, found in other localities. It was hence proposed that the 2n = 50 karyotype could belong to a distinct species, cryptic of Thaptomys nigrita, once chromosomal rearrangements observed, along with the geographic distance, might represent a reproductive barrier between both forms. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood based on partial cytochrome b sequences with 1077 bp were performed, attempting to establish the relationships among the individuals with distinct karyotypes along the geographic distribution of the genus; the sample comprised 18 karyotyped specimens of Thaptomys, encompassing 15 haplotypes, from eight different localities of the Atlantic Rainforest. The intra-generic relationships corroborated the distinct diploid numbers, once both phylogenetic reconstructions recovered two monophyletic lineages, a northeastern clade grouping the 2n = 50 and a southeastern clade with three subclades, grouping the 2n = 52 karyotype. The sequence divergence observed between their individuals ranged from 1.9% to 3.5%.
  • Cytogenetic analysis of three sea catfish species (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Ariidae) with the first report of Ag-NOR in this fish family Animal Genetics

    Nirchio, Mauro; Martinez, Emanuel Ricardo Monteiro; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    Abstract in English:

    Despite their ecological and economical importance, fishes of the family Ariidae are still genetically and cytogenetically poorly studied. Among the 133 known species of ariids, only eight have been karyotyped. Cytogenetic analyses performed on Genidens barbus and Sciades herzbergii revealed that both species have 2n = 56 chromosomes and Cathorops aff. mapale has 2n = 52 chromosomes: Genidens barbus has 10 Metacentrics (M), 14 Submetacentrics (SM), 26 Subtelocentrics (ST), and 6 Acrocentrics (A), Sciades herzbergii has 14M, 20SM, 18ST and 4A, whereas Cathorops aff. mapale has 14M, 20SM, and 18ST. The nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were found in a single chromosome pair on the short arm of a large-sized ST pair in Genidens barbus and on the short arm of a middle-size SM pair in Cathorops aff. mapale. Multiple NORs on the short arms of two large-sized ST pairs were found in Sciades herzbergii. The occurrence of diploid numbers ranging from 2n = 52 through 56 chromosomes and the presence of different karyotypic compositions, besides the number and position of NORs suggest that several numeric and structural chromosome rearrangements were fixed during the evolutionary history of this fish family.
  • Association of IGF-I gene polymorphisms with milk yield and body size in Chinese dairy goats Animal Genetics

    Deng, Chanjuan; Ma, Rongnuan; Yue, Xiangpeng; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chuzhao

    Abstract in English:

    The association of IGF-I gene polymorphisms with certain traits in 708 individuals of two Chinese dairy-goat breeds (Guanzhong and Xinong Saanen) was investigated. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing methods were employed in screening for genetic variation. Two novel mutations were detected in the 5'-flanking region and in intron 4 of IGF-I gene, viz., g.1617 G > A and g.5752 G > C (accession D26119.2), respectively. The associations of the g.1617 G > A mutation with milk yield and the body size were not significant (p > 0.05). However, in the case of g.5752 G > C, Xinong Saanen dairy goats with the CG genotype presented longer bodies (p < 0.05). Chest circumference (p < 0.05) was larger in Guanzhong goats with the GG genotype. In Xinong Saanen dairy goats with the CC genotype, milk yields were significantly higher during the first and second lactations (p < 0.05). Hence, the g.5752 G > C mutation could facilitate association analysis and serve as a genetic marker for Chinese dairy-goat breeding and genetics.
  • Genetic variation in the Solanaceae fruit bearing species lulo and tree tomato revealed by Conserved Ortholog (COSII) markers Plant Genetics

    Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix; Martínez, Rodrigo; Lobo, Mario; Barrero, Luz Stella

    Abstract in English:

    The Lulo or naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) and the tree tomato or tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Sendt.) are both Andean tropical fruit species with high nutritional value and the potential for becoming premium products in local and export markets. Herein, we present a report on the genetic characterization of 62 accessions of lulos (n = 32) and tree tomatoes (n = 30) through the use of PCR-based markers developed from single-copy conserved orthologous genes (COSII) in other Solanaceae (Asterid) species. We successfully PCR amplified a set of these markers for lulos (34 out of 46 initially tested) and tree tomatoes (26 out of 41) for molecular studies. Six polymorphic COSII markers were found in lulo with a total of 47 alleles and five polymorphic markers in tree tomato with a total of 39 alleles in the two populations. Further genetic analyses indicated a high population structure (with F ST > 0.90), which may be a result of low migration between populations, adaptation to various niches and the number of markers evaluated. We propose COSII markers as sound tools for molecular studies, conservation and the breeding of these two fruit species.
  • Relationship between epistasis and aggressiveness in resistance of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) to Phytophthora nicotianae Plant Genetics

    Bnejdi, Fethi; Saadoun, Morad; Allagui, Mohamed Bechir; Hanbury, Colin; El Gazzah, Mohamed

    Abstract in English:

    This study evaluated the types of gene action governing the inheritance of resistance to Phytophthora nicotianae necrosis in populations derived from two crosses involving two susceptible (Beldi and Nabeul II) and one resistant (CM334) cultivars of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Populations, composed of Pr, Ps, F1,F2,BC1Pr, and BC1Ps generations, were inoculated with six P. nicotianae isolates. Generation means analysis indicated that an additive-dominance model was appropriate for P. nicotianae isolates PnKo1,PnKo2 and PnKr1, which showed low aggressiveness in the two crosses. For the more aggressive isolates PnBz1,PnBz2 and PnKr2, epistasis was an integral component of resistance in the two crosses. The presence of epistasis in the resistance of pepper to P. nicotianae was dependent on the level of aggressiveness of the isolates. Selection in pepper with less aggressive isolates was efficient, but not with more aggressive isolates; on the other hand, selection with more aggressive isolates was more stable. The minimum number of genes controlling resistance was estimated at up to 2.71. In the majority of cases, the additive variance was significant and greater than the environmental and dominance variance.
  • Molecular cloning and expression profiling of a chalcone synthase gene from hairy root cultures of Scutellaria viscidula Bunge Plant Genetics

    Lei, Wei; Tang, Shao-Hu; Luo, Ke-Ming; Sun, Min

    Abstract in English:

    A cDNA encoding chalcone synthase (CHS), the key enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, was isolated from hairy root cultures of Scutellaria viscidula Bunge by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of S. viscidula CHS, designated as Svchs (GenBank accession no. EU386767), was 1649 bp with a 1170 bp open reading frame (ORF) that corresponded to a deduced protein of 390 amino acid residues, a calculated molecular mass of 42.56 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 5.79. Multiple sequence alignments showed that SvCHS shared high homology with CHS from other plants. Functional analysis in silico indicated that SvCHS was a hydrophilic protein most likely associated with intermediate metabolism. The active sites of the malonyl-CoA binding motif, coumaroyl pocket and cyclization pocket in CHS of Medicago sativa were also found in SvCHS. Molecular modeling indicated that the secondary structure of SvCHS contained mainly α-helixes and random coils. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SvCHS was most closely related to CHS from Scutellaria baicalensis. In agreement with its function as an elicitor-responsive gene, the expression of Svchs was induced and coordinated by methyl jasmonate. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the isolation and expression of a gene from S. viscidula.
  • A genomic analysis of disease-resistance genes encoding nucleotide binding sites in Sorghum bicolor Plant Genetics

    Cheng, Xiao; Jiang, Haiyang; Zhao, Yang; Qian, Yexiong; Zhu, Suwen; Cheng, Beijiu

    Abstract in English:

    A large set of candidate nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-encoding genes related to disease resistance was identified in the sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genome. These resistance (R) genes were characterized based on their structural diversity, physical chromosomal location and phylogenetic relationships. Based on their N-terminal motifs and leucine-rich repeats (LRR), 50 non-regular NBS genes and 224 regular NBS genes were identified in 274 candidate NBS genes. The regular NBS genes were classified into ten types: CNL, CN, CNLX, CNX, CNXL, CXN, NX, N, NL and NLX. The vast majority (97%) of NBS genes occurred in gene clusters, indicating extensive gene duplication in the evolution of S. bicolor NBS genes. Analysis of the S. bicolor NBS phylogenetic tree revealed two major clades. Most NBS genes were located at the distal tip of the long arms of the ten sorghum chromosomes, a pattern significantly different from rice and Arabidopsis, the NBS genes of which have a random chromosomal distribution.
  • Restoring pollen fertility in transgenic male-sterile eggplant by Cre/loxp-mediated site-specific recombination system Plant Genetics

    Cao, Bihao; Huang, Zhiyin; Chen, Guoju; Lei, Jianjun

    Abstract in English:

    This study was designed to control plant fertility by cell lethal gene Barnase expressing at specific developmental stage and in specific tissue of male organ under the control of Cre/loxP system, for heterosis breeding, producing hybrid seed of eggplant. The Barnase-coding region was flanked by loxP recognition sites for Cre-recombinase. The eggplant inbred/pure line ('E-38') was transformed with Cre gene and the inbred/pure line ('E-8') was transformed with the Barnase gene situated between loxp. The experiments were done separately, by means of Agrobacterium co-culture. Four T0-plants with the Barnase gene were obtained, all proved to be male-sterile and incapable of producing viable pollen. Flowers stamens were shorter, but the vegetative phenotype was similar to wild-type. Five T0-plants with the Cre gene developed well, blossomed out and set fruit normally. The crossing of male-sterile Barnase-plants with Cre expression transgenic eggplants resulted in site-specific excision with the male-sterile plants producing normal fruits. With the Barnase was excised, pollen fertility was fully restored in the hybrids. The phenotype of these restored plants was the same as that of the wild-type. Thus, the Barnase and Cre genes were capable of stable inheritance and expression in progenies of transgenic plants.
  • Genetic divergence of rubber tree estimated by multivariate techniques and microsatellite markers Plant Genetics

    Gouvêa, Lígia Regina Lima; Rubiano, Luciana Benchimol; Chioratto, Alisson Fernando; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Gonçalves, Paulo de Souza

    Abstract in English:

    Genetic diversity of 60 Hevea genotypes, consisting of Asiatic, Amazonian, African and IAC clones, and pertaining to the genetic breeding program of the Agronomic Institute (IAC), Brazil, was estimated. Analyses were based on phenotypic multivariate parameters and microsatellites. Five agronomic descriptors were employed in multivariate procedures, such as Standard Euclidian Distance, Tocher clustering and principal component analysis. Genetic variability among the genotypes was estimated with 68 selected polymorphic SSRs, by way of Modified Rogers Genetic Distance and UPGMA clustering. Structure software in a Bayesian approach was used in discriminating among groups. Genetic diversity was estimated through Nei's statistics. The genotypes were clustered into 12 groups according to the Tocher method, while the molecular analysis identified six groups. In the phenotypic and microsatellite analyses, the Amazonian and IAC genotypes were distributed in several groups, whereas the Asiatic were in only a few. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.05 to 0.96. Both high total diversity (H T' = 0.58) and high gene differentiation (Gst' = 0.61) were observed, and indicated high genetic variation among the 60 genotypes, which may be useful for breeding programs. The analyzed agronomic parameters and SSRs markers were effective in assessing genetic diversity among Hevea genotypes, besides proving to be useful for characterizing genetic variability.
  • SSR and AFLP based genetic diversity of soybean germplasm differing in photoperiod sensitivity Plant Genetics

    Singh, Ram K.; Bhatia, Virendra S.; Bhat, K.V.; Mohapatra, Trilochan; Singh, Nagendra K.; Bansal, Kailash C.; Koundal, K.R.

    Abstract in English:

    Forty-four soybean genotypes with different photoperiod response were selected after screening of 1000 soybean accessions under artificial condition and were profiled using 40 SSR and 5 AFLP primer pairs. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) for SSR and AFLP marker systems was 0.507 and 0.120, respectively. Clustering of genotypes was done using UPGMA method for SSR and AFLP and correlation was 0.337 and 0.504, respectively. Mantel's correlation coefficients between Jaccard's similarity coefficient and the cophenetic values were fairly high in both the marker systems (SSR = 0.924; AFLP = 0.958) indicating very good fit for the clustering pattern. UPGMA based cluster analysis classified soybean genotypes into four major groups with fairly moderate bootstrap support. These major clusters corresponded with the photoperiod response and place of origin. The results indicate that the photoperiod insensitive genotypes, 11/2/1939 (EC 325097) and MACS 330 would be better choice for broadening the genetic base of soybean for this trait.
  • A new approach for obtaining rapid uniformity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) via a 3x x 2x cross Plant Genetics

    Xing, Shaochen; Cai, Yuhong; Zhou, Kaida

    Abstract in English:

    A triploid (2n = 3x = 36) rice plant was obtained by screening a twin seedling population in which each seed germinated to two or three sprouts that were then crossed with diploid plants. One diploid plant was chosen among the various F1 progenies and developed into an F2 population via self-pollination. Compared with the control variety Shanyou 63, this F2 population had a stable agronomical performance in field trials, as confirmed by the F-test. The stability of the F2 population was further substantiated by molecular analysis with simple sequence repeat markers. Specifically, of 160 markers assayed, 37 (covering all 12 chromosomes) were polymorphic between the parental lines. Testing the F1 hybrid individually with these markers showed that each PCR product had only a single band instead of two bands from each parent. The bands were identical to either maternal (23 markers) or paternal (eight markers) bands or distinct from both parents (six markers). The amplified bands of all 60 randomly selected F2 plants were uniform and identical to those of the F1 hybrid. These results suggest that the F1 plant is a non-segregating hybrid and that a stable F2 population was obtained. This novel system provides an efficient means for shortening the cycle of hybrid rice seed production.
  • Efficiency of IRAP and ITS-RFLP marker systems in accessing genetic variation of Pyrenophora graminea Plant Genetics

    Zein, Imad; Jawhar, Mohammed; Arabi, Mohammed Imad Eddin

    Abstract in English:

    The usefulness of IRAP (inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism) and ITS-RFLP (restriction of PCR-amplified internal transcribed spacers of the rDNA) markers in the analysis of 39 Pyrenophora graminea isolates was determined. Each marker system could discriminate between all of the isolates in detecting polymorphism, albeit with variable efficiency. IRAP and ITS-RFLP produced 85% and 77% polymorphic bands, respectively, with a corresponding mean polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.38 and 0.36. The IRAP marker index ratio (2.41) was higher than ITS-RFLP (1.50). On one hand, the quality nature of data (QND) was higher for ITS-RFLP (0.169) than IRAP (0.093). However, correlation between both marker similarity matrices was significant (r = 0.34, p < 0.05). These findings suggest their combined use in phylogenetic analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a comparison involving these two advanced DNA marker systems.
  • PhoR/PhoP two component regulatory system affects biocontrol capability of Bacillus subtilis NCD-2 Genetics of Microorganisms

    Guo, Qinggang; Li, Shezeng; Lu, Xiuyun; Li, Baoqing; Ma, Ping

    Abstract in English:

    The Bacillus subtilis strain NCD-2 is an important biocontrol agent against cotton verticillium wilt and cotton sore shin in the field, which are caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, respectively. A mutant of strain NCD-2, designated M216, with decreased antagonism to V. dahliae and R. solani, was selected by mini-Tn10 mutagenesis and in vitro virulence screening. The inserted gene in the mutant was cloned and identified as the phoR gene, which encodes a sensor kinase in the PhoP/PhoR two-component system. Compared to the wild-type strain, the APase activities of the mutant was decreased significantly when cultured in low phosphate medium, but no obvious difference was observed when cultured in high phosphate medium. The mutant also grew more slowly on organic phosphate agar and lost its phosphatidylcholine-solubilizing ability. The suppression of cotton seedling damping-off in vivo and colonization of the rhizosphere of cotton also decreased in the mutant strain when compared with the wild type strain. All of these characteristics could be partially restored by complementation of the phoR gene in the M216 mutant.
  • Distribution and biological role of the oligopeptide-binding protein (OppA) in Xanthomonas species Genetics of Microorganisms

    Oshiro, Elisa E.; Tavares, Milene B.; Suzuki, Celso F.; Pimenta, Daniel C.; Angeli, Claudia B.; Oliveira, Julio C.F. de; Ferro, Maria I.T.; Ferreira, Luis C.S.; Ferreira, Rita C.C.

    Abstract in English:

    In this study we investigated the prevalence of the oppA gene, encoding the oligopeptide binding protein (OppA) of the major bacterial oligopeptide uptake system (Opp), in different species of the genus Xanthomonas. The oppA gene was detected in two Xanthomonas axonopodis strains among eight tested Xanthomonas species. The generation of an isogenic oppA-knockout derivative of the Xac 306 strain, showed that the OppA protein neither plays a relevant role in oligopeptide uptake nor contributes to the infectivity and multiplication of the bacterial strain in leaves of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia). Taken together these results suggest that the oppA gene has a recent evolutionary history in the genus and does not contribute in the physiology or pathogenesis of X. axonopodis.
  • Differential expression of pathogenicity- and virulence-related genes of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri under copper stress Genetics of Microorganisms

    Palmieri, Ana Carolina Basílio; Amaral, Alexandre Morais do; Homem, Rafael Augusto; Machado, Marcos Antonio

    Abstract in English:

    In this study, we used real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) to evaluate the expression of 32 genes of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri related to pathogenicity and virulence that are also involved in copper detoxification. Nearly all of the genes were up-regulated, including copA and copB. Two genes homologous to members of the type II secretion system (xcsH and xcsC) and two involved in the degradation of plant cell wall components (pglA and pel) were the most expressed in response to an elevated copper concentration. The type II secretion system (xcs operon) and a few homologues of proteins putatively secreted by this system showed enhanced expression when the bacteria were exposed to a high concentration of copper sulfate. The enhanced expression of the genes of secretion II system during copper stress suggests that this pathway may have an important role in the adaptative response of X. axonopodis pv. citri to toxic compounds. These findings highlight the potential role of these genes in attenuating the toxicity of certain metals and could represent an important means of bacterial resistance against chemicals used to control diseases.
  • Molecular characterization of beta-tubulin from Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal agent of Asian soybean rust Genetics of Microorganisms

    Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira; Freire, Maíra Cristina Menezes; Almeida, Álvaro M.R. de; Oliveira, Luiz Orlando de

    Abstract in English:

    β-tubulins are structural components of microtubules and the targets of benzimidazole fungicides used to control many diseases of agricultural importance. Intron polymorphisms in the intron-rich genes of these proteins have been used in phylogeographic investigations of phytopathogenic fungi. In this work, we sequenced 2764 nucleotides of the β-tubulin gene (Pp tubB) in samples of Phakopsora pachyrhizi collected from seven soybean fields in Brazil. Pp tubB contained an open reading frame of 1341 nucleotides, including nine exons and eight introns. Exon length varied from 14 to 880 nucleotides, whereas intron length varied from 76 to 102 nucleotides. The presence of only four polymorphic sites limited the usefulness of Pp tubB for phylogeographic studies in P. pachyrhizi. The gene structures of Pp tubB and orthologous β-tubulin genes of Melampsora lini and Uromyces viciae-fabae were highly conserved. The amino acid substitutions in β-tubulin proteins associated with the onset of benzimidazole resistance in model organisms, especially at His6, Glu198 and Phe200, were absent from the predicted sequence of the P. pachyrhizi β-tubulin protein.
  • Dietary carotenoid-rich oil supplementation improves exercise-induced anisocytosis in runners: influences of haptoglobin, MnSOD (Val9Ala), CAT (21A/T) and GPX1 (Pro198Leu) gene polymorphisms in dilutional pseudoanemia ("sports anemia") Mutagenesis

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana L.; Akimoto, Arthur K.; Alves, Penha C.Z.; Pereira, Luiz C.S.; Klautau-Guimarães, Maria N.; Grisolia, Cesar K.

    Abstract in English:

    Physical training induces beneficial adaptation, whereas exhaustive exercises increase reactive oxygen-species generation, thereby causing oxidative damage in plasma and erythrocytes, fractions susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) is a Brazilian Cerrado fruit containing a carotenoid-rich oil. The aim was to investigate the effects of pequi-oil on exercise-induced oxidative damage in plasma and erythrocytes, after running in the same environment and undergoing weekly training under the same conditions as to type, intensity and length. Evaluations were accomplished after outdoor running on flat land before and after ingestion of 400 mg pequi-oil capsules for 14 days. Blood samples were taken after running and submitted to TBARS assay and erythrogram analysis. Haptoglobin, MnSOD (Val9Ala), CAT (21A/T) and GPX1 (Pro198Leu) gene polymorphisms were priorly investigated, so as to estimate genetic influence The reduction in erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit after pequi-oil treatment was notably associated with higher plasma expansion. Except for MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration) and RDW (red cell distribution width), the results were influenced by the polymorphisms studied. The best response to pequi-oil was presented by MnSOD Val/Val, CAT AA or AT genotypes and the GPX1 Pro allele. The significantly lower RDW and higher MHCH values were related to pequi-oil protective effects. Pequi oil, besides possessing other nutritional properties, showed protective blood effects.
  • Non-homologous DNA end joining in normal and cancer cells and its dependence on break structures Mutagenesis

    Poplawski, Tomasz; Pastwa, Elzbieta; Blasiak, Janusz

    Abstract in English:

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a serious threat to the cell, for if not or miss-repaired, they can lead to chromosomal aberration, mutation and cancer. DSBs in human cells are repaired via non-homologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination repair pathways. In the former process, the structure of DNA termini plays an important role, as does the genetic constitution of the cells, through being different in normal and pathological cells. In order to investigate the dependence of NHEJ on DSB structure in normal and cancer cells, we used linearized plasmids with various, complementary or non-complementary, single-stranded or blunt DNA termini, as well as whole-cell extract isolated from normal human lymphocytes, chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells and lung cancer A549 cells. We observed a pronounced variability in the efficacy of NHEJ reaction depending on the type of ends. Plasmids with complementary and blunt termini were more efficiently repaired than the substrate with 3' protruding single-strand ends. The hierarchy of the effectiveness of NHEJ was on average, from the most effective to the least, A549/ normal lymphocytes/ K562. Our results suggest that the genetic constitution of the cells together with the substrate terminal structure may contribute to the efficacy of the NHEJ reaction. This should be taken into account on considering its applicability in cancer chemo-or radiotherapy by pharmacologically modulating NHEJ cellular responses.
  • Nuclear anomalies in the buccal cells of calcite factory workers Mutagenesis

    Diler, Songül Budak; Ergene, Serap

    Abstract in English:

    The micronucleus (MN) assay on exfoliated buccal cells is a useful and minimally invasive method for monitoring genetic damage in humans. To determine the genotoxic effects of calcite dust that forms during processing, MN assay was carried out in exfoliated buccal cells of 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) calcite factory workers and 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) age- and sex-matched control subjects. Frequencies of nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, karyorrhexis, karyolysis and 'broken eggs', were also evaluated. Micronuclei and the other aforementioned anomalies were analysed by two way analysis of covariance. The linear correlations between the types of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities were determined by Spearman's Rho. There was a positive correlation between micronuclei and other types of nuclear abnormalities in accordance with the Spearman's Rho test. Results showed statistically significant difference between calcite fabric workers and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in calcite fabric workers were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that calcite fabric workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage.
  • Genetic variation and evolutionary demography of Fenneropenaeus chinensis populations, as revealed by the analysis of mitochondrial control region sequences Evolutionary Genetics

    Kong, Xiao Yu; Li, Yu Long; Shi, Wei; Kong, Jie

    Abstract in English:

    Genetic variation and evolutionary demography of the shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis were investigated using sequence data of the complete mitochondrial control region (CR). Fragments of 993 bp of the CR were sequenced for 93 individuals from five localities over most of the species' range in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea. There were 84 variable sites defining 68 haplotypes. Haplotype diversity levels were very high (0.95 ± 0.03-0.99 ± 0.02) in F. chinensis populations, whereas those of nucleotide diversity were moderate to low (0.66 ± 0.36%-0.84 ± 0.46%). Analysis of molecular variance and conventional population statistics (F ST) revealed no significant genetic structure throughout the range of F. chinensis. Mismatch distribution, estimates of population parameters and neutrality tests revealed that the significant fluctuations and shallow coalescence of mtDNA genealogies observed were coincident with estimated demographic parameters and neutrality tests, in implying important past-population size fluctuations or range expansion. Isolation with Migration (IM) coalescence results suggest that F. chinensis, distributed along the coasts of northern China and the Korean Peninsula (about 1000 km apart), diverged recently, the estimated time-split being 12,800 (7,400-18,600) years ago.
  • Comparative study on the use of specific and heterologous microsatellite primers in the stingless bees Melipona rufiventris and M. mondury (Hymenoptera, Apidae) Evolutionary Genetics

    Lopes, Denilce Meneses; Campos, Lúcio Antônio de Oliveira; Salomão, Tânia Maria Fernandes; Tavares, Mara Garcia

    Abstract in English:

    Due to their high degree of polymorphism, microsatellites are considered useful tools for studying population genetics. Nevertheless, studies of genetic diversity in stingless bees by means of these primers have revealed a low level of polymorphism, possibly the consequence of the heterologous primers used, since in most cases these were not specifically designed for the species under consideration. Herein we compared the number of polymorphic loci and alleles per locus, as well as observed heterozygosity in Melipona rufiventris and M. mondury populations, using specific and heterologous primers. The use of specific primers placed in evidence the greater frequency of polymorphic loci and alleles per locus, besides an expressive increase in observed heterozygosity in M. rufiventris and M. mondury, thereby reinforcing the idea that populational studies should be undertaken by preferably using species-specific microsatellite primers.
  • Variation and genetic structure of Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae) populations based on ISSR pattern Evolutionary Genetics

    Nascimento, Marcília A.; Batalha-Filho, Henrique; Waldschmidt, Ana M.; Tavares, Mara G.; Campos, Lucio A.O.; Salomão, Tânia M.F.

    Abstract in English:

    For a study of diversity and genetic structuring in Melipona quadrifasciata, 61 colonies were collected in eight locations in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. By means of PCR analysis, 119 ISSR bands were obtained, 80 (68%) being polymorphic. He and H B were 0.20 and 0.16, respectively. Two large groups were obtained by the UPGMA method, one formed by individuals from Januária, Urucuia, Rio Vermelho and Caeté and the other by individuals from São João Del Rei, Barbacena, Ressaquinha and Cristiano Otoni. The Φst and θB values were 0.65 and 0.58, respectively, thereby indicating high population structuring. UPGMA grouping did not reveal genetic structuring of M. quadrifasciata in function of the tergite stripe pattern. The significant correlation between dissimilarity values and geographic distances (r = 0.3998; p < 0.05) implies possible geographic isolation. The genetic differentiation in population grouping was probably the result of an interruption in gene flow, brought about by geographic barriers between mutually close geographical locations. Our results also demonstrate the potential of ISSR markers in the study of Melipona quadrifasciata population structuring, possibly applicable to the studies of other bee species.
  • Comparison between simulated annealing algorithms and rapid chain delineation in the construction of genetic maps Genomics and bioinformatics

    Nascimento, Moysés; Cruz, Cosme Damião; Peternelli, Luiz Alexandre; Campana, Ana Carolina Mota

    Abstract in English:

    The efficiency of simulated annealing algorithms and rapid chain delineation in establishing the best linkage order, when constructing genetic maps, was evaluated. Linkage refers to the phenomenon by which two or more genes, or even more molecular markers, can be present in the same chromosome or linkage group. In order to evaluate the capacity of algorithms, four F2 co-dominant populations, 50, 100, 200 and 1000 in size, were simulated. For each population, a genome with four linkage groups (100 cM) was generated. The linkage groups possessed 51, 21, 11 and 6 marks, respectively, and a corresponding distance of 2, 5, 10 and 20 cM between adjacent marks, thereby causing various degrees of saturation. For very saturated groups, with an adjacent distance between marks of 2 cM and in greater number, i.e., 51, the method based upon stochastic simulation by simulated annealing presented orders with distances equivalent to or lower than rapid chain delineation. Otherwise, the two methods were commensurate through presenting the same SARF distance.
  • Translational selection on SHH genes Genomics and bioinformatics

    Hajjari, Mohammadreza; Saffar, Behnaz; Khoshnevisan, Atefeh

    Abstract in English:

    Codon usage bias has been observed in various organisms. In this study, the correlation between SHH genes expression in some tissues and codon usage features was analyzed by bioinformatics. We found that translational selection may act on compositional features of this set of genes.
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