Abstract in English:An inflammatory process has been involved in numerous neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease, stroke and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In AD, the inflammatory response is mainly located in the vicinity of amyloid plaques. Cytokines, such as interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-1α (IL-1α), have been clearly involved in this inflammatory process. Polymorphisms of several interleukin genes have been correlated to the risk of developing AD. The present study investigated the association of AD with polymorphisms IL-8 -251T > A (rs4073) and IL-1α-889C > T (rs1800587) and the interactive effect of both, adjusted by the Apolipoprotein E genotype. 199 blood samples from patients with AD, 146 healthy elderly controls and 95 healthy young controls were obtained. DNA samples were isolated from blood cells, and the PCR-RFLP method was used for genotyping. The genotype distributions of polymorphisms IL-8, IL-1α and APOE were as expected under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The allele frequencies did not differ significantly among the three groups tested. As expected, the APOE4 allele was strongly associated with AD (p < 0.001). No association of AD with either the IL-1α or the IL-8 polymorphism was observed, nor was any interactive effect between both polymorphisms. These results confirm previous studies in other populations, in which polymorphisms IL-8 -251T > A and IL-1α-889C > T were not found to be risk factors for AD.
Abstract in English:Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1, NKX2-1) is a homeodomain-containing transcriptional factor that binds to and activates the promoters of thyroid and lung-specific genes, such as thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase, and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor. TTF-1 is known to play a key role in the development of the thyroid. However, the precise mechanism of TTF-1 gene transcription in human thyroid cells has not been studied. The expression of transcriptional activity in various lengths of the 5'-flanking region of the human TTF -1 gene was studied in TTF-1 positive and negative human thyroid cell lines. Increased transcriptional activity was observed in thyroid cell lines containing plasmids that coded for a sequence proximal to the transcription start site of exon 1 of the TTF-1 gene. However, we did not observe any difference in promoter activity in the region up to -2.6 kb from the proximal transcription start site of the TTF-1 gene between TTF-1 positive and negative cells. These results suggest that the proximal 5'-flanking region of the human TTF -1 gene does not contain sufficient cis-active regulatory information to direct gene expression in thyroid cells,and that other cis-or trans-acting factors participate in the thyroid specific gene expression of TTF-1.
Abstract in English:Antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) reduce the oxidation rates in the organism. Gluthatione S-transferases (GSTs) play a vital role in phase 2 of biotransformation of many substances. Variation in the expression of these enzymes suggests individual differences for the degree of antioxidant protection and geographical differences in the distribution of these variants. We described the distribution frequency of CAT (21A/T), SOD2 (Ala9Val), GPX1 (Pro198Leu), GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms in three Brazilian population groups: Kayabi Amerindians (n = 60), Kalunga Afro-descendants (n = 72), and an urban mixed population from Federal District (n = 162). Frequencies of the variants observed in Kalunga (18% to 58%) and Federal District (33% to 63%) were similar to those observed in Euro and Afro-descendants, while in Kayabi (3% to 68%), depending on the marker, frequencies were similar to the ones found in different ethnic groups. Except for SOD2 in all population groups studied here, and for GPX1 in Kalunga, the genotypic distributions were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. These data can clarify the contribution of different ethnicities in the formation of mixed populations, such as that of Brazil. Moreover, outcomes will be valuable resources for future functional studies and for genetic studies in specific populations. If these studies are designed to comprehensively explore the role of these genetic polymorphisms in the etiology of human diseases they may help to prevent inconsistent genotype-phenotype associations in pharmacogenetic studies.
Abstract in English:A potential strategy to combat obesity and its associated complications involves modifying gene expression in adipose cells to reduce lipid accumulation. The nuclear receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is the master regulator of adipose cell differentiation and its functional activation is currently used as a therapeutic approach for Diabetes Mellitus type 2. However, total activation of PPARγ induces undesirable secondary effects that might be set with a partial activation. A group of proteins that produce histone demethylation has been shown to modify the transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors. Here we describe the repressive action of the jumonji domain containing 2C/lysine demethylase 4 C (JMJD2C/KDM4C) on PPARγ transcriptional activation. JMJD2C significantly reduced the rosiglitazone stimulated PPARγ activation. This effect was mainly observed in experiments performed using the Tudor domains that may interact with histone deacetylase class 1 (HDAC) and this interaction probably reduces the mediated activation of PPARγ. Trichostatin A, a HDAC inhibitor, reduces the repressive effect of JMJD2C. When JMJD2C was over-expressed in 3T3-L1 cells, a reduction of differentiation was observed with the Tudor domain. In summary, we herein describe JMJD2C-mediated reduction of PPARgamma transcriptional activation as well as preadipocyte differentiation. This novel action of JMJD2C might have an important role in new therapeutic approaches to treat obesity and its complications.
Abstract in English:Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) plays a vitally important role in the blood coagulation pathway. Recent studies indicated that TFPI induces apoptosis in vascular smooth-muscle cells (VSMCs) in animals. The present study investigated whether the TFPI gene could also induce apoptosis in human vascular smooth-muscle cells (hVSMCs). Such cells were isolated from human umbilical arteries and subsequently transfected with pIRES-TFPI plasmid (2 μg/mL). MTT assaying and cell counting were applied to measure cell viability and proliferation, RT-PCR was utilized to analyze TFPI gene expression in the cells. Apoptosis was analyzed by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Several key proteins involved in apoptosis were examined through Western blotting. It was shown that TFPI gene transfer led to its increased cellular expression, with a subsequent reduction in hVSMC proliferation. Further investigation demonstrated that TFPI gene expression resulted in lesser amounts of procaspase-3, procaspase-8 and procascase-9, and an increased release of mitochondrial cytochrome c (cyt-c) into cytoplasm, thereby implying the involvement of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in TFPI gene-induced apoptosis in hVSMCs.
Abstract in English:The accumulation of somatic mutations in mtDNA is correlated with aging. In this work, we sought to identify somatic mutations in the HVS-1 region (D-loop) of mtDNA that might be associated with aging. For this, we compared 31 grandmothers (mean age: 63 ± 2.3 years) and their 62 grandchildren (mean age: 15 ± 4.1 years), the offspring of their daughters. Direct DNA sequencing showed that mutations absent in the grandchildren were detected in a presumably homoplasmic state in three grandmothers and in a heteroplasmic state in an additional 13 grandmothers; no mutations were detected in the remaining 15 grandmothers. However, cloning followed by DNA sequencing in 12 grandmothers confirmed homoplasia in only one of the three mutations previously considered to be homoplasmic and did not confirm heteroplasmy in three out of nine grandmothers found to be heteroplasmic by direct sequencing. Thus, of 12 grandmothers in whom mtDNA was analyzed by cloning, eight were heteroplasmic for mutations not detected in their grandchildren. In this study, the use of genetically related subjects allowed us to demonstrate the occurrence of age-related (> 60 years old) mutations (homoplasia and heteroplasmy). It is possible that both of these situations (homoplasia and heteroplasmy) were a long-term consequence of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation that can lead to the accumulation of mtDNA mutations throughout life.
Abstract in English:The allelic frequencies of 12 short tandem repeat loci were obtained from a sample of 307 unrelated individuals living in Macapá, a city in the northern Amazon region, Brazil. These loci are the most commonly used in forensics and paternity testing. Based on the allele frequency obtained for the population of Macapá, we estimated an interethnic admixture for the three parental groups (European, Native American and African) of, respectively, 46%, 35% and 19%. Comparing these allele frequencies with those of other Brazilian populations and of the Iberian Peninsula population, no significant distances were observed. The interpopulation genetic distances (F ST coefficients) to the present database ranged from F ST = 0.0016 between Macapá and Belém to F ST = 0.0036 between Macapá and the Iberian Peninsula.
Abstract in English:Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is a plasma enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of choline esters, including the muscle-relaxant succinylcholine and mivacurium. Patients who present sustained neuromuscular blockade after using succinylcholine usually carry BChE variants with reduced enzyme activity or an acquired BChE deficiency. We report here the molecular basis of the BCHE gene underlying the slow catabolism of succinylcholine in a patient who underwent endoscopic nasal surgery. We measured the enzyme activity of BChE and extracted genomic DNA in order to study the promoter region and all exons of the BCHE gene of the patient, her parents and siblings. PCR products were sequenced and compared with reference sequences from GenBank. We detected that the patient and one of her brothers have two homozygous mutations: nt1615 GCA > ACA (Ala539Thr), responsible for the K variant, and nt209 GAT > GGT (Asp70Gly), which produces the atypical variant A. Her parents and two of her brothers were found to be heterozygous for the AK allele, and another brother is homozygous for the normal allele. Sequence analysis of exon 1 including 5'UTR showed that the proband and her brother are homozygous for -116GG. The AK/AK genotype is considered the most frequent in hereditary hypocholinesterasemia (44%). This work demonstrates the importance of defining the phenotype and genotype of the BCHE gene in patients who are subjected to neuromuscular block by succinylcholine, because of the risk of prolonged neuromuscular paralysis.
Abstract in English:Infantile GM1 gangliosidosis is caused by the absence or reduction of lysosomal beta-galactosidase activity. Studies conducted in Brazil have indicated that it is one of the most frequent lysosomal storage disorders in the southern part of the country. To assess the incidence of this disorder, 390 blood donors were tested for the presence of two common mutations (1622-1627insG and R59H) in the GLB1 gene. Another group, consisting of 26 GM1 patients, and the blood donors were tested for the presence of two polymorphisms (R521C and S532G), in an attempt to elucidate whether there is a founder effect. The frequencies of the R59H and 1622-1627insG mutations among the GM1 patients studied were 19.2% and 38.5%, respectively. The frequency of polymorphism S532G was 16.7%, whereas R521C was not found in the patients. The overall frequency of either R59H or 1622-1627insG was 57.7% of the disease-causing alleles. This epidemiological study suggested a carrier frequency of 1:58. Seven different haplotypes were found. The 1622-1627insG mutation was not found to be linked to any polymorphism, whereas linkage disequilibrium was found for haplotype 2 (R59H, S532G) (p < 0.001). These data confirm the high incidence of GM1 gangliosidosis and the high frequency of two common mutations in southern Brazil.
Abstract in English:Two active mutations (A 781 G and A 1575 G) in growth hormone (GH) gene, and their associations with litter size (LS), were investigated in both a high prolificacy (Matou, n = 182) and a low prolificacy breed (Boer, n = 352) by using the PCR-RFLP method. Superovulation experiments were designed in 57 dams, in order to evaluate the effect of different genotypes of the GH gene on superovulation response. Two genotypes (AA and AB, CC and CD) in each mutation were detected in these two goat breeds. Neither BB nor DD homozygous genotypes were observed. The genotypic frequencies of AB and CC were significantly higher than those of AA and CD. In the third parity, Matou dams with AB or CC genotypes had significantly larger litter sizes than those with AA and CD (p < 0.05). On combining the two loci, both Matou and Boer dams with ABCD genotype had the largest litter sizes when compared to the other genotypes (p < 0.05). When undergoing like superovulation treatments, a significantly higher number of corpora lutea and ova, with a lower incidence of ovarian cysts, were harvested in the AB and CC genotypes than in AA and CD. These results show that the two loci of GH gene are highly associated with abundant prolificacy and superovulation response in goat breeds.
Abstract in English:The PPARγ2 gene is a key regulator of both proliferation and preadipocyte differentiation in mammals. Herein its genotype and allele frequencies were analyzed using PCR-SSCP in eight pig breeds (N = 416). Two kinds of polymorphisms of the PPARγ2 gene were detected, including a previously reported shift SNP A177G (Met59Val) in exon 1 and a novel silent mutation G876A in exon 5. The results revealed that European pig breeds carry a higher allele A frequency at the A177G locus and a fixed GG genotype at the G876A locus. Allele A at the G876A locus was only found in Jinhua pigs. The association between haplotype (A177G/G876A) and carcass and meat quality traits was analyzed in a Pietrain x Jinhua F2 population (N = 248). The PPARγ2 gene was found to be significantly associated with backfat thickness at the shoulder (p < 0.05), 6-7th ribs (p < 0.01), last rib (p < 0.01), gluteus medius (p <0.05) and ham weight (p < 0.01). Significant effects of different haplotypes on ham weight and backfat thickness at the 6-7th ribs, last rib, and gluteus medius were also observed.
Abstract in English:The objectives of this study were to estimate the genetic parameters for milk yield unadjusted and adjusted for days in milk and, subsequently, to assess the influence of adjusting for days in milk on sire rank. Complete lactations from 90 or 150 days of lactation to 270 or 350 days in milk were considered in these analyses. Milk yield was adjusted for days in milk by multiplicative correction factors, or by including lactation length as a covariable in the model. Milk yields adjusted by different procedures were considered as different traits. Heritability estimates varied from 0.17 to 0.28. Genetic correlation estimates between milk yields unadjusted and adjusted for days in milk were greater than 0.82. Adjusting for days in milk affected the parameter estimates. Multiplicative correction factors produced the highest heritability estimates. More reliable breeding value estimates can be expected by including short length lactation records in the analyses and adjusting the milk yields for days in milk, regardless of the method used for the adjustment. High selection intensity coupled to the inclusion of short length lactations and adjustment with multiplicative factors can change the sire rank..
Abstract in English:In Greece, seven native horse breeds have been identified so far. Among these, the Skyros pony is outstanding through having a distinct phenotype. In the present study, the aim was to assess genetic diversity in this breed, by using different types of genetic loci and available genealogical information. Its relationships with the other Greek, as well as foreign, domestic breeds were also investigated. Through microsatellite and pedigree analysis it appeared that the Skyros presented a similar level of genetic diversity to the other European breeds. Nevertheless, comparisons between DNA-based and pedigree-based results revealed that a loss of genetic diversity had probably already occurred before the beginning of breed registration. Tests indicated the possible existence of a recent bottleneck in two of the three main herds of Skyros pony. Nonetheless, relatively high levels of heterozygosity and Polymorphism Information Content indicated sufficient residual genetic variability, probably useful in planning future strategies for breed conservation. Three other Greek breeds were also analyzed. A comparison of these with domestic breeds elsewhere, revealed the closest relationships to be with the Middle Eastern types, whereas the Skyros itself remained isolated, without any close relationship, whatsoever.
Abstract in English:Tetragonisca angustula and Tetragonisca fiebrigi have recently been listed as valid species. This study aimed to cytogenetically investigate both species, emphasizing the new registry of B chromosomes in the tribe Meliponini. We analyzed colonies of T. angustula and T. fiebrigi collected at Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso, Brazil, through conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding, and base-specific fluorochrome staining (CMA3/DAPI). T. angustula showed 2n = 34 chromosomes in females and n = 17 in males, with karyotype formula 2K = 34A M. T. fiebrigi showed numeric variation, with chromosome number varying from 2n = 34 to 2n = 36 in females and from n = 17 to n=18in males, with karyotype formula 2K = 32A M+2A Mc and 2K = 32A M+2A Mc + 1 or 2 B-chromosomes. The B chromosomes are heterochromatic. In T. fiebrigi, the CMA3/DAPI staining revealed four chromosomes with a CMA3 positive band. All individuals from the same colony showed the same number of B chromosomes. T. angustula and T. fiebrigi showed karyotype divergence, principally due to the presence of B chromosomes, which are found only in T. fiebrigi. Our data corroborate the status of valid species for both T. angustula and T. fiebrigi, as recently proposed.
Abstract in English:Similarities between New World and Old World vultures have been interpreted to reflect a close relationship and to suggest the inclusion of both in Accipitridae (Falconiformes). However, deeper analyses indicated that the placement of the New World vultures (cathartids) in this Order is uncertain. Chromosome analysis has shown that cathartids retained a karyotype similar to the putative avian ancestor. In order to verify the occurrence of intrachromosomal rearrangements in cathartids, we hybridized whole chromosome probes of two species (Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis) onto metaphases of Cathartes aura. The results showed that not only were the syntenic groups conserved between Gallus and C. aura, but probably also the general gene order, suggesting that New World vultures share chromosomal symplesiomorphies with most bird lineages.
Abstract in English:In this work we analyzed the karyotype of five populations of Adenomera diptyx from Argentina after conventional staining, Ag-NOR and C-banding. All specimens presented 2n = 26 and FN = 34. The karyotype was formed by three submetacentric, one metacentric and nine telocentric pairs. Silver staining revealed that the NOR was located on a secondary constriction in pair 7. C- banding evidenced constitutive heterochromatin at the pericentromeric region of all chromosomes. The karyotype of A. diptyx was similar to that of A. hylaedactyla (2n = 26, FN = 34) and different from that of A. andreae (2n = 26, FN = 40) in the fundamental number and secondary constriction position. It also differed from the karyotypes of A. marmorata (2n = 24, FN = 34 and 36) and of A. aff. bokermanni (2n = 23, FN = 34) in diploid number. Until a comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of all the species of the genus is performed, their chromosome evolution will remain poorly understood.
Abstract in English:A wide array of molecular markers has been used to investigate the genetic diversity among common bean species. However, the best combination of markers for studying such diversity among common bean cultivars has yet to be determined. Few reports have examined the genetic diversity of the carioca bean, commercially one of the most important common beans in Brazil. In this study, we examined the usefulness of two molecular marker systems (simple sequence repeats - SSRs and amplified fragment length polymorphisms - AFLPs) for assessing the genetic diversity of carioca beans. The amount of information provided by Roger's modified genetic distance was used to analyze SSR data and Jaccards similarity coefficient was used for AFLP data. Seventy SSRs were polymorphic and 20 AFLP primer combinations produced 635 polymorphic bands. Molecular analysis showed that carioca genotypes were quite diverse. AFLPs revealed greater genetic differentiation and variation within the carioca genotypes (Gst = 98% and Fst = 0.83, respectively) than SSRs and provided better resolution for clustering the carioca genotypes. SSRs and AFLPs were both suitable for assessing the genetic diversity of Brazilian carioca genotypes since the number of markers used in each system provided a low coefficient of variation. However, fingerprint profiles were generated faster with AFLPs, making them a better choice for assessing genetic diversity in the carioca germplasm.
Abstract in English:A circular cryptic plasmid named pPAGA (2,734 bp) was isolated from Pantoea agglomerans strain EGE6 (an endophytic bacterial isolate from eucalyptus). Sequence analysis revealed that the plasmid has a G+C content of 51% and contains four potential ORFs, 238(A), 250(B), 131(C), and 129(D) amino acids in length without homology to known proteins. The shuttle vector pLGM1 was constructed by combining the pPAGA plasmid with pGFPmut3.0 (which harbors a gene encoding green fluorescent protein, GFP), and the resulting construct was used to over-express GFP in E. coli and P. agglomerans cells. GFP production was used to monitor the colonization of strain EGE6gfp in various plant tissues by fluorescence microscopy. Analysis of EGE6gfp colonization showed that 14 days after inoculation, the strain occupied the inner tissue of Eucalyptus grandis roots, preferentially colonizing the xylem vessels of the host plants.
Abstract in English:The potential for genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of tolylfluanid-based fungicide (50% active agent) was evaluated using sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and proliferation indices (PI) in cultured bovine peripheral lymphocytes. For the detection of possible genetic damage, DNA fragmentation assay was also applied. Bovine lymphocytes cultured for 72 h were treated with the fungicide at the final concentrations of 1.75, 3.5, 8.75, and 17.5 µg/mL for the last 24 and 48 h of culture without S9 metabolic activation, and during the last 2 h of culture with S9 metabolic activation. In the SCE assays no evidence for genotoxic activity of the fungicide was found in treatments of 24 h without and 2 h with S9. After the 24 h exposure to tolylfluanid, a weak decrease in the PI was observed. With the prolonged exposure time (48 h), dose dependence in the increase of SCE frequencies was observed. Moreover, after 48 h exposure slight fragmentation of DNA at the concentrations of 3.5 and 8.75 µg/mL was demonstrated. SCE quantification is the most widely used approach for the assessment of genotoxic/cytogenetic effects of chemical compounds. Positive results in the assay at 48 h exposure indicated a potential of the fungicide to increase frequency of chromosomal damage (replication injuries) that is the confirmation of early effect of exposure.
Abstract in English:The use of artificial implants provides a palliative or permanent solution for individuals who have lost some bodily function through disease, an accident or natural wear. This functional loss can be compensated for by the use of medical devices produced from special biomaterials. Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) is a well-established primary metallic biomaterial for orthopedic implants, but the toxicity of the chemical components of this alloy has become an issue of concern. In this work, we used the MTT assay and micronucleus assay to examine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, respectively, of an extract obtained from this alloy. The MTT assay indicated that the mitochondrial activity and cell viability of CHO-K1 cells were unaffected by exposure to the extract. However, the micronucleus assay revealed DNA damage and an increase in micronucleus frequency at all of the concentrations tested. These results show that ions released from Ti-6Al-4V alloy can cause DNA and nuclear damage and reinforce the importance of assessing the safety of metallic medical devices constructed from biomaterials.
Abstract in English:The aim of this study was to assess the use of pesticides on farms located in the Lambedor River watershed in Guatambu, State of Santa Catarina, as well as to determine, by micronucleus testing, the risk of genotoxic impact. Samples from locally collected Cyprinus carpio, Hypostomus punctatus, Rhamdia quelen and Oreochromis niloticus gave evidence of a mean increase in micronuclei frequency from 6.21 to 13.78 in 1,000 erythrocytes, a clear indication of the genotoxic potenciality of pesticide residues in regional dams, and their significant contribution to local environmental contamination.
Abstract in English:Glyphosate is noted for being non-toxic in fishes, birds and mammals (including humans). Nevertheless, the degree of genotoxicity is seriously controversial. In this work, various concentrations of a glyphosate isopropylamine salt were tested using two methods of genotoxicity assaying, viz., the pink mutation assay with Tradescantia (4430) and the comet assay with nuclei from staminal cells of the same plant. Staminal nuclei were studied in two different forms, namely nuclei from exposed plants, and nuclei exposed directly. Using the pink mutation assay, isopropylamine induced a total or partial loss of color in staminal cells, a fundamental criterion utilized in this test. Consequently, its use is not recommended when studying genotoxicity with agents that produce pallid staminal cells. The comet assay system detected statistically significant (p < 0.01) genotoxic activity by isopropylamine, when compared to the negative control in both the nuclei of treated plants and directly treated nuclei, but only the treated nuclei showed a dose-dependent increase. Average migration in the nuclei of treated plants increased, when compared to that in treated nuclei. This was probably due, either to the permanence of isopropylamine in inflorescences, or to the presence of secondary metabolites. In conclusion, isopropylamine possesses strong genotoxic activity, but its detection can vary depending on the test systems used.
Abstract in English:Carboxymethyl-glucan (CM-G) is a soluble derivative from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1 → 3)(1 → 6)-β-D-glucan. The protective efficiency of CM-G against DNA damage in cells from patients with advanced prostate cancer (PCa), and undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT), was evaluated. DNA damage scores were obtained by the comet assay, both before and after treatment with CM-G. The reduction in DNA damage, ranging from 18% to 87%, with an average of 59%, was not related to the increased number of leukocytes in peripheral blood. The results demonstrate for the first time the protective effect of CM-G against DNA damage in patients with advanced PCa. Among smokers, three presented the highest reduction in DNA damage after treatment with CM-G. There was no observable relationship between DNA damage scores before and after treatment, and age, alcoholism and radiotherapy.
Abstract in English:The identification of expressed genes involved in sexual precocity of the mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is critical for a better understanding of its reproductive development. To this end, we constructed a cDNA library from the rapid developmental stage of testis of E. sinensis and sequenced 3,388 randomly picked clones. After processing, 2,990 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were clustered into 2,415 unigenes including 307 contigs and 2,108 singlets, which were then compared to the NCBI non-redundant (nr) protein and nucleotide (nt) database for annotation with Blastx and Blastn, respectively. After further analysis, 922 unigenes were obtained with concrete annotations and 30 unigenes were found to have functions possibly related to the process of reproduction in male crabs - six transcripts relevant to spermatogenesis (especially Cyclin K and RecA homolog DMC1), two transcripts involved in nuclear protein transformation, two heat-shock protein genes, eleven transcription factor genes (a series of zinc-finger proteins), and nine cytoskeleton protein-related genes. Our results, besides providing valuable information related to crustacean reproduction, can also serve as a base for future studies of reproductive and developmental biology.
Abstract in English:The giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii, is one of the most cultivated freshwater prawns in the world and has been introduced into more than 40 countries. In some countries, this prawn is considered an invasive species that requires close monitoring. Recent changes in the taxonomy of this species (separation of M. rosenbergii and M. dacqueti) require a re-evaluation of introduced taxa. In this work, molecular analyses were used to determine which of these two species was introduced into Brazil and to establish the geographic origin of the introduced populations that have invaded Amazonian coastal waters. The species introduced into Brazil was M. dacqueti through two introduction events involving prawns originating from Vietnam and either Bangladesh or Thailand. These origins differ from historical reports of the introductions and underline the need to confirm the origin of other exotic populations around the world. The invading populations in Amazonia require monitoring not only because the biodiversity of this region may be affected by the introduction, but also because admixture of different native haplotypes can increase the genetic variability and the likelihood of persistence of the invading species in new habitats.
Abstract in English:Nucleotide sequences of a partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene were used to assess the manner in which historical processes and geomorphological effects may have influenced genetic structuring and phylogeographic patterns in Channa striata. Assaying was based on individuals from twelve populations in four river systems, which were separated into two regions, the eastern and western, of the biodiversely rich state of Perak in central Peninsular Malaysia. In 238 specimens, a total of 368-bp sequences with ten polymorphic sites and eleven unique haplotypes were detected. Data on all the twelve populations revealed incomplete divergence due to past historical coalescence and the short period of separation. Nevertheless, SAMOVA and F ST revealed geographical structuring existed to a certain extent in both regions. For the eastern region, the data also showed that the upstream populations were genetically significantly different compared to the mid- and downstream ones. It is inferred that physical barriers and historical processes played a dominant role in structuring the genetic dispersal of the species. A further inference is that the Grik, Tanjung Rambutan and Sungkai are potential candidates for conservation and aquaculture programmes since they contained most of the total diversity in this area.
Abstract in English:More than 90% of birds are socially monogamous, although genetic studies indicate that many are often not sexually monogamous. In the present study, DNA fingerprinting was used to estimate the genetic relationships between nestlings belonging to the same broods to evaluate the mating system in the socially monogamous macaw, Ara ararauna. We found that in 10 of 11 broods investigated, the nestlings showed genetic similarity levels congruent with values expected among full-sibs, suggesting that they shared the same parents. However, in one brood, the low genetic similarity observed between nestlings could be a result of intraspecific brood parasitism, intraspecific nest competition or extra-pair paternity. These results, along with available behavioral and life-history data, imply that the blue-and-yellow macaw is not only socially, but also genetically monogamous. However, the occurrence of eventual cases of extra-pair paternity cannot be excluded.
Abstract in English:Various genetic markers, including microsatellites, have been used to analyze the genetic polymorphism and heterozygosity in canine breeds. In this work, we used nine microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic variability in Cimarron Uruguayo dogs, the only officially recognized native canine breed in Uruguay. DNA from 30 Cimarron Uruguayo dogs from northeastern and southern Uruguay was analyzed. The allelic frequencies for each micro-satellite, the genetic variability and the consanguinity were calculated, as were the polymorphic information content (PIC) and the probability of exclusion (PE). All of the microsatellites studied were polymorphic. FH 2361, FH 2305 and PEZ 03 were the most informative, with PIC values > 0.7, in agreement with results for other canine breeds. The PE values for the markers were within the ranges previously described and were generally greater for microsatellites with higher PIC values. The heterozygosity value (0.649) was considered high since only nine microsatellites were analyzed. Compared with data for other breeds, the results obtained here indicate that Cimarron Uruguayo dogs have high genetic diversity.
Abstract in English:The northern pike (Esox lucius L.), an important predatory freshwater species, is undergoing significant population decline. In this study, 18 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and used for assessing genetic variation in the Chinese Ulungur and Hungarian Balaton populations of the species. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 13, observed heterozygosity from 0.154 to 0.920 and expected heterozygosity from 0.145 to 0.921, thereby indicating the specific usefulness of these suites of markers for investigating genetic variability.
Abstract in English:Leontopithecus caissara is a critically endangered primate species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Nineteen microsatellite loci, previously developed for congeneric species, were tested with 34 L. caissara individuals from Superagüi Island. Of the 19 loci, 17 (89.4%) produced robust alleles, nine (47.4%) of these proved to be polymorphic, with a total of 23 alleles and an average of 2.56 alleles per locus. Expected and observed heterozygosity averaged 0.483 and 0.561, respectively. The exclusion power for identifying the first parent of an arbitrary offspring was 0.315 over all loci. The results thus indicate both the usefulness and limitations of these nine microsatellite loci in the genetic analysis of L. caissara, as well as their potentiality for genetic investigation in other congeneric species.