Abstract in English:A comprehensive review of uniparental systems in South Amerindians was undertaken. Variability in the Y-chromosome haplogroups were assessed in 68 populations and 1,814 individuals whereas that of Y-STR markers was assessed in 29 populations and 590 subjects. Variability in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup was examined in 108 populations and 6,697 persons, and sequencing studies used either the complete mtDNA genome or the highly variable segments 1 and 2. The diversity of the markers made it difficult to establish a general picture of Y-chromosome variability in the populations studied. However, haplogroup Q1a3a* was almost always the most prevalent whereas Q1a3* occurred equally in all regions, which suggested its prevalence among the early colonizers. The STR allele frequencies were used to derive a possible ancient Native American Q-clade chromosome haplotype and five of six STR loci showed significant geographic variation. Geographic and linguistic factors moderately influenced the mtDNA distributions (6% and 7%, respectively) and mtDNA haplogroups A and D correlated positively and negatively, respectively, with latitude. The data analyzed here provide rich material for understanding the biological history of South Amerindians and can serve as a basis for comparative studies involving other types of data, such as cultural data.
Abstract in English:Around 1923 the soon-to-be famous Soviet mathematician and probabilist Sergei N. Bernstein started to construct an axiomatic foundation of a theory of heredity. He began from the premise of stationarity (constancy of type proportions) from the first generation of offspring. This led him to derive the Mendelian coefficients of heredity. It appears that he had no direct influence on the subsequent development of population genetics. A basic assumption of Bernstein was that parents coupled randomly to produce offspring. This paper shows that a simple model of non-random mating, which nevertheless embodies a feature of the Hardy-Weinberg Law, can produce Mendelian coefficients of heredity while maintaining the population distribution. How W. Johannsen's monograph influenced Bernstein is discussed.
Abstract in English:Zaprionus indianus is a dipteran (Drosophilidae) with a wide distribution throughout the tropics and temperate Palearctic and Nearctic regions. There have been proposals to reclassify the genus Zaprionus as a subgenus or group of the genus Drosophila because various molecular markers have indicated a close relationship between Zaprionus species and the immigrans-Hirtodrosophila radiation within Drosophila. These markers, together with alloenzymes and quantitative traits, have been used to describe the probable scenario for the expansion of Zaprionus indianus from its center of dispersal (Africa) to regions of Asia (ancient dispersal) and the Americas (recent dispersal). The introduction of Z. indianus into Brazil was first reported in 1999 and the current consensus is that the introduced flies came from high-latitude African populations through the importation of fruit. Once in Brazil, Z. indianus spread rapidly throughout the Southeast and then to the rest of the country, in association with highway-based fruit commerce. These and other aspects of the evolutionary biology of Z. indianus are addressed in this review, including a description of a probable route for this species' dispersal during its recent expansion.
Abstract in English:The CYP1A1 gene encodes for the enzyme, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, which is involved in the biotransformation of various aromatic tobacco precarcinogens. In the present study, the association between CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms (IVS1-728G > A, Thr461Asn and Ile462Val), and the risk of oral cancer, was examined among 157 patients with oral cancer and 132 age-matched controls, in a south Indian population. The strength of the association between CYP1A1 variants and oral cancer was estimated by logistic regression. It was found that Thr461Asn was not polymorphic. Both IVS1-728G > A and Ile462Val frequencies were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the control group. There were no significant differences in genotype or haplotype frequencies between controls and cases with oral cancer. Hence, CYP1A1 SNPs can be considered as not being associated with oral cancer at either the genotype or haplotype levels in the population studied.
Abstract in English:In various populations worldwide, common variants of the TCF7L2 (Transcription factor 7-like 2) gene are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim was to investigate the association between rs12255372 (G/T) polymorphism in the TCF7L2 gene and T2DM in an Iranian population. 236 unrelated patients with T2DM, and 255 normoglycemic controls without diabetes were studied. The PCR-RFLP method was used for genotyping rs12255372 (G/T) polymorphism, and the SPSS version 18.0 for Windows for statistical analysis. The minor T allele of TCF7L2 rs12255372 was found to significantly increase the risk of T2DM, with an allelic odds ratio (OR) of 1.458 (95% CI 1.108-1.918, p = 0.007). A significant difference in TT genotype was observed between T2DM patients and normoglycemic controls (OR 2.038, 95% CI 1.147-3.623; p = 0.014). On assuming dominant and recessive models, ORs of 1.52 [95% CI (1.05-2.21) p = 0.026)] and 1.74 [95% CI (1.01-3.00) p = 0.043] were obtained, respectively, thereby implying that the co-dominant model would best fit the susceptible gene effect. This study further confirms the TCF7L2 gene as enhancing susceptibility to the development of T2DM.
Abstract in English:Fabry Disease, an X-linked inborn error of metabolism, is characterized by progressive renal insufficiency, with cardio and cerebrovascular involvement. Homocysteine (Hcy) is considered a risk factor for vascular diseases, but the mechanisms by which it produces cardiovascular damage are still poorly understood. Regarding the vascular involvement in FD patients, the analysis of factors related to thromboembolic events could be useful to improving our understanding of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma Hcy and other parameters involved in the methionine cycle, as well as oxidative stress markers. The sample consisted of a group of 10 male FD patients and a control group of 8 healthy individuals, paired by age. Venous blood was collected for Hcy determination, molecular analysis, identification of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, total glutathione and antioxidant enzymes activity, as well as vitamins quantification. Comparative analysis of FD patients versus the control group indicated hyperhomocysteinemia in 8 of the 10 FD patients, as well as a significant increase in overall glutathione levels and catalase activity. It is inferred that FD patients, apart from activation of the antioxidant system, present increased levels of plasma Hcy, although this is probably unrelated to common alterations in the methionine cycle.
Abstract in English:A 10-year-old speechless, mentally deficient male, with low arylsulfatase A (ARSA) activity, and presumably, methachromatic leukodystrophy, underwent genetic evaluation. As the clinical picture was not compatible with this diagnosisan ARSA gene and chromosome analysis were performed, showing the presence of a pseudodeficiency ARSA allele and a de novo apparently balanced t(16;22)(p11.2;q13) translocation. A deletion on the long arm of chromosome 22 encompassing the ARSA gene, as shown by FISH and array-CGH, indicated a 22q13 deletion syndrome. This case illustrates the importance of detailed cytogenetic investigation in patients presenting low arylsulfatase A activity and atypical/unspecific clinical features.
Abstract in English:In this report, we describe combined polymorphisms of the UGT1A9, UGT1A7 and UGT1A1 genes in 100 unrelated, healthy Chinese Han subjects. The functional regions of these genes were sequenced and comprehensively analyzed for genetic polymorphisms. Thirty variants were detected, including five novel forms. Tentative functional predictions indicated that a Cys → Arg substitution at position 277 in the UGT1A7 gene could alter the protein conformation and that 12460T > G in the 3'UTR might influence protein translation through specifically expressed miRNAs. UGT1A9*1b was a major functional variant in the subjects examined whereas the *1f allele had a frequency of only 0.5%. A special functional haplotype (GAGAAC) was identified for UGT1A9, 1A7 and 1A1. These findings provide fundamental genetic information that may serve as a basis for larger studies designed to assess the metabolic phenotypes associated with UGT1A polymorphisms. They also provide important data for the implementation of personalized medicine in Chinese Han.
Abstract in English:DNA from four cattle breeds was used to re-sequence all of the exons and 56% of the introns of the bovine tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene and 97% and 13% of the bovine dopamine b-hydroxylase (DBH) coding and non-coding sequences, respectively. Two novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a microsatellite motif were found in the TH sequences. The DBH sequences contained 62 nucleotide changes, including eight non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) that are of particular interest because they may alter protein function and therefore affect the phenotype. These DBH nsSNPs resulted in amino acid substitutions that were predicted to destabilize the protein structure. Six SNPs (one from TH and five from DBH non-synonymous SNPs) were genotyped in 140 animals; all of them were polymorphic and had a minor allele frequency of > 9%. There were significant differences in the intra- and inter-population haplotype distributions. The haplotype differences between Brahman cattle and the three B. t. taurus breeds (Charolais, Holstein and Lidia) were interesting from a behavioural point of view because of the differences in temperament between these breeds.
Abstract in English:Ten varieties and eight generations (2F1, 2F2, 2B1 and 2B2) of durum wheat derived from two crosses were evaluated for resistance to natural infection by Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB) at the 2-3 and 6-7 leaf stages at two sites over two years. There were significant differences in the incidence of SNB between leaf stages in most of the wheat varieties, with resistance being most evident at the 6-7 leaf stage. Separate analyses of the mean values for each generation showed that the genetic mechanism of defense against the pathogen depended upon the leaf stage. At the 2-3 leaf stage, only additive and dominance effects were implicated in the control of SNB for the two crosses at the two sites and for the two replications. For the 6-7 leaf stage, inheritance was more complicated and an epistatic effect was involved. Narrow-sense heritability values (range: 0.63-0.67) were consistent between crosses and leaf stages. These findings indicate a lack of resistance to SNB at the 2-3 leaf stage whereas resistance was observed at the 6-7 leaf stage and involved the genetic mechanisms of plant defense such as epistasis.
Abstract in English:We surveyed the substitution patterns in the ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO) gene in 11 species of Oryzeae with an outgroup in the Ehrhartoidaea. The synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates showed a high positive correlation with each other, but were negatively correlated with codon usage bias and GC content at third codon positions. The substitution rate was heterogenous among lineages. Likelihood-ratio tests showed that the non-synonymous/synonymous rate ratio changed significantly among lineages. Site-specific models provided no evidence for positive selection of particular amino acid sites in any codon of the KAO gene. This finding suggested that the significant rate heterogeneity among some lineages may have been caused by variability in the relaxation of the selective constraint among lineages or by neutral processes.
Abstract in English:Heterochromatin comprises a fraction of the genome usually with highly repeated DNA sequences and lacks of functional genes. This region can be revealed by using Giemsa C-banding, fluorochrome staining and cytomolecular tools. Some plant species are of particular interest through having a special type of heterochromatin denominated the cold-sensitive region (CSR). Independent of other chromosomal regions, when biological materials are subjected to low temperatures (about 0 °C), CSRs appear slightly stained and decondensed. In this study, we used Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae) to understand some aspects of CSR condensation associated with cytosine methylation levels, and to compare the behavior of different heterochromatin types of this species, when subjected to low temperatures.
Abstract in English:Tip100 is an Ac-like transposable element that belongs to the hAT superfamily. First discovered in Ipomoea purpurea (common morning glory), it was classified as an autonomous element capable of movement within the genome. As Tip100 data were already available in databases, the sequences of related elements in ten additional species of Ipomoea and five commercial varieties were isolated and analyzed. Evolutionary analysis based on sequence diversity in nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS), was also applied to compare the evolution of these elements with that of Tip100 in the Ipomoea genus. Tip100 sequences were found in I. purpurea, I. nil, I. indica and I. alba, all of which showed high levels of similarity. The results of phylogenetic analysis of transposon sequences were congruent with the phylogenetic topology obtained for ITS sequences, thereby demonstrating that Tip100 is restricted to a particular group of species within Ipomoea. We hypothesize that Tip100 was probably acquired from a common ancestor and has been transmitted vertically within this genus.
Abstract in English:This study investigated the impact of constitutively expressed Trichoderma atroviride genes encoding exochitinase nag70 or endochitinase ech42 in transgenic lines of the apple cultivar Pinova on the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We compared the exo- and endochitinase activities of leaves and roots from non-transgenic Pinova and the transgenic lines T386 and T389. Local and systemic effects were examined using own-rooted trees and trees grafted onto rootstock M9. Scab susceptibility was also assessed in own-rooted and grafted trees. AMF root colonization was assessed microscopically in the roots of apple trees cultivated in pots with artificial substrate and inoculated with the AMF Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae. Own-rooted transgenic lines had significantly higher chitinase activities in their leaves and roots compared to non-transgenic Pinova. Both of the own-rooted transgenic lines showed significantly fewer symptoms of scab infection as well as significantly lower root colonization by AMF. Biomass production was significantly reduced in both own-rooted transgenic lines. Rootstock M9 influenced chitinase activities in the leaves of grafted scions. When grafted onto M9, the leaf chitinase activities of non-transgenic Pinova (M9/Pinova) and transgenic lines (M9/T386 and M9/T389) were not as different as when grown on their own roots. M9/T386 and M9/T389 were only temporarily less infected by scab than M9/Pinova. M9/T386 and M9/T389 did not differ significantly from M9/Pinova in their root chitinase activities, AMF root colonization and biomass.
Abstract in English:Although originally domesticated for its fruit, exploitation of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the production of gourmet heart-of-palm has also become an important activity, hence the need for improved material for large-scale production, on employing the Pampa Hermosa landrace as the seed source. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic divergence among 96 elite plants representing four populations of spineless peach palm from the above cited source. Genetic variability was high (H T = 0.82). The low levels of divergence [F ST (0.023), G ST' (0.005)] and the high number of migrants (Nm -3.8 to 52.2) indicated significant interpopulation gene flow. Some of the plants presented high levels of genetic divergence, but the plants were grouped independently of their geographic origins. When combined with morpho-agronomic evaluation, the results found could substantially contribute towards mounting an efficient tool for obtaining superior genotypes with wide genetic variability for improvement programs.
Abstract in English:The white-thread blight and black rot (WTBR) caused by basidiomycetous fungi of the genus Ceratobasidium is emerging as an important plant disease in Brazil, particularly for crop species in the Ericales such as persimmon (Diospyros kaki) and tea (Camellia sinensis). However, the species identity of the fungal pathogen associated with either of these hosts is still unclear. In this work, we used sequence variation in the internal transcribed spacer regions, including the 5.8S coding region of rDNA (ITS-5.8S rDNA), to determine the phylogenetic placement of the local white-thread-blight-associated populations of Ceratobasidium sp. from persimmon and tea, in relation to Ceratobasidium species already described world-wide. The two sister populations of Ceratobasidium sp. from persimmon and tea in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest agroecosystem most likely represent distinct species within Ceratobasidium and are also distinct from C. noxium, the etiological agent of the first description of white-thread blight disease that was reported on coffee in India. The intraspecific variation for the two Ceratobasidium sp. populations was also analyzed using three mitochondrial genes (ATP6, nad1 and nad2). As reported for other fungi, variation in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA was incongruent. Despite distinct variability in the ITS-rDNA region these two populations shared similar mitochondrial DNA haplotypes.
Abstract in English:Tabebuia sp. is native to tropical rain forests throughout Central and South America. Although the biological and pharmacological effects of bark extracts have been intensely studied, little is known on the extract obtained from the flower. Herein, the genotoxic potential of a flower extract from T. impetiginosa ("ipê roxo") on the blood and liver cells of Wistar rats was evaluated. Experimental procedures involved only male animals. Graduated concentrations of the extract, viz., 100, 300 and 500 mg kg-1 of body weight, were gavage-administered and 24 h latter cells were collected and processed for analysis. With the exception of the 100 mg kg-1 dose, a significant increase in DNA damage was noted, when compared with a negative control group. Although the genotoxic potential of this extract was higher in liver cells, the response in both tissues was related to dose-dependency. Even though DNA damage can be corrected before conversion into mutations, further study is recommended to arrive at a better understanding of incurred biological effects.
Abstract in English:In this work, the toxicity and genotoxicity of organic solvents (acetone, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, dimethylsulfoxide, ethanol, ether and methanol) were studied using the SOS chromotest. The influence of these solvents on the direct genotoxicity induced by the mutagens mitomycin C (MMC) and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) were also investigated. None of the solvents were genotoxic in Escherichia coli PQ37. However, based on the inhibition of protein synthesis assessed by constitutive alkaline phosphatase activity, some solvents (carbon tetrachloride, dimethylsulfoxide, ethanol and ether) were toxic and incompatible with the SOS chromotest. Solvents that were neither toxic nor genotoxic to E. coli (acetone, dichloromethane and methanol) significantly reduced the genotoxicity of MMC and 4-NQO. When these solvents were used to dissolve vitamin E they increased the antigenotoxic activity of this compound, possibly through additive or synergistic effects. The relevance of these results is discussed in relation to antigenotoxic studies. These data indicate the need for careful selection of an appropriate diluent for the SOS chromotest since some solvents can modulate genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity.
Abstract in English:Spawning time in salmonids is a sex-limited quantitative trait that can be modified by selection. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), various quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect the expression of this trait have been discovered. In this study, we describe four microsatellite loci associated with two possible spawning time QTL regions in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). The four loci were identified in females from two populations (early and late spawners) produced by divergent selection from the same base population. Three of the loci (OmyFGT34TUF, One2ASC and One19ASC) that were strongly associated with spawning time in coho salmon (p < 0.0002) were previously associated with QTL for the same trait in rainbow trout; a fourth loci (Oki10) with a suggestive association (p = 0.00035) mapped 10 cM from locus OmyFGT34TUF in rainbow trout. The changes in allelic frequency observed after three generations of selection were greater than expected because of genetic drift. This work shows that comparing information from closely-related species is a valid strategy for identifying QTLs for marker-assisted selection in species whose genomes are poorly characterized or lack a saturated genetic map.
Abstract in English:Didelphis albiventris is a well-known and common marsupial. Due to its high adaptability, this very widespread generalist species occurs under various environmental conditions, this even including protected regions and disturbed urban areas. We studied a 653 bp fragment of cytochrome oxidase c (COI) from 93 biological samples from seven Brazilian localities, with linear distances ranging between 58 and about 1800 km to analyze the effects of geographic distances on variability and genetic differentiation. The haplotype network presented nine haplotypes and two genetic clusters compatible with the two most distant geographic areas of the states of Minas Gerais, in the southeast, and Rio Grande do Sul, in the extreme south. As each cluster was characterized by low nucleotide and high haplotype diversities, their populations were obviously composed of closely related haplotypes. Surprisingly, moderate to high F ST differentiation values and a very weak phylogeographic signal characterizes interpopulation comparisons within Minas Gerais interdemes, these being correlated with the presence of privative haplotypes. On a larger geographic scale, a comparison between demes from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul presented high F ST values and a robust phylogeographic pattern. This unexpected scenario implies that mtDNA gene flow was insufficient to maintain population cohesion, reflected by the observed high differentiation.
Abstract in English:Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most malignant gastrointestinal cancers and occurs at a high frequency rate in China and other Asian countries. Recently, several molecular markers were identified for predicting ESCC. Notwithstanding, additional prognostic markers, with a clear understanding of their underlying roles, are still required. Through bioinformatics, a graph-clustering method by DPClus was used to detect co-expressed modules. The aim was to identify a set of discriminating genes that could be used for predicting ESCC through graph-clustering and GO-term analysis. The results showed that CXCL12, CYP2C9, TGM3, MAL, S100A9, EMP-1 and SPRR3 were highly associated with ESCC development. In our study, all their predicted roles were in line with previous reports, whereby the assumption that a combination of meta-analysis, graph-clustering and GO-term analysis is effective for both identifying differentially expressed genes, and reflecting on their functions in ESCC.
Abstract in English:Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is an ankyrin repeat-containing serine-threonine protein kinase that is involved in the regulation of integrin-mediated processes such as cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In this study, we examined the effect of a lentivirus-mediated knockdown of ILK on the proliferation, migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer (Panc-1) cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed that ILK expression was enhanced in pancreatic cancer tissue. The silencing of ILK in human Panc-1 cells led to cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase and delayed cell proliferation, in addition to down-regulating cell migration and invasion. The latter effects were mediated by up-regulating the expression of E-cadherin, a key protein in cell adhesion. These findings indicate that ILK may be a new diagnostic marker for pancreatic cancer and that silencing ILK could be a potentially useful therapeutic approach for treating pancreatic cancer.
Abstract in English:The phylogenetic relationships of primates have been extensively investigated, but key issues remain unresolved. Complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) data have many advantages in phylogenetic analyses, but such data are available for only 46 primate species. In this work, we determined the complete mitogenome sequence of the black-capped capuchin (Cebus apella). The genome was 16,538 bp in size and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, two rRNAs and a control region. The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage did not differ significantly from those of other primates. The control region contained several distinct repeat motifs, including a putative termination-associated sequence (TAS) and several conserved sequence blocks (CSB-F, E, D, C, B and 1). Among the protein-coding genes, the COII gene had lower nonsynonymous and synonymous substitutions rates while the ATP8 and ND4 genes had higher rates. A phylogenetic analysis using Maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods and the complete mitogenome data for platyrrhine species confirmed the basal position of the Callicebinae and the sister relationship between Atelinae and Cebidae, as well as the sister relationship between Aotinae (Aotus) and Cebinae (Cebus/Saimiri) in Cebidae. These conclusions agreed with the most recent molecular phylogenetic investigations on primates. This work provides a framework for the use of complete mitogenome information in phylogenetic analyses of the Platyrrhini and primates in general.