Abstract in English:Abstract Split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM), also known as ectrodactyly is a rare genetic disorder. It is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of limb malformations characterized by absence/hypoplasia and/or median cleft of hands and/or feet. To date, seven genes underlying SHFM have been identified. This study described four consanguineous families (A-D) segregating SHFM in an autosomal recessive manner. Linkage in the families was established to chromosome 12p11.1–q13.13 harboring WNT10B gene. Sequence analysis identified a novel homozygous nonsense variant (p.Gln154*) in exon 4 of the WNT10B gene in two families (A and B). In the other two families (C and D), a previously reported variant (c.300_306dupAGGGCGG; p.Leu103Argfs*53) was detected. This study further expands the spectrum of the sequence variants reported in the WNT10B gene, which result in the split hand/foot malformation.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to explore: 1) DNA methylation in the promoter regions of Wilms tumor gene 1 (WT1), NK6 transcription factor related locus 1 gene (NKX6-1) and Deleted in bladder cancer 1 (DBC1) gene in cervical cancer tissues of Uygur women in Xinjiang, and 2) the correlation of gene methylation with the infection of HPV16/18 viruses. We detected HPV16/18 infection in 43 normal cervical tissues, 30 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia lesions (CIN) and 48 cervical cancer tissues with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Methylation in the promoter regions of the WT1, NKX6-1 and DBC1 genes in the above-mentioned tissues was measured by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and cloning sequencing. The expression level of these three genes was measured by real-time PCR (qPCR) in 10 methylation-positive cervical cancer tissues and 10 methylation-negative normal cervical tissues. We found that the infection of HPV16 in normal cervical tissues, CIN and cervical cancer tissues was 14.0, 36.7 and 66.7%, respectively. The infection of HPV18 was 0, 6.7 and 10.4%, respectively. The methylation rates of WT1, NKX6-1 and DBC1 genes were 7.0, 11.6 and 23.3% in normal cervical tissues, 36.7, 46.7 and 30.0% in CIN tissues, and 89.6, 77.1 and 85.4% in cervical cancer tissues. Furthermore, WT1, NKX6-1 and DBC1 genes were hypermethylated in the high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (CIN2, CIN3) and in the cervical cancer tissues with infection of HPV16/18 (both P< 0.05). The expression of WT1, NKX6-1 and DBC1 was significantly lower in the methylation-positive cervical cancer tissues than in methylation-negative normal cervical tissues. Our findings indicated that methylation in the promoter regions of WT1, NKX6-1 and DBC1 is correlated with cervical cancer tumorigenesis in Uygur women. The infection of HPV16/18 might be correlated with methylation in these genes. Gene inactivation caused by methylation might be related to the incidence and development of cervical cancer.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to determine the association between the polymorphisms and haplotypes in the xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) gene and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the Chinese Han population. SNaPshot was used for genotyping six SNP sites of the XPD gene. Comparisons of the correlations between different genotypes in combination with smoking and the susceptibility to pancreatic cancer were performed. Individual pancreatic cancer risk in patients who carry mutant C alleles (AC, CC, and AC+CC) at rs13181 increased (p < 0.05). Taking non-smoking individuals who carry the AA genotype as a reference, and non-smoking individuals who carry mutant allele C (AC+CC), the risk of pancreatic cancer increased by 3.343 times in individuals who smoked ≥ 20 cigarettes daily, 3.309 times in individuals who smoked ≥ 14 packs per year, 5.011 times in individuals who smoked ≥ 24 packs per year, and 4.013 times in the individuals who smoked ≥ 37 packs per year (P < 0.05). In addition, haplotype analysis revealed that haplotype AGG, which comprised rs13181, rs3916874 and rs238415, was associated with a 1.401-fold increase in pancreatic cancer risk (p < 0.05). We conclude that the polymorphism of XPD Lys751Gln (rs13181) in combination with smoking contributes to increased risk of pancreatic cancer in the Chinese Han population. Haplotype AGG might be a susceptibility haplotype for pancreatic cancer.
Abstract in English:Abstract Understanding pediatric brain tumor biology is essential to help on disease stratification, and to find novel markers for early diagnosis. MicroRNA (miRNA) expression has been linked to clinical outcomes and tumor biology. Here, we aimed to detect the expression of different miRNAs in different pediatric brain tumor subtypes to discover biomarkers for early detection and develop novel therapies. Expression of 82 miRNAs was detected in 120 pediatric brain tumors from fixed-formalin paraffin-embedded tissues, low-grade glioma, high-grade glioma, ependymoma, and medulloblastoma, using quantitative real-time PCR. Low-expression of miR-221, miR-9, and miR-181c/d and over-expression of miR-101, miR-222, miR-139, miR-1827, and miR-34c was found in medulloblastoma; low expression of miR-10a and over-expression of miR-10b and miR-29a in ependymoma; low expression of miR-26a and overexpression of miR-19a/b, miR-24, miR-27a, miR- 584, and miR-527 in low-grade glioma. Cox regression showed differential miRNA expression between responders and non-responders. The most specific were miR-10a and miR-29a low expression in LGG non-responders, miR-135a and miR-146b over-expression in ependymoma non-responders, and miR-135b overexpression in medulloblastoma non-responders. MicroRNAs are differentially expressed in subtypes of brain tumors suggesting that they may help diagnosis. A greater understanding of aberrant miRNA in pediatric brain tumors may support development of novel therapies.
Abstract in English:Abstract Oxidative stress (OS) plays an important role in atherogenesis and since glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) provide protection against OS, we have tested the hypothesis that deletion polymorphisms in two GSTs (GSTM1 and GSTT1) may affect the risk of developing atherosclerosis. A total of 382 individuals (200 patients with atherosclerosis and 182 healthy controls) were included in this association study. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood cells or from buccal epithelial cells and genotyping was performed using multiplex-PCR or real-time PCR methods. GSTM1 null genotype was significantly more frequent in atherosclerotic patients than in controls (52.0% vs 34.1%) and individuals with the GSTM1 null genotype had an approximately 2-fold increase in atherosclerosis risk (OR: 2.1, 95%CI=1.39-3.17, P=0.0004). GSTT1 null genotype alone did not show a statistically significant effect on atherosclerosis risk modulation, but the association approached significance (OR: 1.57, 95%CI=0.94-2.64, P=0.08). The combined analysis showed that the presence of both genes had a protective effect against atherosclerosis (OR=0.55, 95%CI=0.37-0.83, P=0.005) while double null genotypes led to a robust atherosclerosis risk increase (OR: 8.14, 95%CI= 2.41-27.51, P < 0.0001). This study demonstrated that the GSTM1 null and combined GSTM1/GSTT1 null genotypes are susceptibility factors for development of atherosclerosis in a Serbian population.
Abstract in English:Abstract An increasing number of genetic variants involved in dyslexia development were discovered during the last years, yet little is known about the molecular functional mechanisms of these SNPs. In this study we investigated whether dyslexia candidate SNPs have a direct, disease-specific effect on local expression levels of the assumed target gene by using a differential allelic expression assay. In total, 12 SNPs previously associated with dyslexia and related phenotypes were suitable for analysis. Transcripts corresponding to four SNPs were sufficiently expressed in 28 cell lines originating from controls and a family affected by dyslexia. We observed a significant effect of rs600753 on expression levels of DYX1C1 in forward and reverse sequencing approaches. The expression level of the rs600753 risk allele was increased in the respective seven cell lines from members of the dyslexia family which might be due to a disturbed transcription factor binding sites. When considering our results in the context of neuroanatomical dyslexia-specific findings, we speculate that this mechanism may be part of the pathomechanisms underlying the dyslexia-specific brain phenotype. Our results suggest that allele-specific DYX1C1 expression levels depend on genetic variants of rs600753 and contribute to dyslexia. However, these results are preliminary and need replication.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this work was to describe the phenotypic and genotypic variability related to iris color for the population of Buenos Aires province (Argentina), and to assess the usefulness of current methods of analysis for this country. We studied five Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) included in the IrisPlex kit, in 118 individuals, and we quantified eye color with Digital Iris Analysis Tool. The markers fit Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the whole sample, but not for rs12913832 within the group of brown eyes (LR=8.429; p=0.004). We found a remarkable association of HERC2 rs12913832 GG with blue color (p < 0.01) but the other markers did not show any association with iris color. The results for the Buenos Aires population differ from those of other populations of the world for these polymorphisms (p < 0,01). The differences we found might respond to the admixed ethnic composition of Argentina; therefore, methods of analysis used in European populations should be carefully applied when studying the population of Argentina. These findings reaffirm the importance of this investigation in the Argentinian population for people identification based on iris color.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to use gene chips to investigate differential gene expression profiles in the occurrence and development of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The study included 12 AMI patients and 12 healthy individuals. Total mRNA of peripheral bloodwas extracted and reversed-transcribed to cDNA for microarray analysis. After establishing two pools with three subjects each (3 AMI patients and 3 healthy individuals), the remaining samples were used for RT-qPCR to confirm the microarray data. From the microarray results, seven genes were randomly selected for RT-qPCR. RT-qPCR results were analyzed by the 2-ΔΔCt method. Microarray analysis showed that 228 genes were up- regulated and 271 were down-regulated (p ≤ 0.05, |logFC| > 1). Gene ontology showed that these genes belong to 128 cellular components, 521 biological processes, and 151 molecular functions. KEGG pathway analysis showed that these genes are involved in 107 gene pathways. RT-qPCR results for the seven genes showed expression levels consistent with those obtained by microarray. Thus, microarray data could be used to select the pathogenic genes for AMI. Investigating the abnormal expression of these differentially expressed genes might suggest efficient strategies for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of AMI.
Abstract in English:Abstract Hominin evolution is characterized by adaptive solutions often rooted in behavioral and cognitive changes. If balancing selection had an important and long-lasting impact on the evolution of these traits, it can be hypothesized that genes associated with them should carry an excess of shared polymorphisms (trans- SNPs) across recent Homo species. In this study, we investigate the role of balancing selection in human evolution using available exomes from modern (Homo sapiens) and archaic humans (H. neanderthalensis and Denisovan) for an excess of trans-SNP in two gene sets: one associated with the immune system (IMMS) and another one with behavioral system (BEHS). We identified a significant excess of trans-SNPs in IMMS (N=547), of which six of these located within genes previously associated with schizophrenia. No excess of trans-SNPs was found in BEHS, but five genes in this system harbor potential signals for balancing selection and are associated with psychiatric or neurodevelopmental disorders. Our approach evidenced recent Homo trans-SNPs that have been previously implicated in psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, suggesting that a genetic repertoire common to the immune and behavioral systems could have been maintained by balancing selection starting before the split between archaic and modern humans.
Abstract in English:Abstract Hotspot mutations (c.-124bp G > A and c.-146bp G > A) in the promoter region of the TERT gene have been recently described in several types of solid tumors, including glioma, bladder, thyroid, liver and skin neoplasms. However, knowledge with respect to colorectal precursor lesions and cancer is scarce. In the present study we aimed to determine the frequency of hotspot TERT promoter mutations in 145 Brazilian patients, including 103 subjects with precursor lesions and 42 with colorectal carcinomas, and we associated the presence of such mutations with the patients clinical-pathological features. The mutation analysis was conclusive in 123 cases, and none of the precursor and colorectal carcinoma cases showed TERT promoter mutations. We conclude that TERT mutations are not a driving factor in colorectal carcinogenesis.
Abstract in English:Abstract CHIME syndrome is an extremely rare autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder caused by mutations in PIGL. PIGL is an endoplasmic reticulum localized enzyme that catalyzes the second step of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis, which plays a role in the anchorage of cell-surface proteins including receptors, enzymes, and adhesion molecules. Germline mutations in other members of GPI and Post GPI Attachment to Proteins (PGAP) family genes have been described and constitute a group of diseases within the congenital disorders of glycosylation. Patients in this group often present alkaline phosphatase serum levels abnormalities and neurological symptoms. We report a CHIME syndrome patient who harbors a missense mutation c.500T > C (p.Leu167Pro) and a large deletion involving the 5’ untranslated region and part of exon 1 of PIGL. In CHIME syndrome, a recurrent missense mutation c.500T > C (p.Leu167Pro) is found in the majority of patients, associated with a null mutation in the other allele, including an overrepresentation of large deletions. The latter are not detected by the standard analysis in sequencing techniques, including next-generation sequencing. Thus, in individuals with a clinical diagnosis of CHIME syndrome in which only one mutation is found, an active search for a large deletion should be sought.
Abstract in English:Abstract Functional dyspepsia and lactose intolerance (adult-type hypolactasia, ATH) are common conditions that may coexist or even be confounded. Their clinical presentation can be similar, however, lactose intolerance does not form part of the diagnostic investigation of functional dyspepsia. Studies on the association between functional dyspepsia and ATH are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate whether ATH is associated with symptoms of functional dyspepsia. Patients fulfilling the Rome III diagnostic criteria for functional dyspepsia underwent genetic testing for ATH. Dyspeptic symptoms were evaluated and scored according to a validated questionnaire. The diagnostic criteria for ATH was a CC genotype for the -13910C/T polymorphism, located upstream of the lactase gene. The mean scores for dyspeptic symptoms were compared between patients with ATH and those with lactase persistence. A total of 197 functional dyspeptic patients were included in the study. Mean age was 47.7 years and 82.7% patients were women. Eighty-eight patients (44.7%) had a diagnosis of ATH. Abdominal bloating scores were higher in ATH patients compared to the lactase persistent patients (P=0.014). The remaining dyspeptic symptom scores were not significantly different between the two groups. The study results demonstrate an association between ATH and bloating in patients with functional dyspepsia.
Abstract in English:Abstract An extensive karyotype variation is found among species belonging to the Columbidae family of birds (Columbiformes), both in diploid number and chromosomal morphology. Although clusters of repetitive DNA sequences play an important role in chromosomal instability, and therefore in chromosomal rearrangements, little is known about their distribution and amount in avian genomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of 11 distinct microsatellite sequences, as well as clusters of 18S rDNA, in nine different Columbidae species, correlating their distribution with the occurrence of chromosomal rearrangements. We found 2n values ranging from 76 to 86 and nine out of 11 microsatellite sequences showed distinct hybridization signals among the analyzed species. The accumulation of microsatellite repeats was found preferentially in the centromeric region of macro and microchromosomes, and in the W chromosome. Additionally, pair 2 showed the accumulation of several microsatellites in different combinations and locations in the distinct species, suggesting the occurrence of intrachromosomal rearrangements, as well as a possible fission of this pair in Geotrygon species. Therefore, although birds have a smaller amount of repetitive sequences when compared to other Tetrapoda, these seem to play an important role in the karyotype evolution of these species.
Abstract in English:Abstract Two Amazonian closely related tetras – cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi and green neon P. simulans – were artificially acclimatized to environmental chambers mimicking future climate change scenarios (mild, moderate and extreme), using a microcosm facility. P. simulans survived (100%) to all scenarios after 30 days exposure, while P. axelrodi presented decreasing survival percentages according to environmental severity. These differences may be the reflection of distinct natural acclimatization to microhabitats between the species, which differ in thermal conditions. Survival responses might be related to differences in relative gene expression of lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh), suggesting that P. axelrodi anaerobic potential is lower or non-existent compared to P. simulans, not tolerating long-term thermal challenges. Accordingly, increases in temperature and in CO2 levels caused increases in energy demand and resulted in activation of the anaerobic pathway, as demonstrated by the higher enzyme levels measured in head and tail portions of both species. Sustained anaerobic glycolysis is possible when fish live in challenging environments (low oxygen or high temperature). Our results clearly show that P. simulans has a larger scope for survival to higher energy demands due to its increased anaerobic potential compared to P. axelrodi.
Abstract in English:Abstract MYD88 plays an important role in the immune response against infections. To analyze MYD88 gene expression during different stages of pig development, we used real-time PCR. MYD88 was seen expressed in all tissues examined. MYD88 expression in spleen, lungs, and thymus reached its highest value from 7 to 14 days of age and decreased thereafter. Expression in lymph nodes was high until 28 days of age and then it declined after weaning, with stable low levels in adult pigs. MYD88 expression was high before 35 days of age in the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), where it reached its highest value from 7 to 14 days of age. MYD88 expression in the small intestine declined post-weaning and remained relatively low during adulthood. The results of this study suggest that weaning stress and development of the immune system might be positively correlated with MYD88 expression regulation. Moreover, this study provided evidence that the high expression of MYD88 may diminish weaning stress and increase disease resistance in Meishan pigs.
Abstract in English:Abstract Pork is the most popular meat in the world. Unfortunately, the selection pressure focused on high meat content led to a reduction in pork quality. The present study used RNA-seq technology to identify metabolic process genes related to pork quality traits and fat deposition. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between pigs of Pulawska and Polish Landrace breeds for two the most important muscles (semimembranosus and longissimus dorsi). A total of 71 significant DEGs were reported: 15 for longissimus dorsi and 56 for semimembranosus muscles. The genes overexpressed in Pulawska pigs were involved in lipid metabolism (APOD, LXRA, LIPE, AP2B1, ENSSSCG00000028753 and OAS2) and proteolysis (CST6, CTSD, ISG15 and UCHL1). In Polish Landrace pigs, genes playing a role in biological adhesion (KIT, VCAN, HES1, SFRP2, CDH11, SSX2IP and PCDH17), actin cytoskeletal organisation (FRMD6, LIMK1, KIF23 and CNN1) and calcium ion binding (PVALB, CIB2, PCDH17, VCAN and CDH11) were transcriptionally more active. The present study allows for better understanding of the physiological processes associated with lipid metabolism and muscle fiber organization. This information could be helpful in further research aiming to estimate the genetic markers.
Abstract in English:Abstract The plant genes encoding ABCGs that have been identified to date play a role in suberin formation in response to abiotic and biotic stress. In the present study, 80 ABCG genes were identified in ‘Dangshansuli’ Chinese white pear and designated as PbABCGs. Based on the structural characteristics and phylogenetic analysis, the PbABCG family genes could be classified into seven main groups: classes A-G. Segmental and dispersed duplications were the primary forces underlying the PbABCG gene family expansion in ‘Dangshansuli’ pear. Most of the PbABCG duplicated gene pairs date to the recent whole-genome duplication that occurred 30~45 million years ago. Purifying selection has also played a critical role in the evolution of the ABCG genes. Ten PbABCG genes screened in the transcriptome of ‘Dangshansuli’ pear and its russet mutant ‘Xiusu’ were validated, and the expression levels of the PbABCG genes exhibited significant differences at different stages. The results presented here will undoubtedly be useful for better understanding of the complexity of the PbABCG gene family and will facilitate the functional characterization of suberin formation in the russet mutant.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to assess the feasibility of comet and cytogenetic tests as tools for evaluating genomic instability in seeds of Oryza sativa L. (rice) and Phaseolus vulgaris (beans) L. from gene banks. Rice and beans were exposed to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) as a reference DNA damaging agent. Seeds of two accessions of rice and beans were obtained from Embrapa Rice and Beans - Brazil. Seed groups were imbibed in three concentrations of MMS for three periods of time to carry out cytogenetic tests, and for one period for the comet test. At concentrations of 10 and 15 mg/L, MMS induced cytotoxic and/or mutagenic effects in the meristematic cells of roots from all the accessions of both species. In the comet test, MMS induced genotoxic effects at all the concentrations in the evaluated accessions of rice and beans, except in one accession of beans at the lowest concentration (5 mg/L). Both species showed sensitivity to MMS. The comet test can be proposed for the measurement of genomic instability in accessions of rice and beans in gene banks, as being more sensitive than the cytogenetic tests used.
Abstract in English:Abstract The increased incidence of cancer and its high treatment costs have encouraged the search for new compounds to be used in adjuvant therapies for this disease. This study discloses the synthesis of (Z)-4-((1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) amino)-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid (IR-01) and evaluates not only the action of this compound on genetic integrity, increase in splenic phagocytosis and induction of cell death but also its effects in combination with the commercial chemotherapeutic agents doxorubicin, cisplatin and cyclophosphamide. IR-01 was designed and synthesized based on two multifunctionalyzed structural fragments: 4-aminoantipyrine, an active dipyrone metabolite, described as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent; and the pharmacophore fragment 1,4-dioxo-2-butenyl, a cytotoxic agent. The results indicated that IR-01 is an effective chemoprotector because it can prevent clastogenic and/or aneugenic damage, has good potential to prevent genomic damage, can increase splenic phagocytosis and lymphocyte frequency and induces cell death. However, its use as an adjuvant in combination with chemotherapy is discouraged since IR-01 interferes in the effectiveness of the tested chemotherapeutic agents. This is a pioneer study as it demonstrates the chemopreventive effects of IR-01, which may be associated with the higher antioxidant activity of the precursor structure of 4-aminoantipyrine over the effects of the 1,4-dioxo-2-butenyl fragment.
Abstract in English:Abstract The human C-C chemokine receptor type-5 (CCR5) is the major transmembrane co-receptor that mediates HIV-1 entry into target CD4+ cells. Gene therapy to knock-out the CCR5 gene has shown encouraging results in providing a functional cure for HIV-1 infection. In gene therapy strategies, the initial region of the CCR5 gene is a hotspot for producing functional gene knock-out. Such target gene editing can be done using programmable endonucleases such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) or clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-Cas9). These two gene editing approaches are the most modern and effective tools for precise gene modification. However, little is known of potential differences in the efficiencies of TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9 for editing the beginning of the CCR5 gene. To examine which of these two methods is best for gene therapy, we compared the patterns and amount of editing at the beginning of the CCR5 gene using TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9 followed by DNA sequencing. This comparison revealed that CRISPR-Cas9 mediated the sorting of cells that contained 4.8 times more gene editing than TALEN+ transfected cells.