Abstract in English:Abstract Turner syndrome (TS) is characterized by a set of clinical conditions, including autoimmune/inflammatory diseases and infectious conditions, that can compromise a patient’s quality of life. Here we assessed polymorphisms in CTLA-4 +49A/G (rs231775), PTPN22 +1858G/A (rs2476601), and MBL2 -550 (H/L) (rs11003125), -221(X/Y) (rs7096206) and exon 1 (A/O) in women from northeastern Brazil to determine whether polymorphisms within these key immune response genes confer differential susceptibility to clinical conditions in TS. A case-control genetic association study was performed, including 86 female TS patients and 179 healthy women. An association was observed for the A/G genotype of CTLA-4 +49A/G in TS patients (p=0.043, odds ratio [OR]=0.54). In addition, an association between the CTLA-4 G/G genotype and obesity was detected in TS patients (p=0.02, OR=6.04). Regarding, the -550(H/L) polymorphism in the MBL2 promoter, the frequency of the H/L genotype was significantly higher in the TS group than healthy controls (p=0.01, OR=1.96). The H/H genotype indicated a protective effect in TS patients (p=0.01, OR=0.23). No differences were observed in the distribution of -221(X/Y), MBL2 exon 1 variants, and PTPN22 +1858G/A in any assessed groups. CTLA-4 variants are potentially involved in obesity in this cohort of TS patients from northeastern Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract Genes can influence lipid profile and anthropometric variables related to obesity. The present study aimed to verify if variants of the APOE, APOB, ADIPOQ, HSD11β1, and PLIN4 genes are associated with lipid levels or anthropometric variables in a sample comprised of 393 Euro-Brazilian children and adolescents. DNA was genotyped by TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. The ε4 and ε2 alleles of the APOE gene were associated respectively with lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels (p=0.015 and p=0.012, respectively), while the ε3 allele was associated with higher abdominal circumference (p=0.0416) and excess weight (p=0.0001). The G allele (rs846910) of the HSD11β1 gene was also associated with excess weight (p=0.039). No other association was found. Our results indicate that the ε4 and ε2 alleles could contribute to lower HDL-C and LDL-C levels, respectively, furthermore, the ε3 allele and the G allele (rs846910) of HSD11β1 gene may be risk factors for excess of weight.These findings are very important because we observed that some genetic variants influence the lipid profile and anthropometric variables early in life.
Abstract in English:Abstract There is currently no data about the genetic variations of APOE in Hakka population in China. The aim of this study was to analyze the allelic and genotypic frequencies of APOE gene polymorphisms in a large ethnic Hakka population in southern China. The APOE genes of 6,907 subjects were genotyped by the gene chip platform. The allele and genotype frequencies were analyzed. Results showed that the ∊3 allele had the greatest frequency (0.804) followed by ∊2 (0.102), and ∊4 (0.094), while genotype ∊3/∊3 accounted for 65.43% followed by ∊2/∊3 (15.85%), ∊3/∊4 (14.13%), ∊2/∊4 (3.01%), ∊4/∊4 (0.84%), and ∊2/∊2 (0.74%) in all subjects. The frequencies of the ∊4 allele in Chinese populations were lower than Mongolian and Javanese, while the frequencies of the ∊2 allele were higher and ∊4 allele lower than Japanese, Koreans, and Iranian compared with the geographically neighboring countries. The frequencies of ∊2 and ∊4 alleles in Hakka population were similar to the Vietnamese, Chinese-Shanghai, Chinese-Kunming Han and Chinese-Northeast, and French. The frequency of ∊2 in Hakka population was higher than Chinese-Dehong Dai and Chinese-Jinangsu Han. The low frequency of the APOE ∊4 allele may suggest a low genetic risk of Hakka population for cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and other diseases.
Abstract in English:Abstract Hemophilia A (HA) is an X-linked recessive disorder and the second most common coagulation disorder with an incidence of 1 in 5,000 live born males. Worldwide, there are 178,500 affected individuals, 60% with the severe form of the disease. Intron 22 and 1 inversions (Inv22 and Inv1) are the most frequent molecular alterations found in severe HA patients with a frequency of 45-50% and 0.5-5%, respectively. We have implemented a systematic cost-effective strategy for the identification of the molecular alteration in HA patients using Inverse shifting-PCR for Inv22 and Inv1, followed by the analysis of the F8 gene coding region by means of high resolution melting (HRM) PCR and Sanger sequencing in Inv22 and Inv1 negative patients. A total of 33 male HA patients and 6 women were analyzed. Inversion 22 was detected in 14/33 male patients (42.4%), 3/33 (9.1%) had Inv1, 3/33 (9.1%) had large structural variants, and 11/33 (33.3%) single nucleotide/ small frameshift variants. No genetic variant was found in 2/33 patients (6%). With this systematic approach we detected pathogenic variants in 31 out of 33 male affected individuals (94%) tested for the first time.in a cohort of patients from Colombia.
Abstract in English:Abstract Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd) and Duffy-negative blood group are two red blood cells variants that confer protection against malaria. In this study, the distribution of the most common G6PD variants (G6PD*A-, GGPD*A and G6PD Mediterranean) and the major alleles of the Duffy blood group (FY*A, FY*B and FY*BES) were investigated in an Afro-descendant population from state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon. G6PD variants and Duffy blood group alleles were determined by TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Overall, molecular genotyping revealed the presence of G6PD variants in 126 (24%) of the individuals studied (5% male and 19% female), and frequencies of the G6PD*A- and G6PD*A alleles were 0.061 and 0.104, respectively. Duffy blood group genotyping showed that 24.3% of people were Duffy-negative and 41.3% were heterozygous for FY*BES. The frequency of allele FY*BES was 41.0%. The results emphasize the need to monitor G6PD deficiency for the use of primaquine in the routine care of the Afro-descendant communities of the Trombetas, Erepecuru and Cumná rivers, evaluating the risks of hemolytic crisis in case of recurrence of malaria in the region. In addition, the possible greater protection against malaria conferred by these erythrocyte polymorphisms deserves to be better investigated and explored among these Afro-descendants.
Abstract in English:Abstract The utility of genetic risk scores (GRS) as independent risk predictors remains inconclusive. Here, we evaluate the additive value of a multi-locus GRS to the Framingham risk score (FRS) in coronary artery disease (CAD) risk prediction. A total of 2888 individuals (1566 coronary patients and 1322 controls) were divided into three subgroups according to FRS. Multiplicative GRS was determined for 32 genetic variants associated to CAD. Logistic Regression and Area Under the Curve (AUC) were determined first, using the TRF for each FRS subgroup, and secondly, adding GRS. Different models (TRF, TRF+GRS) were used to classify the subjects into risk categories for the FRS 10-year predicted risk. The improvement offered by GRS was expressed as Net Reclassification Index and Integrated Discrimination Improvement. Multivariate analysis showed that GRS was an independent predictor for CAD (OR = 1.87; p<0.0001). Diabetes, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia and smoking status were also independent CAD predictors (p<0.05). GRS added predictive value to TRF across all risk subgroups. NRI showed a significant improvement in all categories. In conclusion, GRS provided a better incremental value in intermediate subgroup. In this subgroup, inclusion of genotyping may be considered to better stratify cardiovascular risk.
Abstract in English:Abstract Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) is an important peptide hormone involved in the reproduction and fetal development of mammals, and it is suggested that it may influence the human twinning rate. This study aimed to test such possible association, investigating the genetic polymorphisms IGF1 (CA)n and IGFBP3 rs2854744 in the population from Candido Godoi (CG), a small city located in the South of Brazil that has a high prevalence of twin births. A case-control study was performed comprising a total of 39 cases (representing about 40% of the mothers of twins who were born in CG after 1995) and 214 controls (mothers of non-twin children), 97 of whom were living in CG while 117 were living in Porto Alegre. DNA was extracted from blood leucocytes and genotyping was performed. According to the statistical analyses, there was no significant difference in the frequencies of both studied genetic polymorphisms when comparing case group with control group. Thus, our results pointed to a lack of association between IGF1 (CA)n and IGFBP3 rs2854744 polymorphisms and twin births in CG, but further investigations in other populations with different characteristics must be performed to confirm the role of IGF-I in human twinning.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between prostate cancer (PCa) and Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the Mexican population. We studied 356 paraffin-embedded tissues from unrelated Mexican men with PCa or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), with the latter serving as control. HPV detection was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using universal primers, and viral genotypes were detected using sequencing or multiplex PCR. Light microscopy analyses enabled the identification of koilocytes in samples subsequently analyzed for HPV detection by in situ PCR and for p16-INK4A expression by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that high risk- (HR) HPVs were detected in 37/189 (19.6%) PCa specimens compared to 16/167 (9.6%) of BHP specimens (odds ratio 2.3; 95% CI= 1.2 to 4.3; p=0.01). These data suggest HR-HPV may play a role in PCa. HPV 52 and 58 were the most frequent genotypes (33 and 17%, respectively) detected in the population studied. Koilocytes were detected in all in situ PCR-HPV-positive samples, representing a pathognomonic feature of infection, and we observed the overexpression of p16-INK4A in HPV-positive samples compared to HPV-negative samples, indirectly suggesting the presence of HR-HPV E7 oncoprotein. These results suggest that HPV infection plays an important role in prostate cancer development.
Abstract in English:Abstract Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder. Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) are preferred as the highest category of evidence, but limited availability of robust evidence in rare diseases may necessitate the use of less rigorous evidence. An analysis of cohort studies of enzyme replacement therapies for AFD published in 2017 by El Dib and coworkers made treatment recommendations that contradict previously published findings from RCTs and a systematic Cochrane review. Our commentary outlines concerns regarding selection criteria and statistical methods with their analysis.
Abstract in English:Abstract HDR syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the GATA3 gene and characterized by hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness and renal abnormalities. Here we report a Brazilian family, from which the proband, his mother and his grandfather were diagnosed with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Molecular screening of the GJB2, GJB6 and MTRNR1 genes in the proband showed no alterations; however, whole exome sequencing detected a heterozygous mutation, c.1099C > T (p.Arg367*), in the GATA3 gene. Segregation analyses showed that the mother also had the mutation, but not the grandparents, hence indicating a different hearing impairment type for the grandfather. Paternity test of the mother of the proband confirmed that she has a de novo mutation. Furthermore, HDR syndrome was confirmed with new clinical evaluations showing right kidney agenesis in the proband. This is the first study reporting only deafness and renal abnormalities as symptoms of the p.Arg367* mutation in the GATA3 gene, and also the sixth HDR syndrome case in the world, and the first on the American continent. Together with other reported cases, this study highlights the variability of HDR syndrome symptoms in individuals with the p.Arg367* mutation, emphasizing the importance of molecular analyses for correct diagnosis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Zonotrichia capensis is widely distributed in the Neotropics. Previous cytogenetic studies demonstrated the presence of polymorphisms in two chromosome pairs (ZCA2 and ZCA4). Here, we report results based on comparative chromosome painting, using probes derived from Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis, focused on characterizing the chromosome organization of Z. capensis. Our results demonstrate the conservation of ancestral syntenies as observed previously in other species of passerine. Syntenies were rearranged by a series of inversions in the second chromosome as described in other Passeriformes, but in this species, by using probes derived from L. albicollis we observed an extra inversion in the second chromosome that had not previously been reported. We also report a paracentric inversion in pair 3; this chromosome corresponds to the second chromosome in Zonotrichia albicollis and may indicate the presence of ancestral inversions in the genus. The chromosomal inversions we found might be important for understanding the phenotypic variation that exists throughout the distribution of Z. capensis.
Abstract in English:Abstract The genus Melipona is subdivided into four subgenera based on morphological characteristics, and two groups based on cytogenetic patterns. The cytogenetic information on this genus is still scarce, therefore, the goal of this study was to characterize Melipona paraensis, Melipona puncticollis, and Melipona seminigra pernigra using the following techniques: C-banding, DAPI/CMA3 fluorochromes, and FISH with an 18S rDNA probe. Melipona paraensis (2n=18) and M. seminigra pernigra (2n=22) were classified as high heterochromatin content species (Group II). Their euchromatin is restricted to the ends of the chromosomes and is CMA3+; the 18S rDNA probe marked chromosome pair number 4. Melipona puncticollis (2n=18) is a low heterochromatin content species (Group I) with chromosome pair number 1 marked with CMA3 and 18S rDNA. Low heterochromatin content is a putative ancestral karyotype in this genus and high content is not a monophyletic trait (Melikerria presents species with both patterns). Differences concerning the karyotypic characteristics can be observed among Melipona species, revealing cytogenetic rearrangements that occurred during the evolution of this genus. Studies in other species will allow us to better understand the processes that shaped the chromatin evolution in Melipona.
Abstract in English:Abstract Cytogenetic data can be useful for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies, as well as to provide information about chromosome evolution. Therefore, it may help design conservation priorities for some threatened species, such as anurans. Herein, we describe the karyotypes of Scinax constrictus and Ololygon centralis, native endemic species from the Brazilian Cerrado. Chromosome preparations for both species were stained with Giemsa for morphological analyses and then impregnated by the Ag-NOR method for localization of the nucleolar organizer region (NOR). Both species had 24 chromosomes, as confirmed by meiotic analyses, which showed 12 bivalents. Chromosome morphologies presented the same pattern for Scinax and Ololygon compared to species already karyotyped in both genera. The NOR was interstitially located in the long arm of pair 7 in S. constrictus, whereas in O. centralis it was found near the centromere in the long arm of pair 1, thus diverging from what is commonly found for other Ololygon species. Therefore, we provide the first description of the karyotype of O. centralis and the first report of the localization of the NOR for the karyotype of both species. Our study increases the cytogenetic knowledge in species of the genera Scinax and Ololygon, and provide support for further studies on the taxonomy, ecology, and evolution of hylid anurans.
Abstract in English:Abstract Transporter proteins play an essential role in the uptake, trafficking and storage of metals in plant tissues. The Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage Protein (NRAMP) family plays an essential role in divalent metal transport. We conducted bioinformatics approaches to identify seven NRAMP genes in the Phaseolus vulgaris genome, investigated their phylogenetic relation, and performed transmembrane domain and gene/protein structure analyses. We found that the NRAMP gene family forms two distinct groups. One group included the PvNRAMP1, -6, and -7 genes that share a fragmented structure with a numerous exon/intron organization and encode proteins with mitochondrial or plastidial localization. The other group is characterized by few exons that encode cytoplasmic proteins. In addition, our data indicated that PvNRAMP6 and -7 may be involved in mineral uptake and mobilization in nodule tissues, while the genes PvNRAMP1, -2, -3, -4 and -5 are potentially recruited during plant development. This data provided a more comprehensive understanding of the role of NRAMP transporters in metal homeostasis in P. vulgaris.
Abstract in English:Abstract Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat (Triticum spp.) worldwide. Indian isolates were characterised based on their phenotypic reaction on differential hosts carrying different Yr genes. Based on virulence/avirulence structure, isolates were characterised into ten different pathotypes viz. 70S0-2, 67S64, 70S4, 66S0, 70S64, 66S64-1, 38S102, 47S102, 46S119, and 78S84. These Indian pathotypes of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici and 38 pathotypes of other rust species (P. graminis tritici and P. triticina) were used in this study to analyze their molecular phylogenetic relationship. The nucleotides of rDNA-ITS, partial β-tubulin and ketopantoate reductase genes of all the pathotypes were sequenced directly after PCR. Based on sequence data of rDNA-ITS and β-tubulin, three phylogenetic groups corresponding to three different species of Puccinia were obtained. Asian isolates formed a distinct evolutionary lineage than from those derived from USA. The sequence similarity of Indian pathotypes with other Asian (China and Iran) isolates indicated the same origin of pathotypes. The results will allow rapid identification of Indian P.striiformis f. sp. tritici pathotypes causing stripe rust in wheat, assist in making predictions regarding potential rust pathotypes, and identifying sources of resistance to the disease in advance.
Abstract in English:Abstract Cell walls are involved in manifold aspects of fungi maintenance. For several fungi, chitin synthesis, degradation and recycling are essential processes required for cell wall biogenesis; notably, the activity of β-N-acetylglucosaminidases (NAGases) must be present for chitin utilization. For entomopathogenic fungi, such as Metarhizium anisopliae, chitin degradation is also used to breach the host cuticle during infection. In view of the putative role of NAGases as virulence factors, this study explored the transcriptional profile and evolution of putative GH20 NAGases (MaNAG1 and MaNAG2) and GH3 NAGases (MaNAG3 and MaNAG4) identified in M. anisopliae. While MaNAG2 orthologs are conserved in several ascomycetes, MaNAG1 clusters only with Aspergilllus sp. and entomopathogenic fungal species. By contrast, MaNAG3 and MaNAG4 were phylogenetically related with bacterial GH3 NAGases. The transcriptional profiles of M. anisopliae NAGase genes were evaluated in seven culture conditions showing no common regulatory patterns, suggesting that these enzymes may have specific roles during the Metarhizium life cycle. Moreover, the expression of MaNAG3 and MaNAG4 regulated by chitinous substrates is the first evidence of the involvement of putative GH3 NAGases in physiological cell processes in entomopathogens, indicating their potential influence on cell differentiation during the M. anisopliae life cycle.
Abstract in English:Abstract Continued exposure to reactive oxygen species and inflammation are the rationale behind aging theories and associated diseases. Scientific evidence corroborates the ethnomedicinal use of the oil of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), a typical Brazilian Cerrado fruit, against oxidative damage to biomolecules and inflammation. We aimed to investigate in vivo the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of pequi oil on hemogram and DNA damage in healthy young adult and older middle-aged Swiss mice of both genders. Animals, aged 6-7 and 11-12 months, were orally treated for 15 days with pequi oil at 30 mg/day. Blood samples were used for hemogram and comet assay, and bone marrow for micronucleus test. Female controls of 11-12 months had significantly lower haemoglobin and hematocrit than those of 6-7 months. Treatment with pequi oil improved this state, removing the differences. Pequi oil had no genotoxic or clastogenic effects and significantly increased lymphocytes and decreased neutrophils+monocytes in females of 11-12 months, removing the significant differences observed between controls of 6-7 and 11-12 months. The results suggest that dietary supplementation with pequi oil could protect against anemia, inflammation and oxidative stress related to aging, helping to prevent aging-related chronic degenerative diseases, mainly for females.
Abstract in English:Abstract Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells distributed in all tissues and characterized by adherence, morphology, immunophenotype and trilineage differentiation potential. The present study aimed to isolate and characterize adherent MSC-like populations from different tissues of Ctenomys minutus, a threatened wildlife rodent popularly known as tuco-tuco. Adherent cells were isolated from bone marrow, brain, liver, pancreas and adipose tissue of three adult animals collect in southern Brazil. Cultures showed typical morphology and proliferation potential. Adipose-derived MSCs showed trilineage potential. Cultures derived from adipose tissue, bone marrow and brain were immunophenotyped with negative results for CD31, CD44, CD45, CD106, and MHC class II, as well as strong positive results for CD29. Low fluorescence levels were seen for CD49d, CD90.2 and CD117. Cultures were negative for CD49e, except for brain-derived cultures that were weakly positive. CD11b was negative in adipose-derived MSCs, but positive in brain and bone marrow-derived cultures. The scratch assay showed high migration potential for pancreas and adipose tissue-derived cells. This study represents the first report of isolation and characterization of cultures having characteristics of MSCs from Ctenomys minutus. The collection of biological information for biobanks represents an important contribution to the creation of strategies for prevention of loss of genetic diversity.
Abstract in English:Abstract The genus Spondias (family Anacardiaceae) comprises 19 taxa, ten of which occur in Neotropical regions. Spondias bahiensis has been suggested to be a hybrid, although initial evidence does not support this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of the hybrid origin of S. bahiensis using high-throughput sequencing with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, characterization of intragenomic nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA), and nuclear and chloroplast phylogenomic analyses. The SNP analysis revealed a high number of SNPs in the S. bahiensis genome, and with respect to nrDNA, S. bahiensis shared approximately half of the SNP alleles with S. tuberosa, but not with S. mombin. Combining the SNP analysis with nrDNA phylogeny confirmed the hybrid origin of S. bahiensis and put S. tuberosa as the female genitor. Considering the phylogeny of the genus Spondias and intraspecific SNPs in S. bahiensis, the putative male genitor is S. dulcis.
Abstract in English:Abstract We propose to evaluate genome similarity by combining discrete non-decimated wavelet transform (NDWT) and elastic net. The wavelets represent a signal with levels of detail, that is, hidden components are detected by means of the decomposition of this signal, where each level provides a different characteristic. The main feature of the elastic net is the grouping of correlated variables where the number of predictors is greater than the number of observations. The combination of these two methodologies applied in the clustering analysis of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome strains proved very effective, being able to identify clusters at each level of decomposition.