• A systematic scoping review of the genetic ancestry of the Brazilian population Review Article

    Souza, Aracele Maria de; Resende, Sarah Stela; Sousa, Taís Nóbrega de; Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The genetic background of the Brazilian population is mainly characterized by three parental populations: European, African, and Native American. The aim of this study was to overview the genetic ancestry estimates for different Brazilian geographic regions and analyze factors involved in these estimates. In this systematic scoping review were included 51 studies, comprehending 81 populations of 19 states from five regions of Brazil. To reduce the potential of bias from studies with different sampling methods, we calculated the mean genetic ancestry weighted by the number of individuals. The weighted mean proportions of European, African, and Native American ancestries were 68.1%, 19.6%, and 11.6%, respectively. At the regional level, the highest European contribution occurred in the South, while the highest African and Native American contributions occurred in the Northeastern and Northern regions, respectively. Among states in the Northeast region, Bahia and Ceará showed significant differences, suggesting distinct demographic histories. This review contributes for a broader understanding of the Brazilian ancestry and indicates that the ancestry estimates are influenced by the type of molecular marker and the sampling method.
  • Association of long non-coding RNA MIAT and MALAT1 expression profiles in peripheral blood of coronary artery disease patients with previous cardiac events Human and Medical Genetics

    Toraih, Eman A.; El-Wazir, Aya; Alghamdi, Saleh A.; Alhazmi, Ayman S; El-Wazir, Mohammad; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M.; Fawzy, Manal S.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated in various cellular and pathological processes. Two lncRNAs, myocardial infarction-associated transcript (MIAT) and metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), may be involved in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Here, we aimed to determine the relative circulating levels of MIAT and MALAT1 in 110 stable CAD patients and 117 controls and to correlate their levels with the clinical and laboratory data. Peripheral blood expression levels were quantified by Real-Time qPCR. The median MIAT expression level in CAD patients was significantly 12-fold higher than controls (p<0.001). Otherwise, the median MALAT1 expression level was comparable in patient and control groups. Both lncRNAs showed significantly higher relative expression levels in patients with positive history of previous cardiac ischemic events, and MIAT showed significantly higher expression in diabetic CAD patients. The area under the curve of MIAT (0.888 ± 0.02 with sensitivity 95.5% and specificity 72.7%), was significantly larger than that of MALAT1 (0.601 ± 0.04 with sensitivity 50% and specificity 63.6%) for detecting the presence of significant CAD. The current findings suggest that lncRNA MIAT could have a diagnostic significance in CAD patients. MALAT1 levels, however, are not sufficiently reliable to have much clinical use in our cases.
  • The rs10455872-G allele of the LPA gene is associated with high lipoprotein(a) levels and increased aortic valve calcium in a Mexican adult population Human and Medical Genetics

    Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo; Fragoso, José Manuel; Lale-Farjat, Shamar; Torres-Tamayo, Margarita; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Polymorphisms in the LPA gene have been associated with aortic valve calcification (AVC). There are wide differences in the allelic frequencies, Lp(a) levels, and the association with AVC among ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to determine the association of the LPA gene polymorphisms with Lp(a) levels and risk of developing AVC, in Mexican-Mestizos population. Six LPA polymorphisms (rs10455872, rs7765803, rs6907156, rs1321195, rs12212807 and rs6919346) were genotyped by TaqMan assays in 1,265 individuals without premature coronary artery disease. The presence of AVC was determined by computed tomography. The association of the LPA polymorphisms with AVC, Lp(a), and other cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) was evaluated using logistic regression analysis. Compared to AA genotype, subjects with AG+GG genotypes had high prevalence of Lp(a) ≥ 30 mg/dL (7.1% vs. 23.7%, p<0.001) and AVC (19.0% vs. 29.4%, p=0.007). In a model adjusted for several CVRF, the LPA rs10455872-G allele was associated with high Lp(a) levels and AVC. Carriers of G allele had a high risk of Lp(a) ≥ 30 mg/dL (OR= 3.86, CI 95%: 2.2 - 6.7, p=0.001) and AVC (OR= 2.54, CI 95%: 1.56 - 4.14, p=0.001), independently of other CVRF. In this population, carriers of rs10455872-G allele had 3.86 and 2.54 higher risk of Lp(a) ≥ 30 mg/dL or presence of AVC, respectively.
  • Mutational landscape of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas in a South Asian population Human and Medical Genetics

    Ghias, Kulsoom; Rehmani, Sadiq S; Razzak, Safina A; Madhani, Sarosh; Azim, M. Kamran; Ahmed, Rashida; Khan, Mumtaz J

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer type globally and contributes significantly to burden of disease in South Asia. In Pakistan, HNSCC is among the most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and females. The increasing regional burden of HNSCC along with a unique set of risk factors merited a deeper investigation of the disease at the genomic level. Whole exome sequencing of HNSCC samples and matched normal genomic DNA analysis (n=7) was performed. Significant somatic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) were identified and pathway analysis performed to determine frequently affected signaling pathways. We identified significant, novel recurrent mutations in ASNS (asparagine synthetase) that may affect substrate binding, and variants in driver genes including TP53, PIK3CA, FGFR2, ARID2, MLL3, MYC and ALK. Using the IntOGen platform, we identified MAP kinase, cell cycle, actin cytoskeleton regulation, PI3K-Akt signaling and other pathways in cancer as affected in the samples. This data is the first of its kind from the Pakistani population. The results of this study can guide a better mechanistic understanding of HNSCC in the population, ultimately contributing new, rational therapeutic targets for the treatment of the disease.
  • Whole exome sequencing identifies a novel variant in an apoptosis-inducing factor gene associated with X-linked recessive hearing loss in a Chinese family Human and Medical Genetics

    Wang, Qi; Xingxing, Lu; Ding, Zhiwei; Qi, Yu; Liu, Yuhe

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract We report on the genetic analysis of a Chinese family in which four male patients presented with postlingual progressive hearing loss, associated with distal muscle wasting and unsteady ataxic gait. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified a new pathogenic variant (c.1463C>T, p.Pro488Leu) in the AIFM1 gene, which encodes the apoptosis-inducing factor mitochondrion-associated 1 precursor. AIFM1 is involved in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and cellular caspase-independent apoptosis pathway and has been reported to cause multiple phenotypes including hearing loss. The p.Pro488Leu missense variant segregated with symptoms in the pedigree. It was not found in the dbSNP database, databases of genomes and SNPs in the Chinese population, in 74 patients with sporadic hearing loss, or in 108 normal individuals.We also verified that this AIFM1variant enhanced cell apoptosis rates compared in 293T cells transfected with wild-type AIFM1. Different variations of AIFM1 give rise to different phenotypes in patients, and this is the second reported family with a variant in the C-terminal domain of AIFM1 showing the phenotype of hearing loss and peripheral neuropathy.
  • Differential effects of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) on hematological malignancies among Latinos: a meta-analysis Human and Medical Genetics

    Garcia-Hernandez, Samanta Celeste; Meneses-Sanchez, Perla; Porchia, Leonardo Martin; Torres-Rasgado, Enrique; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo; Gonzalez-Mejia, Martha Elba

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Our objective was to determine the association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) and the risk of developing acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and multiple myelomas (MM) in Latinos. PubMed, SCOPUS, EBSCO, LILACS, and other Latin-specific databases were searched for case-control studies that investigated the association between these polymorphisms and hematologic malignancies until November 2017. Genotype distributions were extracted and either fixed-effects or random-effects models were used to calculate the pooled crude odds ratios (ORs) for the heterozygous, homozygous, dominant, recessive, and allelic genetic models. No publication bias was detected by the Begg-Mazumdar’s test and Egger’s test. From 290 publications, we identified 15 studies on the C677T polymorphism and 13 studies on the A1298C polymorphism. We observed a significant decrease in risk for the C677T polymorphism (OR range=0.54-0.75, p<0.01) and a significant increase in risk for the A1298C polymorphism (OR range=1.28-2.52, p<0.05) in developing ALL for all genetic models. No associations were determined for CML, AML, or MM for either polymorphism. This meta-analysis demonstrated that the A1298C polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of developing ALL, whereas the C677T polymorphism was associated with a decreased risk (protective factor) in the Latino population.
  • Determining the pathogenicity of CFTR missense variants: Multiple comparisons of in silico predictors and variant annotation databases Human and Medical Genetics

    Michels, Marcus; Matte, Ursula; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Mancuso, Aline Castello Branco; Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Berneira, Elias Figueroa Rodrigues; Siebert, Marina; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Pathogenic variants in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator gene (CFTR) are responsible for cystic fibrosis (CF), the commonest monogenic autosomal recessive disease, and CFTR-related disorders in infants and youth. Diagnosis of such diseases relies on clinical, functional, and molecular studies. To date, over 2,000 variants have been described on CFTR (~40% missense). Since few of them have confirmed pathogenicity, in silico analysis could help molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling. Here, the pathogenicity of 779 CFTR missense variants was predicted by consensus predictor PredictSNP and compared to annotations on CFTR2 and ClinVar. Sensitivity and specificity analysis was divided into modeling and validation phases using just variants annotated on CFTR2 and/or ClinVar that were not in the validation datasets of the analyzed predictors. After validation phase, MAPP and PhDSNP achieved maximum specificity but low sensitivity. Otherwise, SNAP had maximum sensitivity but null specificity. PredictSNP, PolyPhen-1, PolyPhen-2, SIFT, nsSNPAnalyzer had either low sensitivity or specificity, or both. Results showed that most predictors were not reliable when analyzing CFTR missense variants, ratifying the importance of clinical information when asserting the pathogenicity of CFTR missense variants. Our results should contribute to clarify decision making when classifying the pathogenicity of CFTR missense variants.
  • Humoral immune response in adult Brazilian patients with Mucolipidosis III gamma Human and Medical Genetics

    Sperb-Ludwig, Fernanda; Alegra, Taciane; Velho, Renata Voltolini; Ludwig, Nataniel; Siebert, Marina; Jobim, Mariana; Vairo, Filippo; Schwartz, Ida V. D.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Mucolipidosis II and III (ML II and III) alpha/beta and ML III gamma are lysosomal diseases caused by GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase deficiency. Previous data indicate that MLII patients have functionally impaired immune system that contributes to predisposition to infections.We evaluated the immunological phenotype of three Brazilian patients with ML III gamma. Our data suggest that the residual activity of GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase in patients with ML III gamma is enough to allow the targeting of the lysosomal enzymes required for B-cell functions maintenance.
  • Perforin gene PRF1 c.900C> T polymorphism and HIV-1 vertical transmission Human and Medical Genetics

    Zupin, Luisa; Polesello, Vania; Kamada, Anselmo Jiro; Gratton, Rossella; Segat, Ludovica; Kuhn, Louise; Crovella, Sergio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Perforin-1, a component of the immune system, is able to control Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) replication and could be involved in HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). This study aims at evaluating the role of the c.900C > T PRF1 gene (encoding for perforin-1) polymorphism (rs885822) in HIV-1 MTCT. The PRF1 c.900C > T polymorphism was genotyped in 331 children from Zambia using a Taqman probe on a Real Time PCR platform. The PRF1 c.900C > T C/T genotype was more frequent among HIV-1 exposed but non-infected children than in HIV-1 positive cases, and the results were confirmed among children infected during breastfeeding. PRF1 c.900C > T correlated with protection against HIV-1 MTCT, suggesting its role in HIV-1 vertical transmission.
  • Chromosomal characterization of Amazonian freshwater stingrays with evidence for new karyomorphs and XX/XY sex chromosomes Animal Genetics

    Valentim, Francisco Carlos de Souza; Porto, Jorge Ivan Rebelo; Feldberg, Eliana

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Cytogenetic studies in the subfamily Potamotrygoninae have provided valuable insights into the understanding of the evolution and diversification of its species. In the present study, the chromosomal features of seven nominal potamotrygonin species are provided: Plesiotrygon iwamae (2n=74, FN=120), Potamotrygon amazona (2n=66, FN=107), P. constellata (2n=66, FN=110), P. leopoldi (2n=64, FN=102), P. motoro (2n=66, FN=106) from four different localities, and P. orbignyi (2n=66, FN=106), P. scobina (2n=66, FN=104), from Central Amazon. Additionally, we found a new karyomorph in P. wallacei. We considered the localization of Nucleolus Organizer Regions (NORs), as well as the pattern of constitutive heterochromatin, as species-specific characters. We found an XX/XY sex chromosome system in P. orbignyi, and we suggest that P. scobina and P. amazona also possess the same sex chromosome system. Overall, the chromosomal evolution in this group appears to have progressed towards a reduction in diploid number, with a concomitant increase in the number of bi-armed and nucleolar chromosomes.
  • Whole genome SNPs discovery in Nero Siciliano pig Animal Genetics

    D’Alessandro, Enrico; Giosa, Domenico; Sapienza, Irene; Giuffrè, Letterio; Cigliano, Riccardo Aiese; Romeo, Orazio; Zumbo, Alessandro

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Autochthonous pig breeds represent an important genetic reserve to be utilized mainly for the production of typical products. To explore its genetic variability, here we present for the first time whole genome sequencing data and SNPs discovered in a male domestic Nero Siciliano pig compared to the last pig reference genome Sus scrofa11.1.A total of 346.8 million paired reads were generated by sequencing. After quality control, 99.03% of the reads were mapped to the reference genome, and over 11 million variants were detected.Additionally, we evaluated sequence diversity in 21 fitness-related loci selected based on their biological function and/or their proximity to relevant QTLs. We focused on genes that have been related to environmental adaptation and reproductive traits in previous studies regarding local breeds. A total of 6,747 variants were identified resulting in a rate of 1 variant every ~276 bases. Among these variants 1,132 were novel to the dbSNP151 database. This study represents a first step in the genetic characterization of Nero Siciliano pig and also provides a platform for future comparative studies between this and other swine breeds.
  • Mapping of QTL for total spikelet number per spike on chromosome 2D in wheat using a high-density genetic map Plant Genetics

    Deng, Mei; Wu, Fangkun; Zhou, Wanlin; Li, Jing; Shi, Haoran; Wang, Zhiqiang; Lin, Yu; Yang, Xilan; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, Youliang; Liu, Yaxi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Total spikelet number per spike (TSS) is one of the key components of grain yield in wheat. Chromosome (chr.) 2D contains numerous genes that control TSS. In this study, we evaluated 138 F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an F2 population of a synthetic hexaploid wheat line (SHW-L1) and a common wheat cultivar (Chuanmai 32) for TSS in six different environments. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for TSS, we constructed an integrated high-density genetic map of chr. 2D containing two simple sequence repeats, 35 diversity array technology markers, and 143 single nucleotide polymorphisms. We identified three stable QTL for TSS that individually explained 9.7–19.2% of the phenotypic variation and predicted 23 putative candidate genes within the QTL mapping interval. Overall, our results provide insight into the genetic basis of TSS in synthetic hexaploid wheat that may be useful in breeding high-yielding wheat cultivars.
  • Genome-wide identification and characterization of R2R3-MYB genes in Medicago truncatula Plant Genetics

    Li, Wei; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Jinyue; Zhen, Xin; Guo, Changhong; Shu, Yongjun

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract MYB is a large family of plant transcription factors. Its function has been identified in several plants, while there are few reports in Medicago truncatula. In this study, we used RNA-seq data to analyze and identify R2R3-MYB genes in the genome of Medicago truncatula. Phylogenetic analysis classified 150 MtMYB genes into 21 subfamilies with homologs. Out of the 150 MtMYB genes, 139 were distributed among 8 chromosomes, with tandem duplications (TD) and segment duplications (SD). Microarray data were used for functional analysis of the MtMYB genes during growth and developmental processes providing evidence for a role in tissues differentiation, seed development processes, and especially the nodulation process. Furthermore, we investigated the expression of MtMYB genes in response to abiotic stresses using RNA-seq data, which confirmed the critical roles in signal transduction and regulation processes under abiotic stress. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to validate expression profiles. The expression pattern of M. truncatula MYB genes under different abiotic stress conditions suggest that some may play a major role in cross-talk among different signal transduction pathways in response to abiotic stresses. Our study will serve as a foundation for future research into the molecular function of M. truncatula R2R3-MYB genes.
  • Ammopiptanthus mongolicus stress-responsive NAC gene enhances the tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana to drought and cold stresses Plant Genetics

    Pang, Xinyue; Xue, Min; Ren, Meiyan; Nan, Dina; Wu, Yaqi; Guo, Huiqin

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Drought and cold are the primary factors limiting plant growth worldwide. The Ammopiptanthus mongolicus NAC11 (AmNAC11) gene encodes a stress-responsive transcription factor. Expression of the AmNAC11 gene was induced by drought, cold and high salinity. The AmNAC11 protein was localized in the nucleus and plays an important role in tolerance to drought, cold and salt stresses. We also found that differential expression of AmNAC11 was induced in the early stages of seed germination and was related to root growth. When the AmNAC11 gene was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana by an Agrobacterium-mediated method, the transgenic lines expressing AmNAC11 displayed significantly enhanced tolerance to drought and freezing stresses compared to wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana plants. These results indicated that over-expression of the AmNAC11 gene in Arabidopsis could significantly enhance its tolerance to drought and freezing stresses. Our study provides a promising approach to improve the tolerance of crop cultivars to abiotic stresses through genetic engineering.
  • Chromosomal variability in Brazilian species of Anthurium Schott (Araceae): Heterochromatin, polyploidy, and B chromosomes Plant Genetics

    Nascimento, Sarah do; Coelho, Marcus Alberto Nadruz; Cordeiro, Joel M. P.; Felix, Leonardo P.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The genus Anthurium has a Neotropical distribution, with karyotype predominance of x = 15, although some species show disploidy or polyploid variations. The karyotypes of seven species and different populations of Anthurium were analyzed using fluorochrome CMA and DAPI staining. The karyotypes were composed of meta- and submetacentric chromosomes, with numbers varying from 2n = 30 to 2n = 60. Supernumerary euchromatic chromosomes were observed in A. affine, and supernumerary heterochromatic chromosomes were observed in A. gladiifolium and A. petrophilum. Polyploidy was recurrent in the Anthurium species analyzed, with records of 2n = 30 and 60 in different A. pentaphyllum populations. Fluorochrome staining revealed different CMA+ banding distributions between diploid and polyploid cytotypes of A. pentaphyllum, suggesting structural alteration events. Anthurium petrophilum, on the other hand, showed a more consistent banding profile, with 10 to 12 proximal CMA bands in the three populations analyzed. DAPI+/CMA0 regions occurred exclusively in populations of A. gracile and A. pentaphyllum. The heterochromatic fraction in Anthurium was found to be quantitatively variable among species and populations, which may be related with adaptive aspects, different environmental conditions, or phylogenetic position.
  • Protective effects of bark ethanolic extract from Spondias dulcis Forst F. against DNA damage induced by benzo[a]pyrene and cyclophosphamide Mutagenesis

    Araujo, Caroline de S.; Brito, Lorrane D.; Tarifa, Marina O.; Silva, Nayara J. Farah da; Rodrigues, Karoline S.; Cavalcante, Dalita G. S. M.; Gomes, Andressa S.; Zocoler, Marcos A.; Yoshihara, Eidi; Camparoto, Marjori L.; Job, Aldo E.; Kerche, Leandra E.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study evaluated the genotoxicity, mutagenicity, antigenotoxicity, and antimutagenicity effects on biochemical parameters of oxidative stress of the Spondias dulcis bark ethanolic extract on mice. The extract was evaluated in the doses of 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg bw via gavage. To evaluate the protective effects of the extract, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and cyclophosphamide (CP) were chosen as DNA damage inducers. Genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity were evaluated by the comet assay. Cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, and antimutagenicity were evaluated by the micronucleus test in bone marrow and peripheral blood. The biochemical parameters of oxidative stress were evaluated by the quantification of catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in total blood, liver and kidney, and malondialdehyde (MDA), in liver and kidney. No genotoxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic effect was found on mice exposed to the extract. The extract depleted the number of damaged nucleoids in total blood and the number of micronucleus (MN) in both cell types. The extract was able to increase CAT activity and GSH levels and decrease MDA levels after treatment with B[a]P and CP. The results indicate that the S. dulcis extract has potential to be used as preventive compound against DNA damage caused by CP and B[a]P.
  • Gene pool sharing and genetic bottleneck effects in subpopulations of Eschweilera ovata (Cambess.) Mart. ex Miers (Lecythidaceae) in the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil Evolutionary Genetics

    Santos, Alesandro S.; Borges, Daniela B.; Vivas, Caio V.; Berg, Cassio Van Den; Rodrigues, Polliana S.; Tarazi, Roberto; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Forest loss and fragmentation are the main threats to the maintenance of the Atlantic Forest, an important global biodiversity hotspot. Because of the current critical level of deforestation, ecological corridors are needed to facilitate species dispersion and gene flow among fragments. This study was conducted to investigate the genetic variability and gene pool sharing of Eschweilera ovata in five forest remnants in southern Bahia, Brazil using nuclear simple sequence repeat (nSSR) and plastid simple sequence repeat (cpSSR) microsatellite markers. cpSSR marker analysis revealed the domains of four haplotypes, showing that 80% of the individuals had only four maternal origins, reflecting a founder effect and/or genetic bottleneck. The results of cpSSR and nSSR analyses indicated moderate genetic diversity, particularly in conservation units with full protection, which showed the best parameters of all areas evaluated. Another indication of the susceptibility of these populations to forest loss and fragmentation was the strong genetic bottleneck observed. In contrast, genetic structure analyses (FST and discriminant analysis of principal components) revealed gene pool sharing between the subpopulations, which may reflect the historical gene flow that occurred before forest fragmentation.
  • The perturbed expression of m6A in parthenogenetic mouse embryos Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Genetics Short

    Hao, Jindong; Xianfeng, Yu; Gao, Wei; Wei, Jiaqi; Qi, Minghui; Han, Liang; Shi, Shuming; Lin, Chao; Wang, Dongxu

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Parthenogenetically activated oocytes cannot develop to term in mammals owing to abnormal epigenetic modifications. Methylation of the N6 position of adenosine (m6A) is a post-transcriptional epigenetic modification of RNA. To investigate the role of m6A methylation in parthenogenetic (PA) embryonic development, we analyzed METTL3, METTL14, FTO, ALKBH5, YTHDF2, IGF2BP1, and IGF2BP2 expression by quantitative real-time PCR. These genes were found dynamically expressed during the 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, and blastocyst stages of the embryo. Compared to normally fertilized embryos, the expression of these genes was perturbed in PA embryos, especially at the 8-cell stage. Furthermore, immunofluorescence was used to detect m6A expression. The results demonstrated that m6A expression decreased in the 2-cell stage, whereas it increased in the 8-cell stage of PA embryos. Taken together, these results suggest that the expression of RNA methylation-related genes was perturbed, leading to abnormal m6A modification during early development in PA embryos.
  • Araucaria angustifolia chloroplast genome sequence and its relation to other Araucariaceae Genomics and Bioinformatics

    Brandão, José Henrique S. G.; Rodrigues, Nureyev F.; Eguiluz, Maria; Guzman, Frank; Margis, Rogerio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Araucaria angustifolia is endemic to southern Brazil. Known as Brazilian pine, A. angustifolia is the only native conifer species with economic and social relevance in this country. Due to massive exploitation, it has suffered a significant population decline and currently is classified as critically endangered. This encouraged the scientific community to investigate genetic features in Brazilian pine to increase resources for management and preservation. In this work, RNA-Seq data was used to determine the complete nucleotide sequence of the A. angustifolia chloroplast genome (cpDNA). The cpDNA is 146,203 bp in length and contains 122 genes, including 80 protein-coding genes, 5 ribosomal RNA genes, and 37 tRNA genes. Coding regions comprise 45.02%, 4.96% correspond to rRNAs and tRNAs, and 50.02% of the genome encompasses non-coding regions. Genes found in the inverted repeat (IR) are present as single copy, with exception of the rrn5 and trnI-CAU loci. The typical LSC, SSC, IRa and IRb organization reported in several land-plant groups is not present in A. angustifolia cpDNA. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods clustered A. angustifolia in the Araucariaceae family, with A. heterophylla and A. columnaris as congeneric species. The screening of A. angustifolia cpDNA reveled 100 SSRs, 14 of them corresponding to tetrapolymer loci.
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