Abstract in English:Abstract Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor in women. A previous genome-wide association study reports that rs72755295, a SNP locating at intron of EXO1 (exonuclease 1), is associated with breast cancer. Due to the complete linkage disequilibrium between rs72755295 and rs4149909, a nonsynonymous mutation for EXO1, rs4149909 is supposed to be the causal SNP. Since EXO1 is overexpressed in breast carcinoma samples, we hypothesized that the genetic variations in this locus might confer breast cancer risk by regulating EXO1 expression. To substantiate this, a functional genomics study was performed. The dual luciferase assay indicated that G of rs72755295 presents significantly higher relative enhancer activity than A, thus verifying that this SNP can influence gene expression in breast cell. Through chromosome conformation capture it was disclosed that the enhancer containing rs72755295 can interact with the EXO1 promoter. RNA-seq analysis indicated that EXO1 expression is dependent on the rs72755295 genotype. By chromatin immunoprecipitation, the transcription factor PAX6 (paired box 6) was recognized to bind the region spanning rs72755295. In electrophoretic mobility shift assay, G of rs72755295 displays obviously higher binding affinity with nuclear protein than A. Our results indicated that rs72755295 is a cis-regulatory variation for EXO1 and might confer breast cancer risk besides rs4149909.
Abstract in English:Abstract Our aim was to investigate molecular features of thalassemia for proper clinical consultation and prevention in Heyuan. In our research, a total of 25,437 positive screening subjects were further subjected to a genetic analysis of α-thalassemia (α-thal) and β-thalassemia (β-thal). The deletion of α-thal mutation was tested by Gap-PCR, while the non-deletion of α-thal and β-thal mutation were identified by the PCR-reverse dot blot (PCR-RDB) technique. Nested PCR detected Hkαα/-- SEA and Hkαα/αα. Among the 25,437 positive screening subjects, 44.09% (11216/25437) subjects were bearers of thalassemia variations, and 30.85% (7847/25437) subjects showed α-thal changes alone. Among the 23 genotypes with α-thal mutation alone, the three common genotypes were --SEA/αα(68.34%), -α3.7/αα(16.44%), and -α4.2/αα(6.38%). Of the 11.50% (2924/25437) subjects and 29 genotypes with β-thal mutation alone, the three common genotypes were βCD41-42/βN(36.22%), βIVS-II-654/βN(30.88%), and β-28/βN(13.47%). Additionally, of the 1.75% (445/25437) subjects and 55 genotypes showed both α- and β-thal mutations. We also identified 269 cases of Hb H and six patients of Hkαα. Furthermore, the common genotypes of α-thal and β-thal mutations were consistent with allele frequencies of mutations. Our study establishes molecular features of thalassemia among Hakka people in Heyuan. It will be useful for developing strategies to prevent thalassemia.
Abstract in English:Abstract Psoriasis is a common chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory disease of the skin. PSORS1C3 is a non-protein coding gene, of which the RNA transcript is found in psoriatic patients. CARD14 is mainly expressed in epidermal keratinocytes. TLR4 is a transmembrane protein to recognize microbial antigens. Our study aimed to assess the relationship among PSORS1C3, CARD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms, inflammatory expression and psoriasis susceptibility. To the end, 71 patients with psoriasis and 46 healthy individuals with the well-characterized clinical profiles were enrolled. Gene polymorphisms were determined by Sanger DNA sequencing and secretion of cytokines by ELISA. As a result, genetic analysis of PSORS1C3 gene identified nine SNPs and three haplotype blocks. Sequencing of the CARD14 gene determined eight SNPs and one haplotype block. Sequencing of TLR4 gene identified nine SNPs, in which a SNP rs1018673641 was found to exert deleterious effect. The linkage disequilibrium analysis showed that seven variants in PSORS1C3 gene and three SNPs in CARD14 gene were in tightly linked. More importantly, a significant association between IL-6 level and rs1018673641 AT genotype in TLR4 gene was detected in psoriatic patients. In conclusion, the PSORS1C3, CARD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms and haplotypes may be correlated with risk of suffering psoriasis and the IL-6-mediated chronic inflammation in psoriasis could be partially regulated by the TLR4 functional variant.
Abstract in English:Abstract High heterogeneity of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is a major clinical challenge. This study aims to characterize the molecular features of LUAD through classification based on metabolism-related genes. A total of 500 LUAD samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and 612 from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) were integrated with 2,753 metabolism-related genes to determine the molecular classification. Systematic bioinformatics analysis was used to conduct correlation analysis between metabolism-related classification and molecular characteristics of LUAD. LUAD patients were divided into three molecular clusters (C1-C3). Survival analysis revealed that C1 and C2 showed good and poor prognoses, respectively. Associational analysis of classification and molecular characteristics revealed that C1 was associated with low pathological stage, metabolic pathways, high metabolic process, active immune process and checkpoint, sensitive drug response, as well as a low genetic mutation. Nevertheless, C2 was associated with high pathological stage, carcinogenic pathways, low metabolic process, inactive immune signatures, resistant drug response, and frequent genetic mutation. Eventually, a classifier with 60 metabolic genes was constructed, confirming the robustness of molecular classification on LUAD. Our findings promote the understanding of LUAD molecular characteristics, and the research data may be used for providing information be helpful for clinical diagnosis and treatment.
Abstract in English:Abstract Blastocerus dichotomus is the largest deer in South America. We have used 25 microsatellite markers detected and genotyped by Next Generation Sequencing to estimate the genetic variability of B. dichotomus in Argentina, where most of its populations are threatened. Primer design was based on the sequence of a shallow partial genome (15,967,456 reads; 16.66% genome coverage, mean depth 1.64) of a single individual. From the thousands of microsatellite loci found, even under high stringency selection, we chose and tested a set of 80 markers on 30 DNA samples extracted from tissue and feces from three Argentinean populations. Heterozygosity levels were low across all loci in all populations (H=0.31 to 0.40). Amplicon sequencing is a fast, easy, and affordable technique that can be very useful for the characterization of microsatellite marker sets for the conservation genetics of non-model organisms. This work is also one of the first ones to use amplicon sequencing in non-invasive samples and represents an important development for the study of threatened species.
Abstract in English:Abstract Boana comprises a diverse genus of Neotropical treefrogs, currently rearranged into seven taxonomic species groups. Although cytogenetic studies have demonstrated diversity in its representatives, the chromosomal mapping of repetitive DNA sequences is still scarce. In this study, Boana albopunctata, Boana faber, and Boana prasina were subjected to in situ localization of different repetitive DNA units to evaluate trends of chromosomal evolution in this genus. Boana faber and B. prasina had 2n=24 chromosomes, while B. albopunctata has 2n=22 and an intra-individual variation related to the presence/absence of one B chromosome. The location of 45S rDNA sites was different in the analyzed karyotypes, corroborating with what was found in the distinct phylogenetic groups of Boana. We presented the first description of 5S rDNA in a Boana species, which showed markings resulting from transposition/translocation mechanisms. In situ localization of microsatellite loci proved to be a helpful marker for karyotype comparison in Boana, commonly with cis accumulation in the heterochromatin. On the other hand, genomic dispersion of microsatellites may be associated with hitchhiking effects during the spreading of transposable elements. The obtained results corroborated the independent diversification of these lineages of species from three distinct phylogenetic groups of Boana.
Abstract in English:Abstract Here we sequenced and characterized the complete plastome of Bactris riparia, a species closely related to B. gasipaes and widely distributed in Western Amazonia. We performed a comparative genomic analysis with B. riparia and the other four Bactridinae species retrieved from GenBank. The plastome of B. riparia was 156,715 bp with a quadripartite structure. Gene content included 86 protein-coding genes (CDS), 38 tRNAs, and 8 rRNAs. Bactris riparia has 69 more base pairs than B. gasipaes, with identical numbers in IR, and more in LSC and SSC. The comparative analysis indicated that structure, collinearity, and IR/SSC borders of plastomes within subtribe Bactridinae are, in general, conserved. We predicted 69 SSRs in B. riparia plastome. Among them, ~80% consisted of A/T homopolymers. Among the 52 variable CDS, rbcL showed the highest non-synonymous rate, while the rps15 gene had the highest synonymous rate. Three genes (ccsA, cemA, and rpoC1) presented evidence of positive selection and 22 genes showed evidence of purifying selection. The phylogenetic tree based on plastome sequences set Bactris as more closely related to Astrocaryum than to Acrocomia. These new plastome data of B. riparia will contribute to studies about the diversity, evolutionary history, and conservation of palms.
Abstract in English:Abstract Phytoene synthase (PSY) is a crucial enzyme required for carotenoid biosynthesis, encoded by a gene family conserved in carotenoid-producing organisms. This gene family is diversified in angiosperms through distinct duplication events. Understanding diversification patterns and the evolutionary history of the PSY gene family is important for explaining carotenogenesis in different plant tissues. This study identified 351 PSY genes in 166 species, including Viridiplantae, brown and red algae, cyanobacteria, fungi, arthropods, and bacteria. All PSY genes displayed conserved intron/exon organization. Fungi and arthropod PSY sequences were grouped with prokaryote PSY, suggesting the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer. Angiosperm PSY is split into five subgroups. One includes the putative ortholog of PSY3 (Subgroup E3) from eudicots, and the other four subgroups include PSY from both monocots and eudicots (subgroups E1, E2, M1, and M2). Expression profile analysis revealed that PSY genes are constitutively expressed across developmental stages and anatomical parts, except for the eudicot PSY3, with root-specific expression. This study elucidates the molecular evolution and diversification of the PSY gene family, furthering our understanding of variations in carotenogenesis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) fruits are famous for their unique aroma. This study analysed the Durian fruit transcriptome to discover the expression patterns of genes and to understand their regulation. Three developmental stages of Durian fruit, namely, early [90 days post-anthesis (DPA)], mature (120 DPA), and ripen (127 DPA), were studied. The Illumina HiSeq platform was used for sequencing. The sequence data were analysed using four different mapping aligners and statistical methods: CLC Genomic Workbench, HISAT2+DESeq2, Tophat+Cufflinks, and HISAT2+edgeR. The analyses showed that over 110 million clean reads were mapped to the Durian genome, yielding 19,976, 11,394, 17,833, and 24,351 differentially expressed genes during 90-127 days post-anthesis. Many identified differentially expressed genes were linked to the fruit ripening processes. The data analysis suggests that most genes with increased expression at the ripening stage were primarily involved in the metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, nucleotide metabolism, and carbohydrate metabolism. Significantly expressed genes from the young to mature stage were mainly associated with carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and cofactor and vitamin metabolism. The transcriptome data will serve as a foundation for understanding Durian fruit development-specific genes and could be helpful in fruit’s trait improvement.
Abstract in English:Abstract Banana tree bacterial wilt is caused by the Ralstonia solanacearum Moko ecotype. These strains vary in their symptom progression in banana, and are classified as typical Moko variants (phylotype IIA and IIB strains from across Central and South America), Bugtok variant (Philippines), and Sergipe facies (the states of Sergipe and Alagoas, Brazil). This study used comparative genomic and phylogenomic approaches to identify a correlation between the symptom progression of the Moko ecotypes based on the analysis of 23 available genomes. Average nucleotide identity and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization revealed a high correlation (>96% and >78%, respectively) between the genomes of Moko variants. Pan-genome analysis identified 21.3% of inheritable regions between representatives of the typical Moko and Sergipe facies variants, which could be traced to an abundance of exclusive homolog clusters. Moko ecotype genomes shared 1,951 orthologous genes, but representatives with typical symptoms did not display unique orthologues. Moreover, Bugtok disease and Sergipe facies genomes did not share any unique genes, suggesting convergent evolution to a shared symptom progression. Overall, genomic and phylogenomic analyses were insufficient to differentiate the Moko variants based on symptom progression.
Abstract in English:Abstract Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are found to participate in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemic stroke. Exosomes derived from Tregs (Treg-Exos) were found to mediate the mechanism of Tregs’ roles under various physiological and pathological conditions. But the roles of Treg-Exos in cerebral ischemic stroke are still unclear. Here, we explored the protective effects of Treg-Exos against microglial injury in response to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) exposure. The results showed that Tregs-Exos relieved OGD/R-caused increases in LDH release and caspase-3 activity in BV-2 cells. The decreased cell viability and increased percentage of TUNEL-positive cells in OGD/R-exposed BV-2 cells were attenuated by Tregs-Exos treatment. Tregs-Exos also suppressed OGD/R-induced increase in production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 in BV-2 microglia. Furthermore, Tregs-Exos induced the expression levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (p-PI3K) and phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) in BV-2 microglia under the challenge of OGD/R. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling by LY294002 partly reversed the effects of Tregs-Exos on cell apoptosis and inflammation in OGD/R-exposed BV-2 microglia. These results indicated that Tregs-Exos exerted protective effects against the OGD/R-caused injury of BV-2 microglia by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling.