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Project design and development in indigenous communities: a literature review

Formulação de projetos para desenvolvimento em comunidades indígenas: revisão de literatura

Abstract:

Project development in indigenous communities is one of the mechanisms for developing territories, economy, and culture. This article aims to review project design and development in indigenous communities from a bibliographic perspective, following the methodology proposed by Cronin et al. (2008). Published scientific papers about project design in these communities are used. Accordingly, various studies focused on analyzing projects developed in indigenous communities, from community development to socio-cultural and indigenous entrepreneurship are found. Project design in indigenous communities must be done to ensure the success of the project and the achievement of the proposed objectives through social capital, the participation of all community members, social innovation, and multigenerational understanding of the linkages among products, people, and ecosystems. In addition, the relevance of the process is acknowledged by valuing the particularities of the indigenous population, which leads to an allusion to concepts such as indigenous planning, a key element in project design. Likewise, the relevant topics for future research aimed at the conception of indigenous territories and their articulation with territorial and sustainable development are considered.

Keywords:
Community-based development; Indigenous projects; Project design; Indigenous-based entrepreneurship

Resumo:

O desenvolvimento de projetos em comunidades indígenas é um dos mecanismos para o desenvolvimento de territórios, economia e cultura. Este artigo tem como objetivo revisar a concepção e o desenvolvimento de projetos em comunidades indígenas a partir de uma perspectiva bibliográfica, seguindo a metodologia proposta por Cronin et al. (2008). Trabalhos científicos publicados sobre o design de projetos nessas comunidades são usados. Nesse sentido, encontram-se diversos estudos voltados para a análise de projetos desenvolvidos em comunidades indígenas, desde o desenvolvimento comunitário até o empreendedorismo sociocultural e indígena. A concepção do projeto em comunidades indígenas deve ser feita para garantir o sucesso do projeto e a realização dos objetivos propostos através do capital social, da participação de todos os membros da comunidade, da inovação social e da compreensão multigeracional das ligações entre produtos, pessoas e ecossistemas. Além disso, reconhece-se a relevância do processo pela valorização das particularidades da população indígena, o que leva à alusão a conceitos como o planejamento indígena, elemento-chave na concepção do projeto. Da mesma forma, são considerados os temas relevantes para pesquisas futuras voltadas para a concepção de territórios indígenas e sua articulação com o desenvolvimento territorial e sustentável.

Palavras-chave:
Desenvolvimento baseado na comunidade; Projetos indígenas; Projeto de design; Empreendedorismo de base indígena

1 Introduction

Studies on project design in indigenous communities have gained strength in recent years, mainly because of the search for elements and factors that allow the recognition and articulation of the culture of these communities with development proposals (Yeh et al., 2021Yeh, J. H.-Y., Lin, S.-C., Lai, S.-C., Huang, Y.-H., Yi-Fong, C., Lee, Y.-T., & Berkes, F. (2021). Taiwanese indigenous cultural heritage and revitalization: community practices and local development. Sustainability, 13(4), 1-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su13041799.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su13041799...
). In this context, indigenous communities mainly draw the attention of researchers as they face situations of discrimination based on ethnicity (Altman, 2001Altman, J. (2001). Indigenous communities and business: three perspectives, 1998-2000. Canberra: Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR), The Australian National University. Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from https://openresearch-repository.anu.edu.au/handle/1885/40154
https://openresearch-repository.anu.edu....
; Langton, 2013Langton, M. (2013). The quiet revolution: Indigenous people and the resources boom (The Boyer Lectures 2012). Sydney: Australian Broadcasting Corporation Books.; Serrano-Barquín & Zarza-Delgado, 2013Serrano-Barquín, H., & Zarza-Delgado, M. (2013). Mestizos and indigenous social roles: effects on violence due to rituals and tradition. Ra Ximhai, 9(3), 81-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.35197/rx.09.03.e.2013.04.hs.
http://dx.doi.org/10.35197/rx.09.03.e.20...
). Consequently, works with indigenous peoples have posed significant challenges in the last five years since it is necessary to consider that their ancestral activities and rituals demand that any type of intended productive activity associate cultural, social, economic and traditional aspects, to ensure long-term sustainability (Pitre-Redondo et al., 2017, pPitre-Redondo, R., Cardona-Arbeláez, D., & Hernández-Palma, H. (2017). Projection of the indigenous entrepreneurship as a mechanism of competitiveness in the Colombian post-conflict. Revista de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación, 7(2), 231-240. http://dx.doi.org/10.19053/20278306.v7.n2.2017.6068.
http://dx.doi.org/10.19053/20278306.v7.n...
. 237). Hence, institutions are understood in this context as any human organization with durable systems of established or embedded social rules that structure social interactions (Hodgson, 2011, pHodgson, G. M. (2011). ¿Qué son las instituciones? Revista CS, 8, 17-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.18046/recs.i8.1128.
http://dx.doi.org/10.18046/recs.i8.1128...
. 44), which play an essential role in responding to the resistance put up by these communities and their needs.

However, the struggle to reduce the existing gaps among different population sectors has achieved the recognition of various methodologies that serve, according to UNESCO (2016)Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura - UNESCO. (2016). Estrategias didácticas: guía docente para educación indígena. Paris: UNESCO. and Benavides (2013)Benavides, L. (2013). Experiencias de educación indígena en Colombia: entre prácticas pedagógicas y políticas para la educación de grupos étnicos. In S. P. Guido Guevara, D. P. García Ríos, G. Lara Guzmán, M. S. Jutinico Fernández, A. L. Benavides Cortés, I. Delgadillo Cely, B. Sandoval Guzmán & H. Bonilla García(Eds.), Experiencias de educación indígena en Colombia: entre prácticas pedagógicas y políticas para la educación de grupos étnicos (pp. 57-82). Bogotá: Universidad Pedagógica Nacional. Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12209/7865
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12209/7865...
, as mechanisms of competitiveness and development for indigenous communities that facilitate the understanding of their traditional practices, empower communities around their principles, and respect their worldview to maintain community relations, sovereignty, and political empowerment (Coral Guerrero, 2018Coral Guerrero, C. A. (2018). Emprendimiento indígena ¿Una dimensión económica del Sumak Kawsay? REVESCO: Revista de Estudios Cooperativos, 129, 123-141. http:/dx.doi.org/10.5209/REVE.62849.
https://doi.org/http:/dx.doi.org/10.5209...
; Pick et al., 2007Pick, S., Sirkin, J., Ortega, I., Osorio, P., Martínez, R., Xocolotzin, U., & Givaudan, M. (2007). Escala para medir agencia personal y empoderamiento (ESAGE). Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 41(3), 295-304. Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from https://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=28441304
https://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=2...
; Benedetti, 2021Benedetti, C. (2021). Showing themselves: indigenous people, cultural heritage promotion and community development in Northern Argentina. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 27(10), 1025-1037. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13527258.2021.1922932.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13527258.2021....
), which ultimately manages to link these communities in socio-culturally mediated relationships with their capacity to act in different environments (Ahearn, 2016Ahearn, L. (2016). Narrative paths of Native American resistance: tracing agency and commemoration in journalism texts in Eastern North Carolina, 1872-1988 (Doctoral thesis). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.; Zavala Berbena & Figueiras, 2014Zavala Berbena, M. A., & Figueiras, S. C. (2014). Phenomenology of agency and education. Notes for analyzing the concept of human agency and its projections into the sphere of education. Magister, 26(2), 98-104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0212-6796(14)70024-6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0212-6796(14)...
; Rickard, 2019Rickard, S. (2019). Gender, agency, and decision making in community engagement: reflections from Afghanistan’s Mes Aynak Mine. The Extractive Industries and Society, 7(2), 435-445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2019.11.001.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2019.11...
). In any case, this implies developing an analysis focused on the decoloniality of power, based on identifying the existence of structures of domination, exploitation, and extermination that have been reproduced over the past centuries (Garzón López, 2013Garzón López, P. (2013). Indigenous and Decoloniality: on colonization western epistemological. Scaffolding, 10(22), 305-331. Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1870-00632013000200016&lng=es&tlng=es
http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?scri...
; Angel Baquero et al., 2015Angel Baquero, S., Caicedo Ortiz, J. A., & Rico Noguera, J. C. (2015). Colonialidad del saber y ciencias sociales: una metodología para aprehender los imaginarios colonizados. Análisis Político, 28(85), 76-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.15446/anpol.v28n85.56248.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15446/anpol.v28n85....
).

Therefore, studies in recent years have focused on addressing project design in indigenous communities and their participation in organized economic processes, and on its importance in their collective, social and economic life in order to promote the improvement of their conditions and to allow them to build and consolidate community-based production, marketing, and export projects and strategies in these contexts. In this respect, Coral Guerrero (2018)Coral Guerrero, C. A. (2018). Emprendimiento indígena ¿Una dimensión económica del Sumak Kawsay? REVESCO: Revista de Estudios Cooperativos, 129, 123-141. http:/dx.doi.org/10.5209/REVE.62849.
https://doi.org/http:/dx.doi.org/10.5209...
states that these strategies must be in line with the strengthening of indigenous collective work and based on solutions tailored to each community that include an emphasis on the benefit of the majority, rather than on individuality (Collins et al., 2017Collins, J., Morrison, M., Basu, P. K., & Krivokapic-Skoko, B. (2017). Indigenous culture and entrepreneurship in small businesses in Australia. Small Enterprise Research, 24(1), 36-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13215906.2017.1289855.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13215906.2017....
). However, these principles are misunderstood because they give greater relevance to cultural rather than to commercial conceptions, which affects all the phases of social projects since they imply understanding and appropriation of the indigenous worldview.

Thus, the different studies on projects in these communities do not only address a methodological guide that is comprehensive for all types of communities, which allows their members to understand and have a better performance in their projects and to be able to carry them out, but such studies are also developed within the framework of local development and address the articulation of various economic, social and political factors with the different sectors and actors of the community. However, it is worth mentioning that many of the studies show that projects for indigenous groups have focused on agriculture, handicrafts, the preservation of their culture, the improvement of the quality of life, and, more recently, tourism (Altman, 2001Altman, J. (2001). Indigenous communities and business: three perspectives, 1998-2000. Canberra: Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR), The Australian National University. Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from https://openresearch-repository.anu.edu.au/handle/1885/40154
https://openresearch-repository.anu.edu....
; Yeh et al., 2021Yeh, J. H.-Y., Lin, S.-C., Lai, S.-C., Huang, Y.-H., Yi-Fong, C., Lee, Y.-T., & Berkes, F. (2021). Taiwanese indigenous cultural heritage and revitalization: community practices and local development. Sustainability, 13(4), 1-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su13041799.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su13041799...
).

Consequently, project design is a vital tool for the development of indigenous communities (Perissé, 2019Perissé, M. C. (2019). Proyecto social: formulación y evaluación. Ciencia y técnica administrativa. Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from http://www.cyta.com.ar/biblioteca/bddoc/bdlibros/proyecto_social_formulacion.pdf
http://www.cyta.com.ar/biblioteca/bddoc/...
; Del Sol & Ruiz, 2019Del Sol, A. I. M., & Ruiz, D. R. G. (2019). Impact evaluation of local development projects. Study case la oriental manor. Revista Universidad y Sociedad, 11(3), 287-295. Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2218-36202019000300287&lng=es&tlng=es
http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=s...
; Calvache & Jiménez, 2019Calvache, T. M., & Jiménez, M. V. (2019). Evaluación de impacto de la implementación de estrategias y actividades de nutrición comunitaria en la carrera de Nutrición Humana, en familias indígenas de la parroquia Chugchilán del cantón Sigchos, periodo 2015-2018 (Bachelor's thesis). Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito.; Navarro Gamboa et al., 2019Navarro Gamboa, G., Vázquez Solís, S., Van't Hooft, A., & Reyes Agüero, J. A. (2019). Community participation and tourism in indigenous areas in the Mexican context: four case studies. The Sustainable Journey, (36), 7-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.36677/elperiplo.v0i36.9081.
http://dx.doi.org/10.36677/elperiplo.v0i...
; Weinberg, 2019Weinberg, M. (2019). Family farmers, and afterwards? The impact of the inclusion of indigenous organizations in the state structure. Chungara, 51(4), 693-709. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-73562019005001305.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-73562019...
), which impacts on the objectives pursued and achieved due to its focus on reducing the existing gaps among different population sectors, and not so much on the delivery of the same products to a population with other characteristics. This idea of designing such community projects is based on global trends; according to authors such as Musavengane & Kloppers (2020)Musavengane, R., & Kloppers, R. (2020). Social capital: an investment towards community resilience in the collaborative natural resources management of community-based tourism schemes. Tourism Management Perspectives, 34, 1-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2020.100654.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2020.100...
; Hughes & Scheyvens (2021)Hughes, E., & Scheyvens, R. (2021). Tourism partnerships: harnessing tourist compassion to ‘do good’ through community development in Fiji. World Development, 145, 105529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2021.105529.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.202...
, and Maclean et al. (2022)Maclean, K., Woodward, E., Jarvis, D., Turpin, G., Rowland, D., & Rist, P. (2022). Decolonizing knowledge co-production: examining the role of positionality and partnerships to support Indigenous-led bush product enterprises in northern Australia. Sustainability Science, 17(2), 333-350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11625-021-00973-4.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11625-021-009...
, it is oriented towards the growth of the participation of indigenous communities in the development of territories especially on social capital and associativity, and it recognizes the importance of external factors such as public policies and state participation (Yeh et al., 2021Yeh, J. H.-Y., Lin, S.-C., Lai, S.-C., Huang, Y.-H., Yi-Fong, C., Lee, Y.-T., & Berkes, F. (2021). Taiwanese indigenous cultural heritage and revitalization: community practices and local development. Sustainability, 13(4), 1-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su13041799.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su13041799...
).

That is, the most recent publications deal with integrative models among human agency, local development, ethnicity, and social projects, where there are various theoretical and empirical studies (see, for example, Jackson, 2019Jackson, T. (2019). Why is indigenous entrepreneurship important to cross-cultural management scholarship? International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 19(1), 3-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1470595819840824.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/14705958198408...
; McArdle & Murray, 2021McArdle, O., & Murray, U. (2021). Fit for measure? Evaluation in community development. Community Development Journal: An International Forum, 56(3), 432-448. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdj/bsaa005.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdj/bsaa005...
; Cook et al., 2021Cook, B. R., Satizábal, P., & Curnow, J. (2021). Humanizing agricultural extension: a review. World Development, 140, 1-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.105337.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.202...
; Croce, 2019bCroce, F. (2019b). Indigenous women entrepreneurship: analysis of a promising research theme at the intersection of indigenous entrepreneurship and women entrepreneurship. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 43(6), 1013-1031. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2019.1630659.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2019....
; Thakur & Ray, 2020Thakur, S. S., & Ray, A. S. (2020). Dynamism and performance of indigenous entrepreneurs: role of tribal culture and failure of policy incentives in Mizoram (India). International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 41(1), 129-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJESB.2020.109435.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJESB.2020.109...
; Block et al., 2021Block, J. H., Hirschmann, M., & Fisch, C. (2021). Which criteria matter when impact investors screen social enterprises? Journal of Corporate Finance, 66, 1-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcorpfin.2020.101813.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcorpfin.202...
; Symeou et al., 2018Symeou, P. C., Zyglidopoulos, S., & Williamson, P. (2018). Internationalization as a driver of the corporate social performance of extractive industry firms. Journal of World Business, 53(1), 27-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2017.07.004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2017.07....
; Boadu et al., 2021Boadu, E. S., Ile, I., & Oduro, M. Y. (2021). Indigenizing participation for sustainable community-based development programs in Ghana. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 56(7), 1658-1677. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0021909620979333.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00219096209793...
; Onwuegbuzie & Mafimisebi, 2021Onwuegbuzie, H. N., & Mafimisebi, O. P. (2021). Global relevance of scaling African indigenous entrepreneurship. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 166, 120629. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2021.120629.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.202...
; April & Itenge 2020April, W. I., & Itenge, D. I. (2020). Fostering indigenous entrepreneurship amongst San people: an exploratory case of Tsumkwe. International Journal of Business and Globalisation, 24(4), 496-512. http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJBG.2020.106955.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJBG.2020.1069...
; Silva et al., 2018Silva, I., Costa, P., Gohn, M., & Ramacciotti, C. (2018). Formação do empreendedor social e a educação formal e não formal: um estudo a partir de narrativas de história de vida. Ensaio: Avaliação e Políticas Públicas em Educação, 26, 471-504. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-40362018002600960.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-4036201800...
; Gainsford & Evans, 2020Gainsford, A., & Evans, M. (2020). Integrating pedagogical philosophy with Indigenous teaching and learning. Management Learning, 52(5), 559-580. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350507620972528.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/13505076209725...
; Mohammadi et al., 2021Mohammadi, Z., Ahmadvand, M., Sharifzadeh, M., & Shahbazi, I. (2021). The lived experience of land-use among Northern Iranian farmers in land risk areas: a phenomenology study. Land Use Policy, 108, 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2021.105534.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2...
; Weaven et al., 2019Weaven, S., Frazer, L., Brimble, M., Bodle, K., Roussety, M., & Thaichon, P. (2019). Encouraging indigenous self-employment in franchising. In V. Ratten, P. Jones, V. Braga & C.S. Marques (Eds.), Subsistence entrepreneurship: contributions to management science. Cham: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11542-5_6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-1154...
; Alsaid & Ambilichu, 2020Alsaid, L., & Ambilichu, C. (2020). The influence of institutional pressures on the implementation of a performance measurement system in an Egyptian social enterprise. Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, 18(1), 53-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/QRAM-03-2020-0027.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/QRAM-03-2020-0...
; Musavengane & Kloppers, 2020Musavengane, R., & Kloppers, R. (2020). Social capital: an investment towards community resilience in the collaborative natural resources management of community-based tourism schemes. Tourism Management Perspectives, 34, 1-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2020.100654.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2020.100...
; Niigaaniin et al., 2021Niigaaniin, M., MacNeill, T., & Ramos, C. C. (2021). Decolonizing social services through community development: an Anishinaabe experience. Community Development Journal: An International Forum. In press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdj/bsab033.
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; Sáenz, 2021Sáenz, C. (2021). Community partnership and ownership as crucial factors of community strategies. A Peruvian case study. Resources Policy, 74, 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol.2021.102320.
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; Figueiredo-Oliveira et al., 2019Figueiredo-Oliveira, G. D., & Weihmüller-Carranza, V., & Orrillo-Delgado, Y. A. (2019). Resultados de proyectos socioeducativos en el desarrollo humano de los jóvenes. Educação e Realidade, 44(4), 1-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2175-623687645.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2175-623687645...
).

Therefore, the following question arises: how can the literature on development projects in indigenous communities be characterized? So this article presents, in an overview, a review of the literature on the design of development projects in indigenous communities. The data sources used were publications of indexed journals ranked in Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4 according to SCImago Journal & Country Rank, considering the field of indigenous community development projects. The method adopted is literature review by Cronin et al. (2008)Cronin, P., Ryan, F., & Coughlan, M. (2008). Undertaking a literature review: a step-by-step approach. British Journal of Nursing, 17(1), 38-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2008.17.1.28059. PMid:18399395.
http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2008.17....
. The aim is to propose possible research sources that will provide a future perspective for the study of project design for the development of indigenous communities.

2 Methodology

Cronin et al. (2008)Cronin, P., Ryan, F., & Coughlan, M. (2008). Undertaking a literature review: a step-by-step approach. British Journal of Nursing, 17(1), 38-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2008.17.1.28059. PMid:18399395.
http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2008.17....
proposed the literature review methodology to identify, evaluate, and summarize the relevant studies considered for a systemic literature review—through search in databases and prioritization of material selection and production, which is, in the end, a synthesis of the field (Creswell, 2010Creswell, J. (2010). Mapping the developing landscape of mixed methods research. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddlie (Eds.), SAGE handbook of mixed methods in social & behavioral research (2nd ed., pp. 45-68). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781506335193.n2.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781506335193....
). The step-by-step research undertaken is presented below (Figure 1).

Figure 1
Methodological path. Source: Compiled by the authors.

2.1 Selection of the review topic

The first step was to address three concepts: (a) Social projects design based on Moraima Romero & Aldana Zavala (2019)Moraima Romero, D., & Aldana Zavala, J. J. (2019). Community projects in the process of transformation social of the university. Cienciamatria, 5(9), 151-167. http://dx.doi.org/10.35381/cm.v5i9.104.
http://dx.doi.org/10.35381/cm.v5i9.104...
, in which tasks design is used as a systematic tool to develop social transformation works. Therefore, the concept is related to diverse contexts, such as rural, indigenous, Raizal, black, and other communities that seek to impact their quality of life. (b) Indigenous projects from the perspective of indigenous communities regarding the development and life of indigenous communities, and national and territorial development plans and policies considered in these contexts. (c) Community development as a project to build a better society, based on the consolidation of values of the common good and a healthy and productive coexistence, which adds value to their community and allows them to improve their quality of life.

2.2 Literature search

The literature search was conducted mainly in Scopus, ScienceDirect, Springer, Emerald insight, SAGE Journals, and Google Scholar, by entering search terms associated with project design in indigenous communities and adjusting the parameters to delimit the results. These sources were selected because they are the most rigorous scientific and academic databases and, therefore, they have many indexed journals from different areas of knowledge that have great acceptance among researchers.

Social-project, rural-project, project design, indigenous-entrepreneurship, and indigenous-community-development descriptors were adopted in the search field on the data platforms. In contrast, the objective concerning project design in indigenous communities was defined in order to mitigate problems regarding results dispersion (Cronin et al., 2008Cronin, P., Ryan, F., & Coughlan, M. (2008). Undertaking a literature review: a step-by-step approach. British Journal of Nursing, 17(1), 38-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2008.17.1.28059. PMid:18399395.
http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2008.17....
). The titles and abstracts were used as filters in an established time criterion of the last five years.

2.3 Literature collection, reading, and analysis

The searches yielded 561 publications located in more rigorous scientific databases mentioned in the previous section. The exclusion criteria established by Cronin et al. (2008)Cronin, P., Ryan, F., & Coughlan, M. (2008). Undertaking a literature review: a step-by-step approach. British Journal of Nursing, 17(1), 38-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2008.17.1.28059. PMid:18399395.
http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2008.17....
were applied. Then, duly validated scientific articles (Podsakoff et al., 2005Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Bachrach, D. G., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2005). The influence of management journals in the 1980s and 1990s. Strategic Management Journal, 26(5), 473-488. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.454.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.454...
) that contained the search expressions associated with “project design” in indigenous communities were selected. After that first exclusion, the search yielded 136 scientific articles published in journals Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4 according to SCImago Journal & Country Rank, which were preliminarily collected.

Subsequently, priority was given to articles that were written in English and Spanish, in indigenous contexts, and focused on “social-project, or social, rural-project or rural projects, Social-Project-design or social projects design, indigenous-entrepreneurship or indigenous entrepreneurship, indigenous-community-development or indigenous community development.” Following this procedure, 51 articles were excluded and 85 remained. Once the articles had been defined, an individualized and independent analysis was made, using the research approach as criteria for analysis method, quantitative or qualitative sample, data collection and analysis techniques results, and conclusions. Finally, the process was completed with the content analysis and systematization of the 85 articles in the NVivo software.

3 Results

3.1 Social projects

From a general perspective, projects can be defined as a set of concrete, interrelated, coordinated, and sequential activities aimed at achieving a goal. These activities have a beginning, a development, and an end (Donawa Torres, 2018Donawa Torres, Z. A. (2018). Proyectos sociales, una herramienta para el empoderamiento de comunidades vulnerables. Inventio, 14(32), 15-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.30973/inventio/2018.14.32/4.
http://dx.doi.org/10.30973/inventio/2018...
; Amaru, 2008Amaru, M. A. C. (2008). Administración para emprendedores: fundamentos para la creación y gestión de nuevos negocios. México: Pearson.; Ander-Egg, 1995Ander-Egg, E. (1995). Técnicas de investigación social. Buenos Aires: Lumen Hvmanitas.). However, a social project is characterized by transforming and including possible actions to develop the allocation of resources, to define an implementation period, and to meet the specific social needs and problems of a community with the active and proactive participation of its members (Ander Egg & Aguilar, 2005Ander-Egg, E., & Aguilar, M. J. (2005). Cómo elaborar un proyecto: guía para diseñar proyectos sociales y culturales. Argentina: Instituto de Ciencias Sociales Aplicadas. Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from https://abacoenred.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Como-elaborar-un-proyecto-1989-Ed.1-Ander-Egg-Ezequiel-y-Aguilar-Id%c3%a1%c3%b1ez-MJ.pdf.pdf
https://abacoenred.com/wp-content/upload...
; Moraima Romero & Aldana Zavala, 2019Moraima Romero, D., & Aldana Zavala, J. J. (2019). Community projects in the process of transformation social of the university. Cienciamatria, 5(9), 151-167. http://dx.doi.org/10.35381/cm.v5i9.104.
http://dx.doi.org/10.35381/cm.v5i9.104...
; Arias, 2012Arias, F. (2012). El proyecto de investigación: introducción a la investigación científica (6ª ed.). Caracas: Episteme.; Martínez, & Cohen, 2018Martínez, R., & Cohen, E. (2018). Manual formulación, evaluación y monitoreo de proyectos sociales. Santiago de Chile: CEPAL. Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from http://biblioteca.udgvirtual.udg.mx/jspui/handle/123456789/2294
http://biblioteca.udgvirtual.udg.mx/jspu...
). Román (1999)Román, M. (1999). Guía práctica para el diseño de proyectos sociales. Chile: Universidad Alberto Hurtado. Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from http://repositorio.uahurtado.cl/handle/11242/8340
http://repositorio.uahurtado.cl/handle/1...
states that when we refer to a Social Project, we understand it as any social action, individual or group, destined to produce changes in a certain reality that involves and affects a certain social group. Therefore, a social project must define the social problem, establish impact objectives, identify beneficiaries and stakeholders, specify the location, and establish a time of execution (Martínez & Cohen, 2018Martínez, R., & Cohen, E. (2018). Manual formulación, evaluación y monitoreo de proyectos sociales. Santiago de Chile: CEPAL. Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from http://biblioteca.udgvirtual.udg.mx/jspui/handle/123456789/2294
http://biblioteca.udgvirtual.udg.mx/jspu...
; Ortiz & Sánchez, 2017Ortiz, M., & Sánchez, B. (2017). Propuesta de una metodología para la gestión de proyectos de infraestructura y socio productivos en una gerencia de desarrollo social. Revista Espacios, 38(21), 24-48.).

Since design is focused on these elements for the creation of alternatives for the project, organizational factors, and the experiences of professionals, it is considered a step of great importance to solve the existing social problems, provided that the development perspectives and narratives are understood in their elaboration (Alsaid & Ambilichu, 2020Alsaid, L., & Ambilichu, C. (2020). The influence of institutional pressures on the implementation of a performance measurement system in an Egyptian social enterprise. Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, 18(1), 53-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/QRAM-03-2020-0027.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/QRAM-03-2020-0...
; Chandra, 2018Chandra, Y. (2018). New narratives of development work? Making sense of social entrepreneurs’ development narratives across time and economies. World Development, 107, 306-326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2018.02.033.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.201...
; Luna-Cabrera et al., 2020Luna-Cabrera, G. C., Narváez-Romo, A., & Molina-Moreno, A. A. (2020). Perception of rural youth with respect of ecotourism in the Chimayoy Environmental Center, Municipality of Pasto, Colombia. Información Tecnológica, 31(2), 229-238. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-07642020000200229.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-07642020...
). Accordingly, it is possible to state that social projects seek to impact the quality of life of the population that requires support. Thus, social research, defined as a process to obtain new knowledge from social realities and the identification of needs and problems to be solved is developed (Mendieta Vicuña & Esparcia Pérez, 2018Mendieta Vicuña, D., & Esparcia Pérez, J. (2018). Aproximación metodológica al análisis de contenidos a partir del discurso de los actores: un ensayo de investigación social de procesos de desarrollo local (Loja, Ecuador). Empiria. Revista de Metodología de Ciencias Sociales, (39), 15-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/empiria.39.2018.20876.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/empiria.39.201...
; Ander-Egg, 1995Ander-Egg, E. (1995). Técnicas de investigación social. Buenos Aires: Lumen Hvmanitas.).

In other words, social projects are a tool that allows inducing a change from the initiatives of the actors that interact in a specific territory or sector to achieve goals and purposes. According to this, social transformation via projects implies a local management that constructs new structures of opportunities and greater spaces of freedom for the inhabitants, thus creating a favorable environment for the deployment of the potential of the territories (Baca-Tavira & Herrera-Tapia, 2016Baca-Tavira, N., & Herrera-Tapia, F. (2016). Social projects: notes on their design and management in rural territories. Convergence, 23(72), 69-87. Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1405-14352016000300069
http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?scri...
). Considering that social problems refer to the deficiencies of a given population group, that constitute a gap between the existing reality and what is genuinely desired and necessary by society (Perissé, 2019Perissé, M. C. (2019). Proyecto social: formulación y evaluación. Ciencia y técnica administrativa. Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from http://www.cyta.com.ar/biblioteca/bddoc/bdlibros/proyecto_social_formulacion.pdf
http://www.cyta.com.ar/biblioteca/bddoc/...
), Cohen & Martínez (2002)Cohen, E., & Martínez, R. (2002). Formulación, evaluación y monitoreo de proyectos sociales. Santiago de Chile: División de Desarrollo Social, CEPAL. define a social project as the minimum unit of resource allocation, which through an integrated set of processes and activities aims to transform a part of reality, reducing or eliminating a deficit, or to solve a problem.

3.2 Community development

The concept of community development in this paper is understood from Crespo Alambarrio (2011)Crespo Alambarrio, M. (2011). Guía de diseño de proyectos sociales comunitarios bajo el enfoque del marco lógico. Caracas: Servicios Académicos Intercontinentales S.L. Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from https://planificacionsocialunsj.files.wordpress.com/2017/10/guia-de-proyectos-sociales-crespo.pdf
https://planificacionsocialunsj.files.wo...
as a set of specific activities aimed at achieving one or more objectives, to respond to the needs, aspirations and potential of the communities, and likewise, the construction of a better society that consolidates values of the common good so that healthy and productive coexistence are advanced in these projects. That allows to analyze the dialogues processes that take place in a particular community for the strengthening and conservation of its language, economy, and customs that have been lost over time and how the participation and acceptance in society has been (Agredo Cardona, 2015Agredo Cardona, G. A. (2015). El territorio y su significado para los pueblos indígenas. Revista Luna Azul, 23, 28-32. Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from https://revistasojs.ucaldas.edu.co/index.php/lunazul/article/view/1059
https://revistasojs.ucaldas.edu.co/index...
). Therefore, community development intends to intervene in concrete reality, and contribute according to Almaguer et al. (2021)Almaguer, T. R., Pérez, C. M., & Aguilera, G. L. (2021). Ciclo de vida de proyectos: guía para diseñar e implementar proyectos de desarrollo local. COODES, 9(2), 431-456. Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from https://coodes.upr.edu.cu/index.php/coodes/article/view/416
https://coodes.upr.edu.cu/index.php/cood...
to the development of the territory/ies and community/ies where it operates, and impact the quality of life of the population, enhancing the capacities of the participating groups and actors and taking advantage of their resources and potential in solving the problems raised.

In this respect, community development is a process of growth and structural change of the local economy, in which at least the economic, sociocultural, political, and administrative dimensions can be identified, in which case the initiatives create a local environment favorable to production and drive development (Aghón et al., 2001Aghón, G., Alburquerque, F., & Cortés, P. (2001). Desarrollo económico local y descentralización en América Latina: análisis comparativo. Santiago de Chile: CEPAL.). Becoming a methodical tool to develop works that contribute to the comprehensive transformation of communities, they can be addressed by community organizations or educational institutions (Moraima Romero & Aldana Zavala, 2019, pMoraima Romero, D., & Aldana Zavala, J. J. (2019). Community projects in the process of transformation social of the university. Cienciamatria, 5(9), 151-167. http://dx.doi.org/10.35381/cm.v5i9.104.
http://dx.doi.org/10.35381/cm.v5i9.104...
. 159). This implies, according to Garzón-Garzón (2017)Garzón-Garzón, L. P. (2017). Local development from and for whom? Analysis of the formulation and implementation of state projects in the Amazon indigenous communities. Gestion y Ambiente, 20(2), 244-252. Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/article?go=6687520
https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/arti...
, that project design starts from the understanding of this territorial specificity and the legitimation of local knowledge as part of the establishment of a true dialogue, either between social actors or between cognitive frameworks.

3.3 Indigenous community projects

Projects in indigenous communities, in addition to complying with the characteristics of community development projects, must be articulated with the ethnodevelopment and life plans of the indigenous communities and the national and territorial development plans and policies (Colombia, 2016Colombia. Fondo Financiero de Proyectos de Desarrollo - FONADE. (2016). Cartilla práctica grupos étnicos presentación de proyectos al Sistema General de Regalías (SGR). Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11788/615
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11788/615...
). Hence, every project in these communities must include social capital, and the ability of members to work together and develop with support organizations, to avoid project failure (Butler, 2021Butler, M. (2021). Analyzing community forest enterprises in the Maya Biosphere Reserve using the framework of a modified capital. World Development, 140, 105284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.105284.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.202...
), which finally allows to visualize the progress during the execution of the project and to facilitate its monitoring and evaluation (FAO, 2018Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura - FAO. (2018). Guia para la formulación de los proyectos de inversión del sector agropecuario: bajo el enfoque de planificación estratégica y gestión por resultado. Rome: FAO. Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from http://www.fao.org/documents/card/en/c/I8097ES/
http://www.fao.org/documents/card/en/c/I...
).

Accordingly, for Bolaños (2007)Bolaños, G. (2007). Ustedes y nosotros, diferentes más no inferiores: la construcción de un proyecto educativo indígena en Colombia. Revista Educación y Pedagogía, 19(48), 53-62. Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=2552280
https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/arti...
, project design of indigenous communities takes advantage of the close relationship between their cultural activities and the historicity that is represented from the trajectory of their homeland to the flight of territory to the great cities. As a result, interculturality intervenes as a proposal for transformation, giving different approaches to new social rearrangements established in community movements, which join forces to develop other proposals for transformation under conditions of equality.

3.4 Overview of publications

Table 1 shows the relationship and classification of the indexed journals chosen in this study. There is evidence of a grouping of publications in scientific journals whose areas of interest are associated with social projects, community development projects, indigenous projects, and indigenous entrepreneurship. Thus, this topic review shows excellent dispersion in the scientific journals that publish about it; the Journal of Enterprising Communities with 8.2%, and the Community Development Journal, World Development, and Sustainability with 5.9%, respectively, have the highest quota of publications. Journals such as REVESCO Revista de Estudios Cooperativos, Cross-Cultural and Strategic Management, AlterNative, Espacios Journal, Tourism Management Perspectives, and Journal of Business Research have 14.1% of the total number of publications reviewed. The other journals only had one publication relevant to the topics conferred.

Table 1
Number of publications by indexed journals and their respective ranking.

The number of publications on issues associated with indigenous projects design and community development projects show an apparent increase with respect to the interest of publishing in the main international scientific journals, especially in those related to administration, sociology, anthropology, psychology, and free research studies. Figure 2 shows how interest in this topic has grown in the last four years, going from 12 revised publications in 2018 to 35 publications in 2020. So far, in 2021, there are already 22 publications with increase possibilities, considering that the literature review was completed in October 2021.

Figure 2
Number of publications per year on topics related to the research topic. Source: Compiled by the authors.

Similarly, Table 1 shows the searches made by journal categories. The highest incidence of journals was ranked in quartile 1 with 51.8% of the publications, followed by journals ranked in quartile 2 with 30.6%, and, finally, the journals ranked in quartiles 3 and 4 with 17.6%.

Similarly, a classification was made of the articles by countries where the studies were carried out. This can be seen in Figure 3, where Mexico and New Zealand are the countries that show the greatest interest in these topics, followed by Australia and Canada. It is worth noting that in the Latin American region about 25% of the studies analyzed in this study have been carried out, in the African continent about 15%, and in Oceania 18%, being the regions with the greatest interest in researching this area of study.

Figure 3
Number of articles/years. Source: Compiled by the authors.

3.5 Study areas

An exploration of the content of the various studies analyzed was carried out. Is the result of the first exercise to represent the 300 words with the highest frequency in these articles, which were surveyed regarding type of study, type of analysis, conclusions, scope, and similarities among the studies. Outstanding words related to the study area such as social project, community development, indigenous projects, and indigenous entrepreneurship are linked to other secondary level words, such as rural development, culture, and sustainability, which was demonstrated later in the article. The publication range of the articles consulted varies between 2018 and 2021, which evidences the growing interest in studies on project design in indigenous communities.

Complementarily, Figure 4 shows the results of the articles analyzed in terms of the similarity of the words used based on the Pearson correlation coefficient. The analysis allows grouping several similar articles when the Figure 4 is read from bottom to top. Furthermore, four main and mutually distinct groups of articles were identified. The first group (in the upper part of Figure 4) includes articles that study social projects; the second group (in the lower part of Figure 4) consists of three blocks of articles about community development, indigenous projects, and, finally, indigenous entrepreneurship.

Figure 4
Grouping of articles by word similarity. Source: Compiled by the authors.

The documents were analyzed by conclusions and results, generating a reclassification of the articles in four topics of analysis from the conglomerates derived from the dendrogram. The analysis also identifies in Table 2 the diversity of fields related to the design of indigenous projects and community development, as reflected in the distance among the articles reviewed, which cover the works of Moraes et al. (2021)Moraes, L., Rampasso, I., Anholon, R., Lima, G., Santa-Eulalia, L., Mosconi, E., & Yparraguirre, I. (2021). Assessing risk management in Brazilian social projects: a path towards sustainable development. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 28(5), 451-460. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13504509.2020.1867251.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13504509.2020....
and Magomedova et al. (2020)Magomedova, N., Carreras Roig, L., & Bastida-Vialcanet, R. (2020). La innovación aplicada a la financiación de las empresas de la economía social: el caso de las inversiones de impacto. CIRIEC-España. C.I.R.I.E.C. España, (98), 127-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.98.13212.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7203/CIRIEC-E.98.13...
who talk about risk analysis and the impact it generates on social projects, going through articles such as those by Boadu et al. (2021)Boadu, E. S., Ile, I., & Oduro, M. Y. (2021). Indigenizing participation for sustainable community-based development programs in Ghana. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 56(7), 1658-1677. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0021909620979333.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00219096209793...
and Dutta & Elers (2020)Dutta, M., & Elers, S. (2020). Public relations, indigeneity, and colonization: indigenous resistance as the dialogic anchor. Public Relations Review, 46(1), 1-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2019.101852.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2019....
focused on culture as a determining factor to better understand and design indigenous projects, or those by Chowdhooree et al. (2020)Chowdhooree, I., Dawes, L., & Sloan, M. (2020). Scopes of community participation in development for adaptation: Experiences from the Haor region of Bangladesh. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 51, 1-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101864.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.1...
and Moore (2021)Moore, T. (2021). Planning for place: place attachment and the founding of rural community land trusts. Journal of Rural Studies, 83, 21-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2021.02.007.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.202...
who based their research on community participation in the planning process and attachment to their region to works by Mika et al. (2019a)Mika, J. P., Fahey, N., & Bensemann, J. (2019a). What counts as an indigenous enterprise? Evidence from Aotearoa New Zealand. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, 13(3), 372-390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JEC-12-2018-0102.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JEC-12-2018-01...
; MacPherson et al. (2021)MacPherson, W., Tretiakov, A., Mika, J., & Felzensztein, C. (2021). Indigenous entrepreneurship: insights from Chile and New Zealand. Journal of Business Research, 127, 77-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2021.01.013.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2021...
and April & Itenge (2020)April, W. I., & Itenge, D. I. (2020). Fostering indigenous entrepreneurship amongst San people: an exploratory case of Tsumkwe. International Journal of Business and Globalisation, 24(4), 496-512. http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJBG.2020.106955.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJBG.2020.1069...
that address indigenous entrepreneurship as a central axis to establish local development projects. In addition, this work also considered the topics studied and their respective vital conclusions (Table 2). They appreciated the interest in carrying out studies on indigenous projects design to develop their communities in the last five years.

Table 2
Topics Analysis.

One of the findings of the articles review was that project design in indigenous communities is approached from narratives, which show indigenous peoples in processes of promoting efficient and culturally competent participatory development frameworks and systems acceptable to the various local and national development organizations (Boadu et al., 2021Boadu, E. S., Ile, I., & Oduro, M. Y. (2021). Indigenizing participation for sustainable community-based development programs in Ghana. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 56(7), 1658-1677. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0021909620979333.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00219096209793...
). Additionally, most of the development projects within these communities have political motivations regarding the search for funding and social motivations with the search for an integral transformation of the communities. Studies on indigenous entrepreneurship projects show that they are the result of the empowerment of indigenous groups in society, the implementation of their ideas and goals, and the pursue to become agents of progress and change (Tretiakov et al., 2020Tretiakov, A., Felzensztein, C., Zwerg, A. M., Mika, J. P., & Macpherson, W. G. (2020). Family, community, and globalization: wayuu indigenous entrepreneurs as n-Culturals. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 27(2), 189-211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/CCSM-01-2019-0025.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/CCSM-01-2019-0...
; Vázquez Maguirre, 2020aVázquez-Maguirre, M. (2020a). Restoring, protecting, and promoting human dignity through indigenous entrepreneurship. International Journal of Entrepreneurship, 24(3), 1-12.; Castillo et al., 2020Castillo, L. A., Ordoñez, A. D. Y., Giraldo, V. L. C., & Gallego, M. D. L. (2020). Participation of indigenous women in rural entrepreneurship as an agent of change: a literature review. Revista ESPACIOS, 41(45), 257-272. http://dx.doi.org/10.48082/espacios-a20v41n43p19.
http://dx.doi.org/10.48082/espacios-a20v...
; Mrabure et al., 2018Mrabure, R., Ruwhiu, D., & Gray, B. (2018). Indigenous entrepreneurial orientation: a Māori perspective. Journal of Management & Organization, 27(1), 62-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jmo.2018.43.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jmo.2018.43...
). Finally, based on studies such as those by Symeou et al. (2018)Symeou, P. C., Zyglidopoulos, S., & Williamson, P. (2018). Internationalization as a driver of the corporate social performance of extractive industry firms. Journal of World Business, 53(1), 27-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2017.07.004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2017.07....
and Mrabure (2019)Mrabure, R. O. (2019). Indigenous business success: a hybrid perspective. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy., 13(1-2), 24-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JEC-10-2018-0076.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JEC-10-2018-00...
, indigenous projects can be considered as facilitators of social relations, shared cultural values, and local knowledge that meets specific needs is a specific type of community development project because they also seek to induce change through the various actors that interact in the territory, to achieve goals and purposes. In conclusion, the design of social projects, development projects, and enterprises in indigenous communities have similar aims and generate a leading role for these communities by assertively implementing their actions.

3.6 Types of studies

Finally, the typology of the studies was analyzed. Table 3 shows that there are 11 purely theoretical studies, and 57 out of the 74 empirical articles have qualitative analyses, ethnographic studies and case studies are noticeable, and there are 17 quantitative studies with predominant use of quantitative statistical and econometric techniques such as analysis of descriptive statistics. The analysis of Table 3 confirms that qualitative methodologies continue to be the most used in this type of work and population, so it would be advisable to integrate both qualitative and quantitative exercises in order to carry out more complete and more comprehensive research.

Table 3
Type of Study and type of analysis.

4 Implications, future lines of research, and conclusions

Based on the results presented by diverse authors, some similarities can be identified in the approach to the different issues that show the importance of designing development projects in indigenous communities in the territories and communities. The following categories were found: community development projects, indigenous enterprises, social projects, and indigenous projects, which were analyzed according to the literature review to respond to the main objective of this article.

4.1 Implications

In this respect, the profile of those who design projects in these communities, according to Bastidas Unigarro & Bolaños Escobar (2009)Bastidas Unigarro, A., & Bolaños Escobar, S. (2009). Elementos para la construcción de un perfil para el gerente social en un entorno globalizado. Tendências, 10(2), 41-56. Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php/rtend/article/view/601
https://revistas.udenar.edu.co/index.php...
, should consider four aspects: knowledge, experience, aptitudes and attitudes. Because a social manager is not only born towards the permanent concern of social problems and their solution but must also be done through knowledge and experience. Thus, those who seek to enter the world of projects must acquire a set of skills that include autonomy, decision-making, responsibility, leadership, teamwork, and the need for achievement, among others. Now, competence should be understood, according to as stated by McClelland (cited by Ortiz et al., 2011Ortiz, V., Prowesk, K., Rodríguez, A., Lesmes, C., & Ortiz, F. (2011). Definition and theoretical classification of academic, profesional and work related competencies: the competencies of the Psychologist in Colombia. Psicologia desde el Caribe, (28), 133-165. Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from https://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=21320758007
https://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=2...
), as what causes better performance at work, together with other alternative elements such as gender, ethnicity, or social class, you can measure such performance in the organizational context.

4.2 Future lines of research

Therefore, it is necessary to propose future lines of research that seek to delve deeper into the subject of indigenous communities in different territories and contexts, bringing this knowledge to society to broaden the understanding of their customs and beliefs, which are articulated with the concepts of development and that, at the same time, are promoted through the policies considered in the territories (Yu, 2018Yu, C. Y. (2018). An application of sustainable development in indigenous people’s revival: the history of an indigenous tribe’s struggle in Taiwan. Sustainability, 10(9), 1-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su10093259.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su10093259...
). Therefore, the question that remains to be answered is: what strategic guidelines should be provided to formulate a productive inclusion policy for the indigenous population?

In accordance with that approach, the concept of indigenous planning, which is defined as decision-making by indigenous groups in a built or natural environment using their ancestral and other acquired knowledge is expected to be examined as well as the values and principles to define progress in its present and future social, cultural, environmental and economic aspirations (Porter et al., 2017Porter, L., Matunga, H., Viswanathan, L., Patrick, L., Walker, R., Sandercock, L., Moraes, D., Frantz, J., Thompson-Fawcett, M., Riddle, C., & Jojola, T. (2017). Indigenous planning: from principles to practice/a revolutionary pedagogy of/for indigenous planning/settler-indigenous relationships as liminal spaces in planning education and practice/indigenist planning/what is the work of non-indigenous people in the service of a decolonizing agenda? /supporting indigenous planning in the city/film as a catalyst for indigenous community development/being ourselves and seeing ourselves in the city: enabling the conceptual space for indigenous urban planning/universities can empower the next generation of architects, planners, and landscape architects in indigenous design and planning. Planning Theory & Practice, 18(4), 639-666. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14649357.2017.1380961.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14649357.2017....
). Furthermore, it is important to consider cultural revitalization to show that it is dynamic, diverse and, at times, contested, and always rooted socially and culturally (Yeh et al., 2021Yeh, J. H.-Y., Lin, S.-C., Lai, S.-C., Huang, Y.-H., Yi-Fong, C., Lee, Y.-T., & Berkes, F. (2021). Taiwanese indigenous cultural heritage and revitalization: community practices and local development. Sustainability, 13(4), 1-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su13041799.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su13041799...
; Olazabal et al., 2021Olazabal, A. M. A., Rodríguez, M. V., & González, F. R. (2021). Cultural identity as a local resource, and its integration to local development management. Management Challenges, 15(1), 27-60. Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2306-91552021000100027&lng=es&tlng=es
http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=s...
) and to emphasize the cultural roots of indigenous communities. In addition, the contextual view of the different processes prevails, since it should not remain in the general analysis or in the homogenization of the indigenous population (Croce, 2017Croce, F. (2017). Contextualized indigenous entrepreneurial models: a systematic review of indigenous entrepreneurship literature. Journal of Management & Organization, 23(6), 886-906. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jmo.2017.69.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jmo.2017.69...
) in order for it to lead to results that generate a true impact, promote actual sustainable development and, consequently, improve the quality of life of these peoples.

4.3 Conclusions

Indigenous communities have focused on rebuilding and protecting much of their ancestral culture and practices throughout history. Hence, a first conclusion is that multiple methodologies seek to be suitable for all types of communities and try to facilitate the exercise of the teams that design the projects to obtain better performance. Therefore, an appropriate project design is essential; beyond establishing the appropriate methodology, the fundamental purpose is to guarantee the success of the project and the fulfillment of the proposed objectives. Hence, it is essential to reinforce elements such as social capital, the participation of all members of the community in collective decisions, social innovation as a condition for territorial development with a sustainable approach, and the multigenerational understanding of the links among products, people, and ecosystems, which promotes adaptive learning, long-lasting and anticipatory planning logics of indigenous peoples.

The weak role of the State regarding the needs of indigenous communities (Valent et al., 2017Valent, J., Oliveira, L., & Valent, V. (2017). Agricultura urbana: o desenvolvimento de um projeto social. Desenvolvimento Regional em Debate, 7(2), 4-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.24302/drd.v7i2.1427.
http://dx.doi.org/10.24302/drd.v7i2.1427...
) has led to the development of social projects by other actors, where there may be different interests; however, their contribution is recognized in order to cover the gaps left by the State, since its actions constitute vital pieces to achieve not only the design but also the practical development and closure of the projects.

The repercussions are that the communities within their space lack people who have the knowledge, experience, and appropriation of their worldview to facilitate the creation, design, and development of projects relevant to the needs of indigenous peoples.

Considering that one of the central topics in the literature review of this study is entrepreneurship, which in some way permeates other topics, it is necessary to recognize the component of social capital, since the literature shows a lower level of experience of the indigenous communities in these processes (Foley, 2012Foley, D. (2012). Teaching entrepreneurship to Indigenous and other minorities: towards a strong sense of self, tangible skills, and active participation within society. Journal of Business Diversity, 12(2), 59-70., 2013Foley, D. (2013). Jus Sanguinis: the root of contention in determining an Australian Aboriginal Business. Indigenous Law Bulletin, 8(8), 25-29. Retrieved in 2022, September 13, from https://search.informit.org/doi/10.3316/ielapa.700583642351937
https://search.informit.org/doi/10.3316/...
, 2017Foley, D. (2017). The dark side of responsible business management. In A. Klemm Verbos, E. Henry & A. M. Peredo (Eds.), Indigenous aspirations and rights: the case for responsible business and management (pp. 22-33). London: Greenleaf Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.9774/GLEAF.9781783533244_4.
http://dx.doi.org/10.9774/GLEAF.97817835...
; Wood & Davidson, 2011Wood, G. J., & Davidson, M. J. (2011). A review of male and female Australian indigenous entrepreneurs: disadvantaged past - promising future? Gender in Management, 26(4), 311-326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17542411111144319.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17542411111144...
). However, an opportunity to develop a specific framework of indigenous entrepreneurship is provided.

Therefore, it is crucial to create proposals for participatory methodologies, which require an initial reflection on what community participation means. If understood marginally, as an imposition or as a simple formalism, participation can be confused with presence, and it would remain disperse and articulated around demands. This ultimately allows to see more clearly the injustices committed against the population or the communities in which projects are developed.

In conclusion, there is no correct or unique methodology to design social projects (for indigenous communities); what does exist are methodologies that, depending on the context and nature of the project, allow analyzing, organizing, and meeting those needs that arise in the indigenous population, and likewise, contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of the population or community involved in the project.

  • Financial support: The study was funded by the Catholic University Foundation Lumen Gentium.
  • How to cite: Mosquera-Guerrero, A., Rodríguez Martínez, J., Ordoñez Abril, D. Y., & Calderón Sotero, J. H. (2022). Project design and development in indigenous communities: a literature review. Gestão & Produção, 30, e6022. https://doi.org/10.1590/1806-9649-2022v29e6022

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    10 Feb 2023
  • Date of issue
    2023

History

  • Received
    13 July 2022
  • Accepted
    09 Nov 2022
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