This article deals with the emergence of gynecology during the second half of the 19th century. It seeks to show, on the one hand, the historical singularity of this speciality in the field of Medicine and, on the other hand, its ideological justification. Gynecology presents itself as the field of Medicine devoted to the study of women and is founded upon the notion that the female body and social roles are determined by the reproductive function. It is based on the idea that the behaviour of women, differently from men's, is dictated by sexuality, that gynecology institutes the right to intervene far beyond the reproductive organs themselves, becoming, not without pretensions, a true science of women.
sexuality; gender; gynecology; history of medicine