• Editor's note Carta do Editor

    Benchimol, Jaime
  • Carlos Chagas Filho's choice of biological physics: reasons and motivations Análise

    Almeida, Darcy Fontoura de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Analisa as razões e motivações que teriam levado Carlos Chagas Filho a se afastar da linha tradicional de pesquisa de Carlos Chagas pai e de seu irmão Evandro Chagas, ambos muito bem sucedidos nos seus trabalhos em patologia tropical. Embora tenha inicialmente se dedicado à anatomia patológica, Carlos Chagas Filho subitamente decidiu enveredar pelo estudo da físico-química dos processos vitais. As fontes disponíveis demonstram a ocorrência de múltiplos imprevistos, desde os mais precoces períodos da formação de Chagas Filho. Trabalho de comparável grandeza poderia quiçá ser alcançado em outra área, e sua escolha recaiu, com acerto incomum, sobre a introdução da pesquisa científica na universidade.

    Abstract in English:

    This study investigates the reasons and motivations behind Carlos Chagas Filho's choice to abandon the line of study developed by his father, Carlos Chagas, and brother, Evandro Chagas, both of whom had very successful careers researching tropical diseases. Though Carlos Chagas Filho first worked on anatomical pathology, he suddenly shifted his attentions of the physicochemical aspects of vital processes. Extant sources show that a number of unforeseen circumstances took place from early on in Chagas Filho's education. There was a chance he could carry out work of a similar import in a different area and he set his sights, with uncommon luck, on the introduction of scientific research at university.
  • The public perception of information about the potential risks of genetically modified crops in the food chain Análise

    Furnival, Ariadne Chloë; Pinheiro, Sônia Maria

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    No atual contexto da introdução dos transgênicos na cadeia alimentar brasileira, apresentamos os resultados de estudo que empregou o método qualitativo de grupos focais para levantar as interpretações do público em relação à informação disponível sobre essa inovação biotecnológica. A utilização desse método permitiu gerar resultados que revelaram as relações construídas pelos participantes da pesquisa entre essa modalidade da biotecnologia, as mudanças no meio ambiente e a produção de alimentos em geral. Os resultados apontam particularmente para o modo como os participantes identificaram a falta de informação compreensível, tanto na mídia de massa quanto nos rótulos de produtos, como principal fonte dos seus sentimentos de desconfiança em relação aos transgênicos.

    Abstract in English:

    At a time when genetically modified (GM) crops are entering the Brazilian food chain, we present the findings of a study that makes use of a qualitative technique involving focal groups to look into the public's interpretation of the information available about this biotechnological innovation. This methodology produced results that revealed the interconnections drawn by the research subjects between this form of biotechnology, changes to the environment, and food production in general. The mistrust expressed about GM crops was particularly attributed by the participants to the non-availability of comprehensible information in the mass media or on product labels.
  • The role of the media in the social construction of risk: the Adrianópolis case in Ribeira valley Análise

    Di Giulio, Gabriela Marques; Pereira, Newton Müller; Figueiredo, Bernardino Ribeiro de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Analisa a influência da mídia na construção social do risco, a partir das diferentes percepções e atitudes de moradores de uma comunidade exposta à contaminação por chumbo. O estudo contemplou análise documental e pesquisa de campo com o objetivo de compreender o papel da mídia no processo de amplificação social do risco nesse caso e observar como as respostas a uma situação de risco interagem com processos psicológicos, sociais, institucionais e culturais. Além da influência direta da mídia, este estudo de caso revelou a incidência de outros fatores a moldar as percepções do risco da comunidade, como a falta de confiança nas instituições e nos políticos, a relação do risco com as atividades ocupacionais e os valores culturais e sociais.

    Abstract in English:

    This article analyzes the influence of the media on the social construction of risk, from the different perceptions and attitudes of the residents of a community exposed to lead poisoning. The study used a combination of documental analysis and field research to build up an understanding of the role the media had taken in the social amplification of risk in this particular case and to observe how the responses to a situation of risk interacted with psychological, social, institutional and cultural processes. Aside from the direct influence of the media, this case study reveals the importance of other factors in molding the community's risk perceptions, such as a mistrust of institutions and politicians, the relationship between risk and work activities and cultural and social values.
  • Morphosemantic indexing of health-related images to improve information retrieval Análise

    Pinto, Virginia Bentes

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    No campo da saúde, os dispositivos de captura de imagens estão cada vez mais especializados, e atualmente pode-se registrar imagens nunca antes concebíveis, como aquelas do interior do corpo humano, as imagens em movimento concernentes às doenças, aos órgãos internos, ou à maneira de dormir. O acesso a essas imagens, no entanto, nem sempre é possível, não apenas por motivos éticos, como também pela falta ou deficiência no tratamento informacional dessas fontes. Este artigo apresenta reflexões sobre os modelos de tratamento e organização de imagens e sua aplicabilidade ao campo da saúde, mostrando alguns sistemas.

    Abstract in English:

    The area of health boasts an increasingly specialized range of methods for taking images, while previously inconceivable images can now be recorded, such as of the inside of a human body, moving images of diseases, internal organs, or the way we sleep. However, these pictures are not always readily available, not only for ethical reasons, but because the information from these sources is not always processed well or even at all. This article discusses how images can be treated and organized and how this can be applied to the area of health, demonstrating a few systems.
  • Government tutelage of mothers and children in Argentina: administrative structures, law, and technical staff (1936-1955)

    Biernat, Carolina; Ramacciotti, Karina

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Describe y analiza uno de los proyectos políticos que cobró fuerza en los años de entreguerras en la Argentina y tuvo permanencia durante el peronismo: la organización de la tutela estatal de la madre y el niño. Examinar la Dirección de Maternidad e Infancia permite identificar cómo esta repartición consideró al 'binomio madre e hijo', qué propuestas realizó para resolver los problemas de mortalidad infantil, qué tipo de cuadros técnicos puso a su cargo y qué limitaciones tuvo en el proceso de implementación. Asimismo, se describen los cambios y permanencias de dicha institución durante el peronismo.

    Abstract in English:

    The article describes and analyzes one of the political projects that gained strength in Argentina during the between-war years and remained in place throughout Peronism: government tutelage of mothers and children. It examines how the Dirección de Maternidad e Infancia viewed the mother-child dyad, how this office proposed to address the issue of infant mortality, what type of technical staff was in place, and what limitations were encountered in trying to enforce these ideas. It also looks at what changed and what stayed the same at the office under Peronism.
  • Torrent of madmen: the language of degeneration in Portuguese psychiatry at the close of the 19th century Análise

    Quintais, Luís

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    O propósito do presente artigo é mostrar a importância de um modelo das acções humanas fortemente naturalizado que, tomando por eixo uma explicação hereditária, terá sido amplamente usado pela psiquiatria portuguesa da transição do século XIX, em continuidade com o que se passava no contexto europeu. A 'degeneração' instituiu-se como uma espécie de mapa a partir do qual se classificou e descreveu experiências com contornos eventualmente ameaçadores para uma certa concepção de ordem social e política. Fenómenos vários, nosologicamente descritos de formas diferenciadas, viriam a ser integrados na linguagem da degeneração. O seu carácter expansivo e pretensamente metateórico viria a estar implicado na sua agonia, vindo a ser progressivamente substituído por um outro modelo, a psicanálise.

    Abstract in English:

    The scope of this article is to show the importance of a highly naturalized model of human actions that, taking as its pivotal point a hereditary explanation, was widely used by Portuguese psychiatry at the close of the 19th century, in continuity with what was happening in the European context. 'Degeneration' was instituted as a species of chart, based on which experiences were classified and described with occasionally threatening contours for a certain conception of the social and political order. Various phenomena, nosologically described in differentiated forms, came to be integrated into the language of degeneration. Its expansive and supposed metatheoretical character became involved in its death throes, coming to be progressively replaced by another model, psychoanalysis.
  • The suicide of slaves in São Paulo during the last two decades of slavery Análise

    Oliveira, Saulo Veiga; Oda, Ana Maria Galdini Raimundo

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    A partir de notícias da Gazeta de Campinas (1871-1887), abordam-se visões correntes sobre atos suicidas entre cativos e pessoas livres, na província de São Paulo, assim como discutem-se os dados obtidos. Conclui-se que, sendo os atos suicidas manifestações humanas irredutíveis a um único tipo de explicação, não parece justificável que entre escravos eles sejam ainda tomados como auto-explicáveis por sua mísera condição. Ao indicar as situações em que se deram tais atos, espera-se desfazer explicações simplificadoras, como aquelas que referem os suicídios de escravos apenas e obviamente devidos aos 'desgostos do cativeiro'.

    Abstract in English:

    News stories printed in Gazeta de Campinas (1871-1887) are used to investigate the views expressed at the time of the suicides of captives and freedmen in São Paulo province, and to discuss the data available. As suicide is a form of human behavior which cannot be reduced to one single explanation, it does not seem justifiable that amongst the slaves, these cases should also be taken as self-explanatory because of the conditions in which they occurred. By noting the circumstances in which these acts took place, it is hoped that the fallacy of oversimplified explanations can be belied, which refer to the suicide of slaves as quite simply being due to a 'dislike of captivity'.
  • Norbert Elias and a narrative about ageing and death Análise

    Agra do Ó, Alarcon

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Este artigo aborda contribuições de Norbert Elias (1897-1990) para a problematização da velhice, mediante a análise do seu texto "Envelhecer e morrer". O sociólogo é aqui tomado como o autor de textos que podem vir a contribuir para a construção de referências que transcendam os limites disciplinares, ou mesmo a polarização entre saberes 'da saúde' e 'do social', e possibilitem atingir um desejado campo de estudos sobre o envelhecimento. Ainda que, em alguns momentos, compactue com idéias próximas à idealização da 'Era de Ouro' pré-capitalista da velhice, Elias oferece ao leitor pistas instigantes que merecem ser levadas em conta, sobretudo quando relaciona a experiência contemporânea da velhice à invenção da própria modernidade.

    Abstract in English:

    This article investigates the contribution made by Norbert Elias (1897-1990) to the problematization of old age by analyzing his text "Envelhecer e morrer". Here, the sociologist is seen as an author of texts which can help build up references that span disciplinary boundaries, or even overcome the polarization between 'health-' and 'social-'related knowledge, making it possible to form the desired field of study on ageing. Though Elias sometimes aligns himself with ideas bordering on an idealization of ageing from a pre-capitalist 'Golden Age', he does offer insights which deserve to be taken into consideration, especially when he relates the contemporary experience of ageing to the invention of modernity itself.
  • The entomology collection at Instituto Oswaldo Cruz: restoring a historical scientific collection scattered by the Manguinhos Massacre Notas de Pesquisa

    Costa, Jane; Cerri, Danielle; Sá, Magali Romero de; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Uma das mais ricas, antigas e diversificadas coleções entomológicas da América Latina, que alberga relevante parcela de nossa biodiversidade, foi drasticamente penalizada durante o episódio que ficou conhecido como o Massacre de Manguinhos, no qual dez eminentes pesquisadores tiveram seus direitos políticos cassados. Esta nota relata uma ínfima parcela da tragédia que desmantelou parte desse acervo e como 8.554 exemplares valiosos da ordem Diptera, pertencentes a 35 famílias, incluindo 99 exemplares-tipos, foram reincorporados à Coleção Entomológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, em suas posições originais nos armários de aço, após 35 anos. Esta reincorporação representa o primeiro resgate científico-histórico desse acervo, após o período da ditadura militar no Brasil.

    Abstract in English:

    One of the oldest, most varied and widest-ranging entomology collections in Latin America, containing a significant portion of Brazil's biodiversity, was severely damaged during an episode which came to be known as the Manguinhos Massacre, when ten eminent researchers had their political rights suspended. This note tells of how a particular episode in the tragedy caused part of this collection to be broken up, and how 8,554 valuable specimens of the order Diptera, from 35 families, including 99 type specimens, have been reintroduced to Instituto Oswaldo Cruz's Entomology Collection in their original positions in the steel cabinets 35 years on. This reintroduction represents the first effort to restore this collection both historically and scientifically since Brazil's military dictatorship.
  • Historical study of statistics: topics and sources Notas de Pesquisa

    Senra, Nelson

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Tomando as estatísticas como objeto de estudo (e não como meio de análise) e fazendo-o a partir de uma dimensão histórica no quadro teórico de uma sociologia das estatísticas, propõem-se temas e indicam-se fontes para possíveis pesquisas históricas. Os temas e as fontes aqui sugeridos desdobram a abordagem realizada na coleção História das Estatísticas Brasileiras: 1822-2002 (em quatro volumes), que vem sendo editada pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Trata-se, em última instância, de se fazer uma história do Brasil pelo prisma do querer e do fazer as estatísticas, ou, dito de outra forma, do se governar utilizando-as.

    Abstract in English:

    By taking statistics as an object of study (rather than a means of analysis) and taking a historical perspective from within the theoretical framework of the sociology of statistics, topics and sources are put forward for possible historical research. The topics and sources suggested here are a development of the approach adopted in the four-volume collection História das Estatísticas Brasileiras: 1822-2002 brought out by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Ultimately, the aim is to write a history of Brazil from the perspective of the purpose and practice of statistics, or in other words, their use in the practice of government.
  • New approaches to the history of slavery Livros & Redes

    Soares, Mariza de Carvalho
  • Seven studies into the transmission of science and scientific legacy between Europe and Latin America (1850-1940) Dossier - Transmisión Y Herencia Científica: Europa Y América Latina

    Lozano, Sonia; Priego, Natalia
  • Medical practice and biology as a science: introduction of paradigms, assimilation and social domestication in Mexico Dossier - Transmisión Y Herencia Científica: Europa Y América Latina

    Ledesma-Mateos, Ismael

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Los paradigmas fundacionales de la biología surgen en Europa al margen de la medicina, pero las comunidades médicas los apropiarán socialmente, generando tensión en ellas. Originalmente las teorías celular y de la regulación fisiológica, no están relacionadas con lo médico, pero serán asimiladas a la nueva medicina y los estudios sobre herencia y microbiología, que desde su surgimiento si tienen vínculos con las prácticas médicas, serán apropiados de inmediato por esta medicina diferente. Esta 'domesticación social' del conocimiento implica operaciones de traducción donde surgirán versiones híbridas, con particularidades distintas a las europeas. Aquí se analiza y discute la introducción de paradigmas de la biología en México (siglos XIX y XX).

    Abstract in English:

    The functional paradigms of biology emerged in Europe on the margins of medicine, but medical communities appropriated them into society, thereby generating some friction between them. Originally, cell theory and theories about physiological processes did not concern physicians, but they became assimilated into the new medicine and studies into heredity and microbiology, which since their emergence had been close to medical practice, and were quickly appropriated by this new form of medicine. The 'social domestication' of this knowledge involved a process of translation to the new environment, giving rise to hybrid versions with quite distinct features from their European counterparts. Here, we analyze and discuss the introduction of biology paradigms into Mexico (19th and 20th centuries).
  • Importation and destination of the first germ theory in Mexico: development of the first researches into yellow fever in the 1880s

    Lozano, Sonia

    Abstract in French:

    Ce travail s'inscrit dans le cadre de la discussion du transfert de connaissances entre l'Occident et l'Amérique latine, le Mexique en particulier. Nous essayerons de montrer les enjeux internationaux et locaux qui ont encouragé l'importation de la théorie des germes au Mexique pendant les années 1880. Par ailleurs, on montrera quelles ont été les difficultés conceptuelles et matérielles pour incorporer la théorie des germes et les techniques bactériologiques encore en train de se bâtir en Europe. Au moyen de deux exemples, on essayera de mettre en évidence les intentions politiques des médecins mexicains, à l'origine de l'étude des maladies infectieuses au Mexique.

    Abstract in English:

    This article aims to contribute to discussions about knowledge transfer between the West and Latin America, especially Mexico. We seek to show the international and local efforts to foster the importation of germ theory during the 1880s. We also highlight the conceptual and material hurdles which stood in the way of the incorporation of this theory and bacteriology techniques at a time when they were still being developed in Europe. Two examples are given as evidence of the political motivations of Mexican physicians in studying infectious diseases in that country.
  • Symbolism, solitude and modernity: science and scientists in porfirian Mexico Dossier - Transmission of Science and Scientific Legacy: Europe and Latin America

    Priego, Natalia

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Ao longo do século XIX, a tentativa de construir uma identidade nacional para o México atingiu seu ápice no período conhecido como Porfiriato, que teve como uma das principais características o desejo profundo de Porfírio Díaz e seu grupo de transformar o país em uma nação moderna, sem ter uma definição clara do significado desse conceito. O debate sobre identidade nacional tinha enfrentado questões como a negação de culturas indígenas; a paixão cega pela cultura francesa e todo um savoir faire diante do esforço de se criar uma nação moderna através da industrialização e da modernização científica. O conceito de nação, no México, é estreitamente vinculado à busca pelo 'eu' nacional e à luta para ultrapassar a solidão descrita por Octávio Paz. Paradoxalmente, esta busca forma uma parte dessa identidade, e parece inconclusa.

    Abstract in English:

    The quest of Mexico for a distinctive national identity throughout the 19th century reached a climax during the period known as the Porfiriato, one of the principal features of which was the deep desire of Porfirio Díaz and his circle to turn Mexico into a 'modern' country perhaps without a clear definition of the meaning of this concept. The debate about national identity had addressed such issues as the rejection of indigenous cultures, blind passion for French culture, and how to go about criating a modern nation by means of industrialization and scientific modernization. The concept of nation in Mexico is definitively linked with the search for a national 'I', and with the struggle to overcome the solitude identified by Octavio Paz. Paradoxically, this very quest forms a part of this identity, and it seems to remain inconclusive.
  • Spain's contribution to pharmacy in 19th century Cuba Dossier - Transmisión Y Herencia Científica: Europa Y América Latina

    Peña Puerta, José Manuel González de la; Ramos Carrillo, Antonio; Moreno Toral, Esteban

    Abstract in Spanish:

    La llegada de los españoles a Cuba supuso una organización que fue un reflejo de la establecida en la metrópoli. En materia farmacéutica, se intentó regularizar el ejercicio de la misma y formar profesionales. Con este objetivo, entre otros, se constituyó en 1711 el Real Tribunal del Protomedicato de La Habana, sustituido en 1833 por las Reales Juntas Superiores Gubernativas de Medicina y Cirugía y de Farmacia hasta 1842, cuando quedaron en manos de la Universidad de La Habana sus competencias en lo relativo a la enseñanza. Durante este tiempo, la Facultad de Farmacia en Cuba permaneció unida a la de medicina, hasta 1863. No podemos dejar sin mencionar la Real Academia de Ciencias Médicas, Físicas y Naturales de La Habana y las publicaciones científicas sobre farmacia de mediados de siglo.

    Abstract in English:

    With the arrival of the Spanish in Cuba, society was organized along the lines of what already existed in the metropolis. In the area of pharmacy, this meant standardizing the practice of pharmacy and training professionals. It was with this and other purposes in mind that the Real Tribunal del Protomedicato de La Haban was established in 1711. In 1833 it was replaced by the Reales Juntas Superiores Gubernativas de Medicina y Cirugía y de Farmacia until 1842, when educational responsibilities were transferred to the Universidad de La Habana. Throughout this period, the Facultad de Farmacia in Cuba kept its links with the Facultad de Medicina, until 1863. Another contribution are the Real Academia de Ciencias Médicas, Físicas y Naturales de La Habana and the scientific publications on pharmacy in the midle the century.
  • Scientific links between Venezuela's veterinary medicine and its Latin American counterparts: Mexico and the Southern Cone (1933-1955) Dossier - Transmisión Y Herencia Científica: Europa Y América Latina

    Freites, Yajaira

    Abstract in Spanish:

    En este trabajo se describe como las relaciones entre Venezuela, Argentina, Uruguay y México se vincularon a la construcción de una capacidad endógena del primero en el campo de la medicina veterinaria. La influencia de los países en cuestión ocurre en diversas etapas del crecimiento de la comunidad de veterinarios en Venezuela. El artículo expone una experiencia de como las relaciones científico-técnicas no siempre proceden según el esquema centro-periferia (sociedad desarrollada a periférica), sino que pone en evidencia la existencia de sociedades periféricas que pueden actuar como referentes o intermediarios para la transferencia de los saberes.

    Abstract in English:

    The bonds established by Venezuela from 1933 to 1955 with Argentina, Uruguay and Mexico formed the groundwork for the Venezuelan State's efforts to foster knowledge and skills in the field of veterinary medicine. The countries in question exerted an influence at different stages in the growth of the veterinary community in Venezuela. This study describes an experience of how scientific and technical ties are not always forged along center-periphery lines, showing that there are peripheral societies capable of operating as points of reference or intermediaries in the transfer of knowledge.
  • The Venezuelan sanitation authority and the incorporation of physicians exiled from the Spanish Civil War Dossier - Transmisión Y Herencia Científica: Europa Y América Latina

    Martin-Frechilla, Juan José

    Abstract in Spanish:

    En 1914, mientras España establecía acuerdos para modernizar su estructura científica y sanitaria, al hilo del panamericanismo y de los controles por la apertura del Canal de Panamá, Venezuela comenzó a estructurar un dispositivo sanitario ajustado a pautas internacionales, auspiciado, desde 1913, por la Fundación Rockefeller. En 1931, la Segunda República aceleró en España el envío de becarios a Estados Unidos y creó un sistema de salud pública bajo el modelo administrativo de unidades sanitarias y unidades técnicas de investigación y control propugnado por la Fundación. La Guerra Civil interrumpió ese proceso y Venezuela aprovechó el momento para contratar a médicos y enfermeras exiliados y los incorporó al nuevo Ministerio de Sanidad y Asistencia Social creado 1936.

    Abstract in English:

    In 1914, while Spain was making agreements to modernize its scientific and sanitary structure, Venezuela started to structure a sanitation authority following international models, in line with Pan Americanism and the controls for the opening of the Panama Canal, for which is received sponsorship from the Rockefeller Foundation as of 1913. In 1931, the Second Spanish Republic sent ever greater numbers of scholars to study in the United States and established a public health system along the lines of the administrative models for sanitation and technical units for investigation and control as proposed by the Foundation. The Spanish Civil War interrupted this process and Venezuela seized the moment to hire the exiled doctors and nurses and incorporate them into its new Ministry for Sanitation and Social Welfare, created in 1936.
  • The invisible college of Ángel Garma and the role of its collaborators in Argentine psychoanalysis Dossier - Transmisión Y Herencia Científica: Europa Y América Latina

    Quiñones Vidal, Elena; Peñaranda Ortega, María; García Quiñones, Elena

    Abstract in Spanish:

    La noción de que la esencia de la investigación científica es la producción de conocimiento y que la literatura científica constituye la manifestación de ese conocimiento hace que los acercamientos bibliométricos retraten a la ciencia por sus resultados. La identificación de estos grupos se realiza a través de las firmas conjuntas, agrupando a todos aquellos autores que mantienen relaciones directas o indirectas en función de las firmas de trabajos científicos. En el presente trabajo, los autores analizan la recepción del psicoanálisis y la evolución de las ideas psicológicas en Argentina, así como el papel jugado en el mismo por el español Ángel Garma, basándose en aspectos tanto biográficos como cuantitativos.

    Abstract in English:

    The idea that the essence of scientific investigation is the production of knowledge and that scientific literature constitutes a manifestation of this knowledge means that bibliometric approaches portray science through its results. These groups can be identified by their co-authorship, by grouping together all those authors who were directly or indirectly involved in writing the scientific papers. In this study, the authors analyze the reception of psychoanalysis and the development of ideas on psychology in Argentina, as well as the role played in this field by Spaniard Angel Garma, based on both biographical and quantitative data.
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