História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos, Volume: 26, Issue: 2, Published: 2019
  • História, Ciências, Saúde – Manguinhos: 25+ Carta Dos Editores

    Cueto, Marcos; Silva, André Felipe Cândido da
  • The impact of Cabanis reform on medical education in Brazil: an essay in neo-Foucauldian archeology Análise

    Almeida-Filho, Naomar

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo O ensaio avalia o impacto da Reforma Cabanis na configuração do modelo de formação em saúde que se tornou hegemônico no Brasil. Primeiro, discute o processo de construção social, ideológica e institucional do modelo de assistência à saúde da França pós-revolucionária. Em seguida, introduz os principais elementos da Reforma Cabanis, analisando aspectos curriculares e pedagógicos da nova proposta de ensino médico baseado em profissionalismo, disciplinaridade e especialização que resultou num sistema de ensino superior sem universidades. Depois avalia o processo histórico que resultou no “afrancesamento” do sistema educacional brasileiro, resultando num modelo de formação em saúde baseado em faculdades, hospitais, aulas, disciplinas, especialidades e diplomas.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This text assesses the impact of the Cabanis reform on the formation of the health training model which became hegemonic in Brazil. First, we shall briefly discuss the process of constructing the social, ideological, and institutional framework for healthcare in post-revolutionary France. Next the main elements of the Cabanis reform are introduced, analyzing curricular and pedagogical aspects of the new plan for medical education based on professionalism, disciplines, and expertise that resulted in a system of higher education without universities. This is followed by assessment of the historical process which resulted in the “Francization” of the Brazilian educational system, particularly in higher education and more specifically medical education, producing a model of health training based on colleges, hospitals, classrooms, disciplines, skills, and diplomas.
  • Noemy Silveira, Isaías Alves, and educational psychology: dialogs between Brazil, France, and the USA Análise

    Rocha, Ana Cristina Santos Matos

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo O artigo relaciona as experiências com testes de inteligência realizadas por Isaías Alves e Noemy Silveira com o contexto de circulação das concepções de psicologia no campo educacional brasileiro. Os trabalhos que desenvolveram funcionam como recurso para entender como se deu essa circulação, apontando as diferentes instâncias que contribuíram para configurar o modo como compreenderam essa ferramenta. O artigo pretende sinalizar como, mesmo partindo de interesses semelhantes e tendo em comum a experiência na Columbia University, Alves e Silveira não usaram as mesmas estratégias durante o trabalho de aplicação que desenvolveram nas escolas, enquanto estiveram à frente de serviços de psicologia ligados a diretorias de instrução de São Paulo e do Distrito Federal.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This article relates the intelligence testing experiments conducted by Isaías Alves and Noemy Silveira to the broader context of how psychological concepts moved within the Brazilian educational field. Their work acts as a resource to understand how this movement occurred, indicating the different events that helped shape the understanding of this tool. The goal is to show how, even despite their similar initial interests and shared experience at Columbia University, Alves and Silveira did not use the same strategies during their work to apply these tests in schools while they both headed psychology services for the boards of education in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.
  • Perón and the female visitors: masculinity, sex consumption and military opposition to the abolition of regulated prostitution, Argentina,1936-1955 Análise

    Simonetto, Patricio

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen El objetivo de este artículo es analizar los sentidos y prácticas androcéntricas desplegadas por generales y coroneles del ejército argentino en su reclamo contra la abolición de la prostitución reglamentada. Figuras claves de la historia argentina como Juan Domingo Perón participaron del debate por los límites y alcances del abolicionismo en vistas de proteger la salud sexual y reproductiva de los soldados. Para ello propusieron instalar burdeles cercanos a los cuarteles. A partir del análisis de informes, cartas y entrevistas propone un estudio de la producción de la masculinidad en ámbitos institucionales en perspectiva histórica.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The goal of this article is to analyze the meanings and androcentric practices employed by generals and colonels in the Argentine army in their complaints about the abolition of regulated prostitution. Key figures in Argentine history such as Juan Domingo Perón took part in the debate over the limits and extent of abolitionism, with a view to protecting soldiers’ sexual and reproductive health. To this end, they proposed installing brothels near barracks. Based on the analysis of reports, letters and interviews, this article studies the production of masculinity in institutional settings from a historical perspective.
  • Public health, urban space and social exclusion in postwar Spain: the exanthematic typhus epidemic in the city of Valencia, 1941-1943 Análise

    Ferrandis, Xavier García; Martínez-Vidal, Àlvar

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen Tras la Guerra Civil, las deficientes condiciones higiénico-dietéticas de gran parte de la población española favorecieron la aparición de enfermedades epidémicas. El tifus exantemático puso en jaque a las autoridades sanitarias, especialmente durante la primavera de 1941, cuando el ciclo epidemiológico de la enfermedad y la falta de infraestructuras se aliaron para provocar una grave crisis sanitaria. El régimen franquista, consciente de que esta situación dificultaba su legitimación, no dudó en utilizar la exclusión social como parte de su política sanitaria contra esta epidemia. El artículo analiza en profundidad el caso de Valencia, una ciudad que durante la guerra, por hallarse en la retaguardia republicana, había acogido sucesivas oleadas de refugiados a medida que avanzaban las tropas franquistas.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract After the Spanish Civil War, poor hygiene and nutritional deficiencies among a large part of Spain’s population contributed to the rise of epidemic diseases. Exanthematic typhus posed a challenge to the health authorities, especially during the spring of 1941, when the epidemiological cycle of the disease and the lack of infrastructures combined to create a serious health crisis. The Franco regime, aware that this situation posed a threat to its legitimacy, promptly used social exclusion as part of its health policy against the epidemic. This article provides an in-depth analysis of the case of Valencia, a city that was behind Republican lines during the war, and therefore received successive waves of refugees as Franco’s troops advanced.
  • José Antonio Alzate, animal instruments and reliable knowledge in New Spain in the eighteenth century Análise

    Constantino, María Eugenia

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen En el siglo dieciocho los naturalistas europeos y americanos llevaron a cabo distintas prácticas de reconocimiento de la naturaleza, en las cuales, la recolección y el estudio de animales vivos y muertos permitieron obtener y comprobar distintos conocimientos útiles para la ciencia y la historia natural. La posibilidad de que los especímenes fueran utilizados como objetos de estudio, igual que como instrumentos de observación, generó en las colecciones de historia natural una dimensión que hoy puede problematizarse desde la epistemología y la ontología. Este artículo muestra dicho fenómeno, desde el análisis de algunas prácticas realizadas por el naturalista José Antonio Alzate en Nueva España.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In the eighteenth century, naturalists in Europe and the Americas, being engaged in various practices for investigating nature, collected and observed live and dead animals in order to obtain and test various types of useful knowledge to science and natural history. The possibility that these specimens could be used as objects of study as well as instruments of observation gave these natural history collections a dimension that can be problematized nowadays from an epistemological and ontological perspective. This article demonstrates this phenomenon, based on the analysis of some of the practices of the naturalist José Antonio Alzate in New Spain.
  • The barren side of Brazil: science, water resources, and the debate on the (in)fertile soils of the Brazilian cerrado, 1892-1942 Análise

    Silva, Claiton Márcio da

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo Aborda a relação entre ciência e cerrado no período entre a publicação do livro de Eugenius Warming (1892) e artigo de Rawitscher, Ferri e Rachid (1943), botânicos da Universidade de São Paulo. Warming afirmou que a escassez de recursos hídricos influenciou na formação da vegetação característica e na baixa fertilidade dos solos. Arrojado Lisboa, Alberto Sampaio, Philipe Vasconcelos e Barbosa de Oliveira propuseram projetos diversificados sobre o aproveitamento econômico do cerrado. Já o artigo de 1943 apontou para a riqueza dos recursos hídricos na região, influenciando o aumento de experimentos agrícolas. Este texto enfatiza principalmente o levantamento da diversidade da vegetação dos cerrados e os debates sobre a (in)fertilidade dos solos para cultivo em larga escala.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This article discusses the relationship between science and the cerrado during the period spanning the publication of a text by Eugenius Warming (1892) and an article by Rawitscher, Ferri, and Rachid (1943), botanists at the University of São Paulo. Warming stated that scarce water resources affected the formation of the characteristic vegetation and low soil fertility in these regions. Arrojado Lisboa, Alberto Sampaio, Philipe Vasconcelos, and Barbosa de Oliveira proposed a variety of plans for economic exploitation of the cerrado. The article from 1943 indicated the rich water resources in the region, which helped to boost agricultural experiments. This article especially emphasizes studies on the diversity of vegetation in the regions containing cerrado-type vegetation formations and debates on the (in)fertility of these soils for large-scale farming.
  • In the middle of the road there was a stone: the history of violence and social suffering among young adults with trajectories of psychiatric hospitalization Análises

    Rosa, Soraya Diniz; Malfitano, Ana Paula Serrata

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo São apresentadas as histórias de vida de três jovens adultos, com longo período de internação psiquiátrica, que se tornaram moradores de hospital psiquiátrico em Sorocaba (SP), em uma região caracterizada como polo manicomial. Objetivou-se analisar as políticas de saúde mental e os efeitos de suas ações na vida daqueles sujeitos, tendo como premissas as discussões sobre sofrimento social. Por meio da “objetivação participante”, acompanharam-se, durante dois anos, suas trajetórias após o processo de desospitalização. Como resultado, aponta-se que a política de saúde naquele município tem sido promovida por meio de esquemas totalizantes e coercitivos, em que a institucionalização da vida, com a sua medicalização, constitui a “resposta” para alguns problemas sociais.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This article presents the life stories of three young adults with a long history of psychiatric hospitalization who became residents of a psychiatric hospital in Sorocaba (SP), in a region known as a center for the mentally ill. This study analyzes mental health policies and their effects on the lives of these individuals based on discussions about social suffering. Using the participant objectivation technique, these individuals were followed for two years after dehospitalization. The results show that health policy in Sorocaba has been advanced through totalizing and coercive schemes with institutionalization and medicalization comprising the “solution” to some social problems.
  • The road from the “antituberculosis armory” to the Huipulco Tuberculosis Sanatorium in Mexico City, 1920-1940 Análise

    Agostoni, Claudia

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen Este artículo estudia las diferentes propuestas y estrategias para prevenir los contagios de la tuberculosis pulmonar implementadas en la Ciudad de México a partir de la década de 1920, al comenzar la primera campaña de largo aliento contra esa enfermedad, y analiza las limitaciones y problemas a los que ésta se enfrentó hasta 1940. Se destaca por qué la contención de los contagios de esa enfermedad ocupó un lugar prioritario después de diez años de guerra civil; se presta atención a los modelos y estrategias implementados y se examinan los problemas por lo que atravesó la construcción y el funcionamiento del Sanatorio para Tuberculosos de Huipulco, sustento clave de la lucha antituberculosa desde tiempo atrás a nivel internacional.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This article discusses the various proposals and strategies to prevent the transmission of pulmonary tuberculosis in the City of Mexico from the 1920s decade onwards, when it was launched the first long-term campaign against the disease, and analyses the limitations and challenges faced until 1940. It looks upon the motives that led the need to contain the transmission of the disease to occupy a dominant role after ten years of civil war; it focuses on the models and strategies implemented, and examines the challenges faced by the construction and operation of the Huipulco Tuberculosis Sanatorium, a key component of the fight against tuberculosis at the international level since long ago.
  • Between vaccines, diseases, and resistances: the impacts of a smallpox epidemic in nineteenth-century Porto Alegre Análise

    Kühn, Fábio; Brizola, Jaqueline Hasan

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo Uma epidemia de varíola que vitimou fatalmente 1% da população de Porto Alegre em 1874 é o tema deste artigo. Com base em ampla pesquisa documental e no cruzamento de informações produzidas por ocasião da morte dos indivíduos atingidos durante o evento, buscamos problematizar as razões pelas quais a varíola apresentou-se em formato epidêmico na cidade. De posse dos mapas de vacinados nos anos anteriores à eclosão da epidemia, pudemos constatar a baixa adesão da população de Porto Alegre ao preventivo, cujo benefício poderia ser ignorado pelos distintos grupos sociais que teciam relações dentro da cidade. Com a chegada de soldados doentes, oriundos de outras localidades, a moléstia se espalhou rapidamente pela cidade, causando a morte de centenas de pessoas.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This article examines a smallpox epidemic which killed 1% of the population of Porto Alegre in 1874. Through extensive documentary research and comparison with data from those who died, we problematize why smallpox manifested as an epidemic in the city. Maps showing vaccination in the years preceding the outbreak reveal that only low levels of the population of Porto Alegre participated in prevention efforts, and the benefits of these efforts were ignored by the different social groups which were interconnected within the city. As sick soldiers arrived from other places, the disease spread rapidly through the city and caused the death of hundreds of people.
  • Early attitudes to X-rays in Buenos Aires, 1896-1897: medicine, esotericism and popular fantasies Análise

    Vallejo, Mauro Sebastián

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen El objetivo de este artículo es documentar la recepción temprana de los rayos X en la cultura científica de la ciudad de Buenos Aires. Haciendo uso de fuentes periódicas de diversa índole, el texto explora las diferentes reacciones despertadas por la novedad en distintos actores del mundo letrado. Los periódicos y semanarios generales difundieron rápidamente el hallazgo y se encargaron de subrayar su naturaleza maravillosa o prodigiosa. Por su parte, los médicos de la ciudad asumieron posiciones contrastantes que iban desde el recelo hasta el entusiasmo. Por último, los espiritistas de la ciudad escribieron numerosos textos sobre la innovación, y la reinterpretaron en función de sus estrategias de auto-legitimación.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The goal of this article is to document early attitudes to X-rays in scientific culture in the city of Buenos Aires. Using various types of periodical sources, the text explores the different reactions to the novelty among different actors in the literary world. Newspapers and weekly magazines for the general public quickly broadcast the discovery, stressing its marvelous or prodigious nature. Meanwhile, physicians in the city took contrasting positions, ranging from mistrust to enthusiasm. Lastly, spiritualists in the city wrote numerous texts about the innovation, and reinterpreted it in accordance with their strategies for self-legitimation.
  • Lab coats, scalpels, and the art of politics Análises

    Petrarca, Fernanda Rios

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo O artigo analisa as condições sociais e históricas de desenvolvimento da medicina como espaço de atuação profissional e domínio sobre determinado território ocupacional, no estado de Sergipe, das primeiras décadas do século XX aos anos 1960. Uma das principais constatações da investigação é a de que o processo de consolidação da medicina deve ser compreendido como parte das mudanças que nortearam a reestruturação das elites agrárias locais para evitar o declínio de sua condição. A forte rivalidade produzida no interior das parentelas e sua fragmentação, decorrente dos conflitos, conduziram a expansão dos vínculos e um direcionamento para os laços produzidos a partir do universo profissional.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The article analyzes the social and historical conditions of the development of medicine as a space for professional activity and domination of a specific occupational field in the state of Sergipe, from the early decades of the twentieth century to the 1960s. One of the main findings is that the process of consolidation in medicine should be understood as part of the changes that guided the restructuring of local agrarian elites to avoid their own decline. The strong rivalry produced within this kinship and consequent fragmentation resulting from conflict led to the expansion of ties and specific targeting for the connections produced in the professional world.
  • Luiz Nunes and the plan for health institutions in Pernambuco Análises

    Ribeiro, Cecilia

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo Em Pernambuco, durante a gestão do governador Carlos Lima Cavalcanti (1930-1937), o arquiteto Luiz Nunes e sua equipe conseguiram realizar, em curto espaço de tempo, de 1934 a 1937, uma série de projetos de edifícios públicos notáveis. Neste artigo, são analisados os projetos da Escola para Anormais e do Hospital da Brigada Militar, que exemplificam a estreita relação entre o saber médico, a arquitetura moderna e a política do governo estadual, além de serem objetos pouco explorados em estudos acadêmicos. As fontes principais da pesquisa foram os arquivos dos jornais Diário da Manhã, Diário de Pernambuco e o conjunto de projetos de arquitetura levantado no Arquivo Público Jordão Emerenciano.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract During Pernambuco governor Carlos Lima Cavalcanti’s term (1930-1937), the architect Luiz Nunes and his team were able to produce a series of plans for notable public buildings in the short period of time spanning 1934 to 1937. This article analyzes plans for the School for Abnormal Children and the Military Brigade Hospital, which exemplify the close relationship between medical knowledge, modern architecture, and state government policy and have not yet been examined in detail in academic studies. The main sources were the archives of the Diário da Manhã and Diário de Pernambuco newspapers, as well as the group of architectural plans in the Jordão Emerenciano Public Archive.
  • The historiography of yellow fever in Latin America since 1980: the limits of presentism Revisão Historiográfica

    García, Mónica

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen Este artículo presenta un análisis historiográfico sobre la fiebre amarilla en América Latina. Se muestra que las narrativas dominantes abordan la fiebre a partir de la dicotomía naturaleza-cultura, ya sea que la fiebre sea considerada como un actor histórico o que su historia aparezca vinculada a relaciones de poder. Se exploran algunas historias que asocian la enfermedad con la racialización del discurso de salud pública, la relación entre centros y periferias en la producción de ciencia y la salud pública norteamericana. Se argumenta que esta historiografía fija la naturaleza de la fiebre según el conocimiento médico contemporáneo (presentismo) y se sugiere que nuevos temas y perspectivas podrían emerger de un diálogo con la historia y la sociología de la ciencia.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This article provides a historiographical analysis of yellow fever in Latin America. It shows that the dominant narratives approach the fever using the nature-culture dichotomy, either treating the fever as an historical actor or linking its history to power relations. This study explores some histories that associate the disease with the racialization of public health discourse, the relationship between centers and peripheries in the production of science, and US public health. It argues that this historiography fixes the nature of the fever according to contemporary medical knowledge (presentism), and suggests that new themes and perspectives might emerge from a dialogue with the history and sociology of science.
  • The trajectories and choices of Jean-Claude Schmitt Depoimento

    Schmitt, Jean-Claude; Teodoro, Leandro Alves

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo Nesta entrevista, um dos mais renomados medievalistas franceses da atualidade, Jean-Claude Schmitt, responde a diferentes questões concernentes não apenas às suas escolhas teórico-metodológicas, mas também aos temas de seus últimos trabalhos. Conhecido como um dos principais herdeiros da história antropológica de Jacques Le Goff, Schmitt faz um balanço de uma trajetória que resultou em trabalhos diversos, desde edições de documentos até obras sobre as imagens medievais, sem nunca perder de vista o compromisso de interrogar as crenças dos homens e as permanências do imaginário da Idade Média na cultura ocidental.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this interview, one of today’s best-known French medievalists, Jean-Claude Schmitt, responds to various questions about his theoretical and methodological choices as well as the themes of his recent work. Schmitt is known as one of the main heirs of the anthropological history of Jacques Le Goff, and sums up his trajectory which resulted in a variety of work ranging from editing documents to work on medieval images, without ever losing sight of his commitment to questioning the beliefs of men and sojourns into the imagery of the Middle Ages in western culture.
  • Brazil, geo-history, and Pierre Monbeig Nota De Pesquisa

    de Lira, Larissa Alves

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo Esta nota de pesquisa é fruto da tese de doutorado defendida em janeiro de 2017 na Universidade de São Paulo e na École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales. A tese trata da trajetória do geógrafo francês Pierre Monbeig na França e na Espanha e sobre sua participação em uma missão científica francesa enviada ao Brasil, contribuindo para a formação da geografia brasileira. Após a conclusão desse trabalho, está em andamento a elaboração de um artigo que procura situar a herança intelectual de Pierre Monbeig nos marcos teóricos de uma geo-história do Brasil, com semelhanças e diferenças de enfoques em relação à geo-história de Fernand Braudel.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This research note is the product of a doctoral thesis defended in January 2017 at the University of São Paulo and the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales. It addresses the trajectory of the French geographer Pierre Monbeig in France and Spain, as well as his participation in a French scientific mission to Brazil which helped shape Brazilian geography. This work will be followed by an article which will situate Monbeig’s intellectual inheritance within the theoretical landmarks of Brazilian geo-history, comparing and contrasting specific details of the geo-history of Fernand Braudel.
  • Evidence of the political use of medical science in a Brazilian newspaper article on the Chilean president José Manuel Balmaceda in 1891 Fontes

    Fabregat, Mario

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen En medio de la Guerra Civil ocurrida en Chile el año 1891, apareció publicado en el periódico brasileño Diário de Campinas el artículo titulado “Balmaceda”, de autoría de Joaquim Nogueira de Sá Itagiba, donde analiza el delirio del político chileno José Manuel Balmaceda, presidente de la República entre 1886 y 1891, explicando su comportamiento, definido como el característico del dictador y el tirano. El artículo es pródigo en la utilización de diversas teorías alienistas que intentan identificar al sujeto criminal, respondiendo a los ideales de normalización social. El artículo forma parte del libro La prensa extranjera y la dictadura chilena, de Alberto Fagalde, publicado en 1891, en Chile.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In the midst of the Civil War in Chile in 1891, the Brazilian newspaper Diário de Campinas published an article entitled “Balmaceda,” by Joaquim Nogueira de Sá Itagiba, which analyzes the delirium of Chilean politician José Manuel Balmaceda, president of the Republic from 1886 to 1891 in order to explain his behavior, which it defines as characteristic of a dictator and a tyrant. The article makes liberal use of various psychiatric theories that sought to identify the criminal subject in response to ideals of social normalization. The article was part of the book La prensa extranjera y la dictadura chilena, by Alberto Fagalde, published in 1891, in Chile.
  • Plastic beauty, eugenics and physical education in Chile: a commentary on the work “Characteristics of physical education”, by Luis Bisquertt (1930) Fontes

    Riobó, Enrique; Villarroel, Francisco Javier

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen El siguiente texto busca presentar y contextualizar la fuente “Aspectos de la educación física”, de Luis Bisquertt, poniendo énfasis en la búsqueda del mejoramiento racial en Chile de 1930, a partir de la educación física eugénica, cuyo paradigma corporal serían las estatuas clásicas helénicas. Uno de los conceptos centrales de este documento es el de belleza plástica, cuyo sentido se encuentra totalmente imbricado a la idea de normalidad y sanidad, patologizando aquellos cuerpos que no se enmarquen en el canon atlético, situación extendida por las características sedentarias de la modernidad.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The article seeks to introduce and contextualize the work “Characteristics of physical education” (“Aspectos de la educación física”), by Luis Bisquertt, which emphasizes the effort to ameliorate racial aspects in Chile, in 1930, thru physical education eugenics, whose body paradigm were the Hellenic classical statues. One of the key concepts of this document is plastic beauty, whose meaning overlaps with the idea of normality and sanity, creating pathologies on those bodies that were considered outside of the athletic standards, a situation that was aggravated by the sedentary conditions of modern times.
  • An ethnography of people living with AIDS, the quality of their healthcare and construction of the disease Livros E Redes

    Bidegain, Evangelina Anahí
  • A history of Mexican psychiatry based on clinical sources from the La Castañeda insane asylum Livros E Redes

    Accorsi, Giulia Engel
  • Eugenics, yesterday and today Livros E Redes

    Habib, Paula Arantes Botelho Briglia
  • Popular medicine in Peru: the latest re-edition of a classic Livros & Redes

    Loza, Carmen Beatriz
  • The pathway of drugs in the empire of amphetamines Livros E Redes

    Soares, Ricardo
Casa de Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Av. Brasil, 4365 - Prédio do Relógio, 21040-900 Rio de Janeiro RJ Brazil, Tel./Fax: (55 21) 3865-2208/2195/2196 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil
E-mail: hscience@coc.fiocruz.br