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Taxonomic and ultrastructural study of the genera Strombomonas and Trachelomonas (Euglenophyta) from Colombia

Estudo taxonômico e de ultraestrutura dos gêneros Strombomonas and Trachelomonas (Euglenophyta) da Colombia

ABSTRACT

A floristic and ultrastructural study on loricated Euglenophyta was made in several freshwater bodies from the Amazonian and Caribbean regions of Colombia. A total of 114 taxa were recorded, 93 belonged to the genus Trachelomonas Ehr., and 21 to Strombomonas Defl. From the total taxa determined, 73 were recorded for the first time for Colombia, 19 for the Amazonian and 52 for the Caribbean region. Besides 43 taxa were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and details of its ultrastructure are illustrated.

Keywords:
Euglenophyta; phytoplankton; Taxonomy; tychoplankton; ultrastructure

RESUMO

Um estudo florístico e ultraestrutural de Euglenophyta loricata de vários corpos de água doce nas regiões amazônica e caribenha da Colômbia foi realizado. Um total de 114 táxons foi registrado, 93 pertencentes ao gênero Trachelomonas Ehr. e 21 ao Strombomonas Defl. 73 táxons foram registrados pela primeira vez na Colômbia, 19 na região amazônica e 52 na região do Caribe. Além disso, detalhes da ultraestrutura de 43 táxons foram examinados por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (SEM).

Palavras-chave:
Euglenophyta; fitoplâncton; Taxonomia; ticoplâncton; ultraestrutura

Introduction

The Amazon and Caribbean regions of Colombia have a rich biological diversity and an abundance of organic matter, making them ideal environments for Euglenophyta microalgae growth (Pringsheim 1956Pringsheim, E.C. 1956. Contributions towards a monograph of the genus Euglena. Nova Acta Leopoldina 18: 1-168., Lackey 1968Lackey, J.B. 1968. Ecology of Euglena. In: Buetow, D. (Ed.) The Biology of Euglena. Acad. Press, New York 1: 27-44., Munawar 1972Munawar, M. 1972. Ecological studies of Egleninieae, in certain polluted and unpolluted environments. Hydrobiologia 39: 307-320., Conforti 1998Conforti, V. 1998. Morphological changes of Euglenophyta in response to organic enrichment. Hydrobiologia 369/370: 277-285., Reynolds et al. 2002Reynolds C., Huszar V., Kruk C., Naselli-Flores L. & Melo S. 2002. Towards a functional classification of the freshwater phytoplankton. Journal of Plankton Research 24: 417-428., Rosowski 2003Rosowski, J.R. 2003. Photosynthetic Euglenoids. In: JD Wehr, RG Sheath, eds. Freshwater algae of North America: ecology and classification. Academy Press, New York: 383-422., Wołowski & Hindák 2004Wołowski, K. & Hindák, F. 2004. Taxonomic and ultrastructure studies of Trachelomonas Ehrenberg emend. Deflandre (Euglenophyta) from Slovakia. Nova Hedwigia 78: 179-207.). Although some research on these organisms was carried out in nearby countries such as Brazil and Bolivia (Thomasson 1971Thomasson, K. 1971. Amazonian algae. Studies on South American fresh-water plankton. 8. Mémoire de l´Instute Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 86: 1-57. and 1977Thomasson, K. 1977. Two conspicuous desmids from Amazonas. Notiser Stockholm 130: 41-51., Uherkovich & Schmidt 1974Uherkovich, G. & Schmidt, G.W. 1974. Phytoplanktontaxa in dem zentralamazonischen Schwemmlandsee Lago de Castanho. Amazoniana V: 243-283., Uherkovich & Franken 1980Uherkovich, G. & Franken, M. 1980. Aufwuchsalgen aus zentralamazonischen Regenwaldbächen. Amazoniana VII (I): 49-79., Couté & Thérézien 1985Couté, A. & Thérézien, Y. 1985. Première contribution à l’étude des Trachelomonas (Algae, Euglenophyta) de l’Amazonie bolivienne. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 18 (2): 111-131. and 1994Couté, A. & Thérézien, Y. 1994. Nouvelle contribution à l’étude des Euglénophytes (Algae) de l’Amazonie bolivienne. Nova Hedwigia 58 (1-2): 245-272., Thérézien 1989Thérézien, Y. 1989. Algues d’eau douce de la partie Amazonienne de la Bolivie. Bilbliotheca Phycologica, J. Cramer, Berlin-Stuttgart., Rodrigues 1992Rodrigues, M.S. 1992. A Comunidade Fitoplanctônica de um lago de várzea da Amazônia Central (Lago Camaleão, Ilha de Marchantaria): Variação temporal e espacial, Biomassa, composição de espécies e produtividade. Tese de Doutorado. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. Fundação Universidade de Amazonas., Conforti 1993aConforti, V. 1993a. Study of the Euglenophyta from Camaleâo lake (Manaus-Brazil). I. Trachelomonas Ehr. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (1): 3-18., bConforti, V. 1993b. Study of the euglenophyta from the Camaleão lake (Manaus, Brasil) II. Strombomonas DEFL. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (3): 187-197., and 1994Conforti, V. 1994. Study of the euglenophyta from the Camaleão lake (Manaus, Brasil) III. Euglena EHR., Lepocinclis PERTY, Phacus, DUJ. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 27 (1): 3-21.); for Colombia, only four scientific works were focused on them (Conforti & Nudelman 1994Conforti, V. & Nudelman, A. 1994. Ultrastructure of lorica of Trachelomonas Ehr. from Colombian Amazonia. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 27 (4): 301-314., Duque 1995Duque, S. 1995. Euglenofitas pigmentadas de la Amazonia Colombiana. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 19 (75): 651-659., Duque & Nuñez Avellaneda 2000Duque, S. & Nuñez Avellaneda, M. 2000. Microalgas acuáticas de la Amazonia Colombiana. Biota Colombiana 1 (2): 208-216., Tolivia et al. 2012Tolivia, A., Nuñez Avellaneda, M., Duque, S. & Conforti, V. 2012. A taxonomic and Ultrastructural Study of naked Euglenophyta from Colombia. Algological Studies 140: 3-21.). On the other hand, the Caribbean region also presents excellent characteristics for the Euglenophyta (Guisande et al. 2008Guisande C., Barreiro A., Acuña A., Marciales, L., Hernández, E., Torres, A., Aranguren, N., López, W., Duque, S., Gallo, L., Aguirre, N., Mogollón, M. & Rueda-Delgado, G. 2008. Testing of the CHEMTAX program in contrasting Neotropical lakes, lagoons and swamps. Limnology & Oceanography: Methods 6: 243-252.). Some works exist for Venezuela (Deflandre 1926Deflandre, G. 1926. Sur quelques Euglenacees Nouvelles du Venezuela. Revue Algologique 1: 235-243., Yacubson 1980Yacubson, S. 1980. The Phytoplankton of some freshwater bodies from Zulia State (Venezuela). Nova Hedwigia 23: 279-339. and 1984Yacubson, S. 1984. Algas del río Tucuco y ambientes acuáticos de sus alrededores (Estado Zulía, Venezuela). Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas 16: 19-95., Yacubson & Bravo 1982-1983Yacubson, S. & Bravo C.R. 1982-83. Especies de Trachelomonas (Euglenophyta) de algunos cuerpos de agua de los Distritos Urdaneta y Perijá (estado Zulia, Venezuela). Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas 15: 17-47.) and Mexico (Ortega et al. 1994Ortega, M.M., Godínes, J.L., Garduño, G. & Oliva, M.G. 1994. Ficología de Méjico. Algas Continentales. AGT Editor.), however there are no reports of them from this región of Colombia. In this paper, as a result of the samples analysed, 21 taxa belonging to Strombomonas and 93 to Trachelomonas were determined. In addition to this, the lorica ultrastructure of 46 of them were examined and photographed in detail by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Trachelomonas nigra was found for the first time in America in La Herradura, Putumayo River. Four taxa were examined and photographed by SEM for the first time ever: T. acanthophora var. acanthophora, T. oblonga var. australica, T. parvicollis and T. raciborskii var. nova f. minor. Our study significantly increased the number of records for these genera in both regions studied from Colombia.

Materials and Methods

Study Area- The present study was undertaken in several water bodies from three basins of Colombia belonging to two areas: the Caribbean and the Amazonian River Basin (table 1).

Table 1
Collect samples sites from three basins of Colombia belonging to two areas: the Caribbean and the Amazonian River Basin.

The Magdalena River is the most important river of Colombia and the Caribbean region. It originates in the southern region of the country, near the Magdalena Lake in Páramo de las Papas. It flows northwards through Colombian territory to the Caribbean Sea in Bocas de Ceniza. It is the longest Inter-Andean River in South America, and it has about 500 tributary rivers and more than 5,000 streams drain into it. One of them is the Sinú River, regulated by the presence of Urrá dam. In this area samples were collected from Magdalena and Sinú rivers; in the latter, different lakes (locally known as ciénagas or swamps) of the Lorica marshy complex were sampled. The lakes from Magdalena River sampled are located in the Momposina depression; sector increased flooding in northern Colombia.

In the southwest of the Amazonian region samples were taken from two systems: Putumayo and Ortegüaza Rivers. The first one is a main tributary of the Amazon River, it’s born in Nudo de los Pastos and flows 1,800 km eastwards, serving as a border between Colombia - Peru and Colombia - Ecuador. It is a major transportation artery, navigable for almost its total length. The samples were taken from lakes and the Putumayo River near Peru. Some of these lakes are located in the National Natural Park “La Paya”.

Other samples were collected from canaguchales (small water bodies with predominance of palm Mauritia genus) and from flood lakes respectively, in Ortegüaza River, a tributary of the Caquetá River near to Andes.

Samples Collection - Materials were taken from two communities, phytoplankton sieved through a 24 μm mesh nets, and tychoplankton obtained by macrophytes crushed. All samples were immediately fixed and preserved in the Transeau solution. They were deposited in the Colección de Microalgas Acuáticas de la Amazonia Colombiana del Instituto Amazónico de Investigaciones Científicas - Sinchi and the Ficoteca Amazónica of the Laboratorio de Manejo y Gestión de Humedales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Amazonia.

Qualitative analysis of the material was performed by taxonomic identification in an Olympus BX50 optical microscope provided with a drawing tube. Taxa were measured and illustrated. Specialised literature was consulted for taxa identification: Deflandre 1926Deflandre, G. 1926. Sur quelques Euglenacees Nouvelles du Venezuela. Revue Algologique 1: 235-243., Balech 1944Balech, E. 1944. Trachelomonas de la Argentina. Anales del Museo Argentino de Cs. Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” 41: 221-322., Conrad & Van Meel 1952, Huber-Pestalozzi 1955Huber-Pestalozzi, G. 1955. Das Phytoplankton des Süβwassers. Systematik und Biologie. 4. Teil, Euglenophyceen. E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung., Popova 1966Popova, T.G. 1966. Euglenophyta. Trachelomonas, Strombomonas, Eutreptia, Euglena. Flora Plantarum Cryptogamarum URSS 3 (1): 1-410. Izq. Nauka, Leningrad., Kiriakov 1983Kiriakov I. 1983. Le genre Strombomonas Deflandre (Euglenophyta) en Bulgarie. Cryptogamie, Algologie IV (1-2): 127-139., Starmach 1983Starmach, K. 1983. Euglenophyta-Eugleniny. Flora Slodkowodna Polski, 3: 1-594. Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Warszawa -Kraków., Tell & Conforti 1986Tell, G. & Conforti, V. 1986. Euglenophyta pigmentadas de la Argentina. Bilbliotheca Phycologica. J. Cramer. Berlin. Stuttgart., Conforti & Tell 1988Conforti, V & Tell, G. 1988. Les Euglenophytes de Terre de Feu (Argentine). Nova Hedwigia 46 (3-4): 305-319., 1993, 1999, Rino & Pereira 1989-1990, Conforti 1993aConforti, V. 1993a. Study of the Euglenophyta from Camaleâo lake (Manaus-Brazil). I. Trachelomonas Ehr. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (1): 3-18., bConforti, V. 1993b. Study of the euglenophyta from the Camaleão lake (Manaus, Brasil) II. Strombomonas DEFL. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (3): 187-197., 1999, 2009, 2010, Conforti & Joo 1994Conforti, V. & Joo, G.J. 1994. Taxonomic and ultrastructural study of Trachelomonas Ehr. and Strombomonas Defl. (Euglenophyta) from Oxbow Lakes in Alabama and Indiana (USA). Cryptogamie Algologie 15 (4): 267-286., Conforti & Nudelman 1994Conforti, V. & Nudelman, A. 1994. Ultrastructure of lorica of Trachelomonas Ehr. from Colombian Amazonia. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 27 (4): 301-314., Conforti & Perez 2000Conforti, V. & Peréz, M.C. 2000. Euglenophyceae of Negro River, Uruguay, South America. Algological Studies 97: 59-78., Conforti & Ruiz 2001Conforti, V. & Ruiz, L. 2001. Euglenophytes from Chunam reservoir (South Korea) II. Trachelomonas Ehr. Algological Studies 102: 117-145., Conforti & Zalocar de Domitrovic 2003Conforti, V. & Zalocar de Domitrovic, Y. 2003. Ultrastructural study of Strombomonas (Euglenophyta) from the province of Chaco (Argentina). Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 38 (1-2): 5-12., Wołowski & Hindák 2004Wołowski, K. & Hindák, F. 2004. Taxonomic and ultrastructure studies of Trachelomonas Ehrenberg emend. Deflandre (Euglenophyta) from Slovakia. Nova Hedwigia 78: 179-207., 2005Wołowski, K. & Hindák, F. 2005. Atlas of Euglenophytes. Veda, Bratislava, Slovak Republic., Wołowski & Grabowska 2007Wołowski, K. & Grabowska, M. 2007. Trachelomonas species as the main component of the euglenophyte community in the Siemianówka reservoir (Narew River, Poland). Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology 43(3): 207-218., Wołowski & Walne 2007Wołowski, K. & Walne, P. 2007. Strombomonas and Trachelomonas species (Euglenophyta) from south-eastern USA. European Journal of Phycology 42: 409-431., Da et al. 2009Da, K.P., Mascarell, G. & Couté, A. 2009. Étude au microscope électronique à balayage du genre Trachelomonas (Euglenophyta) dans le Sud-Est de la Côte d’Ivoire (Afrique de l’Ouest). Cryptogamie Algologie 30 (1): 31-90., Ciugulea & Triemer 2010Ciugulea, I. & Triemer, R. 2010. A Color Atlas of Photosynthetic Euglenoids. Michigan State University Press, East Lansing., Garduño Solorzano et al. 2011Garduño Solórzano, G., Oliva Martínez M.G., Lugo Vázquez A., Mendoza Garfías M.B., Quintanar Zúñiga R. & Conforti, V. 2011. Trachelomonas (Euglenophyta) from an eutrophic reservoir in Central México. Journal of Environmental Biology 32: 463-471..

For SEM observations, materials were fixed with 4 % formaldehyde, washed with bi-distilled water, filtered through Millipore filters (0.20 µm pore), and air-dried. Filter pieces were attached on stubs to be subsequently coated with gold/palladium. Specimens were examined and photographed by a Phillips 505 SEM at the Electron Microscopy Service of Institute of Scientific and Technical Research for Defense (CITEDEF), Argentina.

The characteristics used to delimit the different taxa were size and shape of the lorica, pore with or without collar, and type of ornamentation. Only those taxa whose ultrastructure was unknown, are described in their entirety in the text. Additionally, in some known taxa, particular morphologies, dimensions, and distribution patterns are detailed. The list of all records is presented in Table 2.

Table 2
Loricated Euglenophyta taxa from Colombia. The sites corresponding to Magdalena River are not shown since no Euglenophytes were found (sites 10 to 20 in table 1).

Results

Taxonomic Descriptions

CLASS EUGLENOPHYCEAE

Order Euglenales

Family Euglenaceae.

Genus Strombomonas Deflandre 1930

Strombomonas acuminata var. deflandreana Conrad, Mém. Mus. Royal d’Hist. Natur. Belg. 124:115, 152, pl.XV, fig.10. 1952.

Figure 8 d

Loricas broadly ovoid 33-34 µm long, 18.5-23 µm diam. Apical pore surrounded by a depressed enlarged neck (1.5-2×7-9 µm). Posterior end abruptly tapers into a conical cauda (10-13 µm long). Envelope covered by adhered external irregular particles. This taxon was analysed by SEM for the first time, as well as recorded for the first time for the Amazon region in Colombia. America: Argentina; Asia: Bangladesh and India, Oceania: Australia and New Zealand.

Strombomonas asymmetrica (Roll) Pop., Flora plant. Cryptog. 8(1):217, pl.20, fig.18. 1966.

Figure 7 f

Loricas ellipsoid 21-24 µm long, 12-13 µm diam., with a short collar (3-4×5-6 µm) oblique at the free end. Posterior end gradually tapering to a short (3-3.5x4-5µm) conical cauda. Envelope coarse, covered by adhered external very large particles, including a diatom frustule. It was cited previously in America: Brazil, Europe: Bulgaria, Netherlands and Ukraine. This is the first record for the Caribbean region in Colombia.

Strombomonas costata Def., Arch. Protistenk. 69:589, figs.76-80. 1930.

Figs. 1 j, 8 cxxx

Figure 1
a-c. Strombomonas eurystoma f. incurva, d. S. scabra var. longicollis, e. S. scabra var. scabra, f. S. treubii, g-h. S. fluviatilis, i. S. gibberosa var. major, j. S. costata, k. S. schauinslandii var. minor, l. S. lanceolata, m. S. ovalis, n. S. verrucosa var. zmiewika, o. S. gibberosa var. gibberosa, p. S. máxima.

The studied loricas showed lower dimensions than those analysed by SEM by Tell & Conforti (1988)Tell, G. & Conforti, V. 1988. Quelques Strombomonas Defl. (Euglenophyta) del’ Argentine au microscope photonique et électronique à balayage. Nova Hedwigia 46: 541-556. in materials from Argentine, 48-50 µm long, 24-26 µm diam, neck 5.5-6×6-7.5 µm and cauda 11-13 µm long. Widespread. In America: Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. This is the first record for the Caribbean region in Colombia.

Strombomonas eurystoma f. incurva (Buz.) Popova, Flora plant. Cryptog. 3(1):208, pl.20, fig.14,16-21. 1966.

Figs. 1 a-c, 7 a-b

Previously studied with SEM by Conforti (2009)Conforti, V. 2009. Floristic and ultrastructural study of the genus Strombomonas (Euglenophyta) from New Jersey fresh waters. Algological Studies 132:1-20. but the lorica of our specimens showed smaller dimensions than those examined by this author, 24-28 µm long, 20.5-22 µm wide. Previously cited in America: Argentina and USA, Europe: Romania. Recorded in the Caribbean region and Colombia for the first time.

Strombomonas gibberosa var. gibberosa (Playf.) Defl., Arch. Protistenk., 69(3):595, fig.97-101,103. 1930.

Figure 1 o

Loricas 42-45 µm long, 22-24 µm wide. Widespread. Earlier mentioned for the Caribbean region in Cuba (Comas Gonzalez, 2009). Recorded in Colombia for the first time.

Strombomonas gibberosa var. major Conf., Rev. Hydrobiol. Trop. 26(3):192, pl.II, figs.7 a-d; pl.VII, figs.5-6. 1993.

Figure 1 i

Loricas broadly rhomboidal 68-70 µm long, 30-33 µm wide, with a long cylindrical collar (16-18×6-9 µm) expanded and oblique at the free end, toward the posterior end abruptly tapering to a long inclined (19-21 µm) conical pointed cauda. This species was described by means of optic microscopy in materials from Camaleao Lake (Manaus - Brazil), it is the second record in the world.

Strombomonas girardiana (Playf.) Defl. Arch. Protistenk. 69(3):573, figs.33-35. 1930.

Figures 8 e-g

Loricas with parallel sides or a central depression 42-51 µm long, 22-24 µm wide, with a short cylindrical straight collar (5-6×5-7 µm) irregular and expanded at the free end. Posterior end abruptly tapering to a long (11.5-19.5 µm) conical pointed cauda. Wall clear to dark brown, very thick, covered by adhered external particles. Widespread. This taxon was analysed by SEM for the first time, as well as its registration for both studied areas of Colombia, Caribbean and Amazon for the first time.

Strombomonas globulosa Conf. & Joo, Rev. Hydrobiol. Trop. 27(1):274, fig.66 a,b. 1995.

Figure 7 g

Loricas 19-21 µm long, 11-13 µm diam., ellipsoid. Pore surrounded by a collar (3-4.5×3.5-5µm) slightly widened and irregular towards the free end. Posterior end tapering to a short conical cauda (2.5-3.5µm long). Envelope totally covered by adhering exogenous particles, including very large pieces. This species was described by means of optic microscopy in materials from the USA, it is the first time that it was studied by SEM and the only other known register in the world.

Strombomonas lanceolata (Playf.) Def., Arch. Protistenk. 69(3):582-583, figs.59-60. 1930.

Figs. 1l, 7 d-e

Loricas 23-29 µm long, 10-11.5 µm wide, elongate fusiform. Sides slightly arched, towards the anterior end they gradually form a short and wide neck (2-2.5×3-6 µm) oblique and expanded at the distal end. Posterior end is narrowed into a short conical cauda (3-4 µm long). Wall yellowish to light brown, totally covered by adhering exogenous particles, including very large pieces. Widespread. This is the first time that S. lanceolata was examined by SEM and recorded for the Caribbean region and Colombia.

Strombomonas maxima (Skv.) Defl., Arch. Protistenk. 69(3):583-584, figs.61-65. 1930.

Figure 1 p

Loricas 103-105 µm long, 39-42 µm wide. Widespread. This is the first record for the Caribbean region and Colombia. In Amazon region was mentioned earlier in Brazil (Rodrigues, 1992Rodrigues, M.S. 1992. A Comunidade Fitoplanctônica de um lago de várzea da Amazônia Central (Lago Camaleão, Ilha de Marchantaria): Variação temporal e espacial, Biomassa, composição de espécies e produtividade. Tese de Doutorado. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. Fundação Universidade de Amazonas.).

Strombomonas napiformis var. brevicollis (Playf.) Defl., Arch. Protistenk. 69(3):591, figs.83-84. 1930.

Figure 7 h

Loricas 47-48.5 µm long, 26-28 µm wide. Apical pore surrounded by a depressed enlarged neck (10-12 µm diam.). Posterior end is narrowed into a conical cauda (9-10 µm long). This taxon has been studied previously by SEM by Conforti (2009)Conforti, V. 2009. Floristic and ultrastructural study of the genus Strombomonas (Euglenophyta) from New Jersey fresh waters. Algological Studies 132:1-20.. It has been reported in America: Brazil and USA, Asia: Bangladesh and India; Australia and New Zealand. This is the first record for the Caribbean region and Colombia.

Strombomonas ovalis (Playf.) Defl., Arch. Protistenk. 69(3):577, fig.42-43. 1930.

Figure 1 m

Loricas 41.5-43 µm long, 26-27.5 µm wide. Widespread, in America: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, North America: USA, This is the first record for the Caribbean region and for Colombia.

Strombomonas scabra var. scabra (Playf.) Tell & Conf. Nov. Hedw. 46(3-4):545, pl.1, fig.1-6, pl.6, fig.1-3. 1988.

Figure 1 e

Loricas 20-23 µm long, 13.5-16 µm wide. This species was previously cited in the Amazon region of Brazil (Uherkovich & Schmidt 1974Uherkovich, G. & Schmidt, G.W. 1974. Phytoplanktontaxa in dem zentralamazonischen Schwemmlandsee Lago de Castanho. Amazoniana V: 243-283.) and the Caribbean region of Venezuela (Yacubson 1980Yacubson, S. 1980. The Phytoplankton of some freshwater bodies from Zulia State (Venezuela). Nova Hedwigia 23: 279-339., Yacubson & Bravo 1982-1983Yacubson, S. & Bravo C.R. 1982-83. Especies de Trachelomonas (Euglenophyta) de algunos cuerpos de agua de los Distritos Urdaneta y Perijá (estado Zulia, Venezuela). Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas 15: 17-47.), it is the first record for Colombia.

Strombomonas scabra var. hiperintermedia (Playf.) Tell & Conf., Cryptogam. Algol.10(1):74, figs.14 a-c. 1989.

Figures 8 h-i

Loricas ellipsoid 52-53 µm long, 19-21 µm diam. Collar cylindrical (9-10 x 4-4.5 µm), surrounded at its base by a strong thickening (8-9 µm diam.). This taxon has been already described with SEM by Conforti & Zalocar de Domitrovic (2003)Conforti, V. & Zalocar de Domitrovic, Y. 2003. Ultrastructural study of Strombomonas (Euglenophyta) from the province of Chaco (Argentina). Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 38 (1-2): 5-12.. This is the first record for the Caribbean region and Colombia. This variety has exclusively been found in Argentina.

Strombomonas scabra var. longicollis (Playf.) Tell & Conf., Nov. Hedw. 46(3-4):546, pl.2, fig.4, pl.7, fig.1. 1988.

Figure 1 d

Loricas 26-27 µm long, 20-21 µm wide. This is the first record of this variety for Colombia and the Amazon region.

Strombomonas schauinslandii var. schauinslandii (Lemm.) Defl., Arch. Protistenk. 69:594, figs.90-96. 1930.

Figure 8 a

Loricas rhomboidal with rounded sides, 30-31 µm long, 19-20 µm wide. Collar trunk-cone shape (6-7×5.5-7). Posteriorly cuneiform prolonged in a well-defined cauda (7.5-8.5 µm long). Envelope light brown, totally covered by adhering exogenous particles, including very large pieces. Widespread. This is the first time that this taxon was examined by SEM and recorded for the Caribbean region and Colombia.

Strombomonas schauinslandii var. minor Conf. & Joo, Cryptogam., Algol. 15(4):278, figs.69 a-b. 1994.

Figure 1 k

Loricas 17-18 µm long, 10-11 µm wide. This variety was described from materials from USA, this is the second time that it has been found.

Strombomonas treubii (Wołsz.) Def., Arch. Protistenk. 69:592, fig.86. 1930.

Figure 1 f

Loricas 31-33 µm long, 16-18 µm wide. Known in South America: Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay, Asia: Indonesia. This is the first record for the Caribbean region and Colombia.

Strombomonas verrucosa var. zmiewika (Swk.) Def., Arch. Protistenk. 69(3):566, figs.6-10, 1930.

Figs. 1 n, 7 c

Loricas 34-35µm long, 22-23 µm wide, trapezoid. Collar short (3-4×5-6 µm) with the free end widened, smooth or irregular, straight or oblique. Posterior ends with conical cauda (8-10 µm long). Envelope covered with adhered exogenous particles. This taxon has been studied previously by SEM by Conforti (1993b)Conforti, V. 1993b. Study of the euglenophyta from the Camaleão lake (Manaus, Brasil) II. Strombomonas DEFL. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (3): 187-197.. Widespread. This is the first record for the Caribbean region.

Genus Trachelomonas Ehrenberg emend. Deflandre 1926

Trachelomonas abrupta var. abrupta (Swk.) Defl., Rev. Gén. Bot. 38:695. 1926.

Figure 2 a

Figure 2
a. Trachelomonas abrupta var. abrupta, b. T. abrupta var. obesa, c. T. abrupta var. arcuata, d. T. abrupta var. minor, e. T. conica f. punctata, f. T. duquei, g. T. lacustris, h. T. conica f. conica, i. T. cylindrica var. decollata, j. T. pulcherrima var. minor, k. T. bulla, l. T. raciborskii var. raciborskii, m. T. raciborskii var. nova f. nova, n. T. raciborskii var. nova f. minor, o. T. raciboskii var. incerta, p. T. lemmermanii var. lemmermanii.

Figure 3
a. Trachelomonas kellogii var. effigurata, b. T. planctónica var. flexicollis, c. T. planctonica var. oblonga, d. T. sydneyensis var. sydneyensis, e. T. lemmermanii var. acuminata, f. T. similis var. similis, g. T. similis var. hyalina, h. T. similis var. spinosa, i. T. helvetica , j. T. charkoviensis var. spinicollis, k. T. recticollis, l. T. parvicollis, m. T. caudata, n. T. molesta, o. T. amphoriphormis var. spinosa.

Loricas 22-30 µm long, 12-19 µm wide. Widespread. Mentioned by Yacubson (1980)Yacubson, S. 1980. The Phytoplankton of some freshwater bodies from Zulia State (Venezuela). Nova Hedwigia 23: 279-339. for the Caribbean region in Venezuela and Comas González (2009)Comas González, A. 2009. Catálogo de las algas y cianoprocariotas dulceacuícolas de Cuba. Cienfuegos: Editorial Universo Sur. in Cuba. This is the first record of the variety for the Amazon region of Colombia.

Trachelomonas abrupta var. arcuata (Playf.) Defl., Rev. Gén. Bot. 38:695, figs.367-368. 1926.

Figure 2 c

Loricas 23.5-25.5 µm long, 15.5-1 µm wide. Widespread. This is the first record of the variety in the Caribbean area, reported previously for Colombia in its Amazon region (Duque & Nuñez Avellaneda, 2000Duque, S. & Nuñez Avellaneda, M. 2000. Microalgas acuáticas de la Amazonia Colombiana. Biota Colombiana 1 (2): 208-216.).

Trachelomonas abrupta var. minor Defl., Rev. Gén. Bot. 38:695, figs.371-378,381-388. 1926.

Figure 2 d

Loricas 16.5-18.5 µm long, 7.5-12 µm wide. Widespread. This is the first record of the variety in the Caribbean area. In the Colombian Amazon, this variety was cited previously by Duque & Nuñez Avellaneda (2000)Duque, S. & Nuñez Avellaneda, M. 2000. Microalgas acuáticas de la Amazonia Colombiana. Biota Colombiana 1 (2): 208-216..

Trachelomonas acanthophora var. acanthophora Stokes, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 33:340, pl.XXI:fig. 6. 1894.

Figure 13 f

Loricas 48.5-50.5 µm long, 26.5-28 µm wide, spindle shaped, punctate, with conical spines scattered (2-4 µm). Pore surrounded by a cylindrical collar (3.5-4×5-5.5 µm) surrounded at the distal end by a crown of 5 robust conical spines (4.5-5 µm long). Posterior end narrowed into a subconical tail (4-5 µm long) ornate with 3 spines (4-5 µm). This is the first time that this taxon was examined by SEM. This is the first record for Colombia. Known in America: Argentina, Venezuela, Mexico and USA.

Trachelomonas acanthophora var. minor Balech & Dast., Physis A 12:357, fig.2:6. 1938.

Figs. 4 j, 13 g

Figure 4
a. Trachelomonas armata var. armata f. inevoluta, b. T. armata var. steinii, c. T. armata f. pseudolongispina, d. T. armata var. longispina, e. T. pyramidata, f. T. dangerdii var. glabra, g. T. spinosa var. hirsuta, h. T. spectabilis, i. T. dastugueii, j. T. acanthophora var. minor.

Figure 5
a. Trachelomonas volvocina var. volvocina, b. T. volvocina var. scutella, c. T. volvocina var. punctata, d. T. volvocina var. derephora, e. T. volvocinopsis var. volvocinopsis, f. T. volvocinopsis var. coronata, g. T. volvocinopsis var. tubigera, h. T. volvocinopsis f. punctata, i. T. cervicula, j. T. komarovii, k. T. curta var. curta, l. T. curta var. minima, m. T. woicikii var. woicikii, n. T. woicikii var. pusilla, o. T. sparsesetulosa, p. T. globularis f. punctata, q. T. nexilis, r. T. sculpta, s. T. rugulosa f. steinii, t. T. granulosa var. granulosa, u. T. oblonga var. truncata, v. T. oblonga var. attenuata.

Figure 6
a. Trachelomonas globularis f. gigas, b. T. hispida var. hispida, c-d. T. superba, e. T. hispida var. hispida f. minor, f. T. hispida var. punctata, g. T. hispida f. minima, h. T. hispida var. coronata, i. T. pusilla var. pusilla, j. T. pusilla var. punctata, k. T. granulosa var. subglobosa, l. T. rotunda, m. T. hispida var. crenulatocollis, n. T. robusta, o. T. dybowski, p. T. bacillifera var. minima, q. T. intermedia, r. T. hirta.

Figure 7
a-b. Strombomonas eurystoma f. incurva, c. S. verrucosa var. zmiewika, d-e. S. lanceolata, f. S. asymmetrica, g. S. globulosa, h. S. napiformis var. brevicollis.

Figure 8
a. Strombomonas schauinslandii var. schauinslandii, b. S. fluviatilis, c. S. costata, d. S. acuminata var. deflandeana, e-g. S. girardiana, e. general view, f. detail of neck, g. lorica showing surface covered by particulate material, h-i. S. scabra var. hiperintermedia, h. general view showing lorica surface covered by particulate material, i. detail of neck.

Loricas 40-41 µm long, 20-21.5 µm wide. The ultrastructure of the studied specimen was coincident with that shown by Conforti (1999)Conforti, V. 1999. Taxonomic and ultrastructural study of Trachelomonas Ehr. (Euglenophyta) from subtropical Argentina. Cryptogamie Algologie 20: 167-207.. Only cited in Argentina, Poland and central east Africa. In Colombia previously recorded in Caño Pacatúa, Amazonas River (Duque, 1995Duque, S. 1995. Euglenofitas pigmentadas de la Amazonia Colombiana. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 19 (75): 651-659.; Duque & Nuñez Avellaneda, 2000Duque, S. & Nuñez Avellaneda, M. 2000. Microalgas acuáticas de la Amazonia Colombiana. Biota Colombiana 1 (2): 208-216.). This is the first record of this variety for the Caribbean region.

Trachelomonas allia Drez., Kosmos 50(1):211, fig.71. 1925.

Figure 12 a

Loricas cylindrical-ellipsoid, 26-30 µm long, 17-21 µm wide. Their ultrastructure was coincident with the described by Conforti (1993aConforti, V. 1993a. Study of the Euglenophyta from Camaleâo lake (Manaus-Brazil). I. Trachelomonas Ehr. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (1): 3-18., 1999Conforti, V. 1999. Taxonomic and ultrastructural study of Trachelomonas Ehr. (Euglenophyta) from subtropical Argentina. Cryptogamie Algologie 20: 167-207.) and Da et al. (2009)Da, K.P., Mascarell, G. & Couté, A. 2009. Étude au microscope électronique à balayage du genre Trachelomonas (Euglenophyta) dans le Sud-Est de la Côte d’Ivoire (Afrique de l’Ouest). Cryptogamie Algologie 30 (1): 31-90.. Widespread. This species was previously cited by Brazilian Amazon (Conforti 1993aConforti, V. 1993a. Study of the Euglenophyta from Camaleâo lake (Manaus-Brazil). I. Trachelomonas Ehr. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (1): 3-18.). It is the first record for the Caribbean region and Colombia.

Trachelomonas armata f. pseudolongispina Def., Rev. Gén. Bot. 38:691, fig.336. 1926.

Figure 4 c

Loricas without spines 36-38 µm long, 31-33 µm wide, ovoid, with rounded ends. Pore surrounded by a crown of short spines (2.5-3 µm long). Wall punctuated and ornate short conical spines, scattered distributed. The posterior end showed a group of long conical right spines (7-9 µm long). Known in America: Venezuela and Canada and Africa: Egipt. This is the first report for Colombia and the both regions studied.

Trachelomonas bacillifera var. minima Playf., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 40:22, pl.III:figs.15-16. 1915.

Figure 6 p

Loricas 25-26 µm long, 20.5-21.5 µm wide. Cosmopolitan. This variety was previously cited in the Brazilian Amazon (Rodrigues, 1992Rodrigues, M.S. 1992. A Comunidade Fitoplanctônica de um lago de várzea da Amazônia Central (Lago Camaleão, Ilha de Marchantaria): Variação temporal e espacial, Biomassa, composição de espécies e produtividade. Tese de Doutorado. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. Fundação Universidade de Amazonas.). This is the first record for the Caribbean region and Colombia.

Trachelomonas bulla Stein, Der Organismus der Infusionsthiere, pl. XXII: figs.41-42. 1878.

Figure 2 k

The studied loricas were smaller than those described by Popova (1966)Popova, T.G. 1966. Euglenophyta. Trachelomonas, Strombomonas, Eutreptia, Euglena. Flora Plantarum Cryptogamarum URSS 3 (1): 1-410. Izq. Nauka, Leningrad., 30.5-32 µm long, 17-18.5 µm wide. Widespread. Only found in samples of the Sinú River, this is the first record for the Caribbean area and Colombia.

Trachelomonas caudata (Ehr.) Stein, Der Organismus der Infusionsthiere, pl.XXII, figs.39-40. 1878.

Figure 3 m

Loricas 48-50 µm long, 19-20.5 µm wide. Cosmopolitan. Cited previously in Colombia by Duque & Nuñez Avellaneda (2000)Duque, S. & Nuñez Avellaneda, M. 2000. Microalgas acuáticas de la Amazonia Colombiana. Biota Colombiana 1 (2): 208-216.. Only found in samples of Sinú River, this is the first record for the Caribbean region.

Trachelomonas cervicula Stokes, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 28:75, fig.11. 1890.

Figure 5 i

Loricas 19-27 µm diam. Cosmopolitan. This species was previously cited for Brazilian Amazon (Rodrigues, 1992Rodrigues, M.S. 1992. A Comunidade Fitoplanctônica de um lago de várzea da Amazônia Central (Lago Camaleão, Ilha de Marchantaria): Variação temporal e espacial, Biomassa, composição de espécies e produtividade. Tese de Doutorado. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. Fundação Universidade de Amazonas.) and the Caribbean area in Mexico (Ortega et al., 1994Ortega, M.M., Godínes, J.L., Garduño, G. & Oliva, M.G. 1994. Ficología de Méjico. Algas Continentales. AGT Editor.). This is the first record for Colombia.

Trachelomonas charkoviensis var. spinicollis (Swk.) Conf., Rev. Hidrobiol. Trop. 26(1):8, pl III, fig. 22. 1993a.

Figure 3 j

The loricas studied were larger than those observed by Conforti (1993a)Conforti, V. 1993a. Study of the Euglenophyta from Camaleâo lake (Manaus-Brazil). I. Trachelomonas Ehr. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (1): 3-18., 48-51 µm long, 31-35.5 µm wide, pore surrounded by a collar 5-6.5×5-6 µm. Previously cited in Argentina and Brazilian Amazonian. This is the first record for Colombia and the Caribbean region.

Trachelomonas conica f. conica Playf., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 40:17, pl.II, figs.8-9. 1915.

Figure 2 h

Loricas 21-23 µm long, 11-14 µm wide. Widespread. Previously found for the Caribbean area in Cuba (Comas González, 2009Comas González, A. 2009. Catálogo de las algas y cianoprocariotas dulceacuícolas de Cuba. Cienfuegos: Editorial Universo Sur.), this is the first record for Colombia.

Trachelomonas conica f. punctata (Playf.) Defl., Rev. Gén. Bot. 38:649, fig.198. 1926.

Figure 2 e

Loricas 20-21 µm long, 11-12 µm wide. In America: Cuba, Venezuela, in Africa: Cameroon and Ivory Coast. This is the first record for Colombia.

Trachelomonas curta var. curta Da Cunha, Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 5(2):111, pl.10:fig.5. 1913.

Figs. 5 k, 9 a

Loricas compressed globose, smooth 17-23 µm long, 12-20 µm wide. The ultrastructure were coincident with that shown by Conforti & Perez (2000Conforti, V. & Peréz, M.C. 2000. Euglenophyceae of Negro River, Uruguay, South America. Algological Studies 97: 59-78.), Wołowski & Walne (2007)Wołowski, K. & Walne, P. 2007. Strombomonas and Trachelomonas species (Euglenophyta) from south-eastern USA. European Journal of Phycology 42: 409-431. and Conforti (2010)Conforti, V. 2010. Ultrastructure of the lorica of Trachelomonas species (Euglenophyta) from New Jersey, U.S.A. Algological Studies 135: 15-40.. Widespread. This species was cited previously in the Brazilian Amazon (Thomasson, 1971Thomasson, K. 1971. Amazonian algae. Studies on South American fresh-water plankton. 8. Mémoire de l´Instute Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 86: 1-57.) and the Caribbean region in: Venezuela (Yacubson, 1980Yacubson, S. 1980. The Phytoplankton of some freshwater bodies from Zulia State (Venezuela). Nova Hedwigia 23: 279-339.) and Cuba (Comas González, 2009Comas González, A. 2009. Catálogo de las algas y cianoprocariotas dulceacuícolas de Cuba. Cienfuegos: Editorial Universo Sur.). This is the first record for Colombia.

Trachelomonas curta var. minima Tell & Zal. de Domit., Nov. Hedw. 41:364, pl.8 fig.21-22, pl.14 fig.3. 1985.

Figure 5 l

Loricas 11-12 µm long, 13-14 µm wide. Known in South America: Argentine and Brazil, in Europe: Slovakia. Previously cited in the phytoplankton community from Pozo Hondo, Amazonas River, Colombia (Duque 1995Duque, S. 1995. Euglenofitas pigmentadas de la Amazonia Colombiana. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 19 (75): 651-659., Duque & Nuñez Avellaneda 2000Duque, S. & Nuñez Avellaneda, M. 2000. Microalgas acuáticas de la Amazonia Colombiana. Biota Colombiana 1 (2): 208-216.). This is the first record in the Caribbean region.

Trachelomonas cylindrica var. decollata Playf., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 40:13, pl.I fig.30. 1915.

Figure 2 i

Loricas 19-20 µm long, 11-12 µm wide. Widespread. This variety was cited previously for Bolivian Amazon (Couté & Thérézien, 1985Couté, A. & Thérézien, Y. 1985. Première contribution à l’étude des Trachelomonas (Algae, Euglenophyta) de l’Amazonie bolivienne. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 18 (2): 111-131.) and Brazilian Amazon (Menezes et al., 1995Menezes, M., Fonseca, C.G. & Nascimento, E.P. 1995. Algas de três ambientes de águas claras do município de Parintins, estado do Amazonas, Brasil: Euglenophyceae e Dinophyceae. Hoehnea 22 (1/2): 1-15.). This is the first record for Colombia.

Trachelomonas dangeardii var. glabra (Playf.) Def., Rev. Gén. Bot. 38:90, figs.338-343. 1926.

Fig. 4 f

The observed loricas were bigger than those described by Duque, cited as T. dangeardiana var. glabra; 1995, 34-35 µm long, 32-34 µm wide. Known in South America: Brazil; Australia and New Zealand. This variety was previously reported in the Colombian Amazon (Duque 1995Duque, S. 1995. Euglenofitas pigmentadas de la Amazonia Colombiana. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 19 (75): 651-659., Duque & Nuñez Avellaneda 2000Duque, S. & Nuñez Avellaneda, M. 2000. Microalgas acuáticas de la Amazonia Colombiana. Biota Colombiana 1 (2): 208-216.).

Trachelomonas diploperforata Da & Couté, Cryptogam. Algol. 30(1):48, figs.41-42. 2009.

Figure 9 h-i

Figure 9
a. Trachelomonas curta var. curta, b. T. rugulosa f. steinii, c. T. stokesiana var. conradi, d. detail of the lorica surface, e-f. T. nexilis, e. general view, f. detail of lorica surface and apical pore, g. T. volvocina var. derephora, h-i. T. diploperforata, j. T. irregularis.

Loricas 13.5-14.5 µm long, 12.5-13 µm wide, ellipsoid. Wall ornate with fine punctuations, among which small depressions are distributed. Pore surrounded by an annular tronco-conic thickening (0.7-1×2.5-3 µm). The ultrastructure details of our specimens were coincident with those shown by Da & Couté (2009) in the original description of the species. This was found from materials of Ivory Coast, Africa. It is the second time that is registered. Found in Barbudo, Sinú River, Colombia.

Trachelomonas duquei Conf. & Nud., Rev. Hidrobiol. Trop. 27(4):304, pl.III, figs.1-2. 1994.

Figure 2 f

Loricas 37-38 µm long, 29-30 µm wide. This species was originally described from materials of Tarapoto Lake, Amazonas River, then was cited in Brazil and USA. It is the first record in the Caribbean region and Colombia.

Trachelomonas globularis f. gigas Drez., Rozpr. I Wiad. Muz. Dzieduszyckich 7/8:5, 15, pl.I, fig.26. 1923.

Figure 6 a

Loricas spherical 34.5-36 µm diameter, regularly punctuated and ornamented with conical spines. Widespread. In America: Argentina and Bolivia, North America: USA. Although this species has already been mentioned in the Bolivian Amazon (Couté & Thérézien 1985Couté, A. & Thérézien, Y. 1985. Première contribution à l’étude des Trachelomonas (Algae, Euglenophyta) de l’Amazonie bolivienne. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 18 (2): 111-131.), this is the first mention in the Colombian Amazon.

Trachelomonas globularis f. punctata (Skv.) Popova, Flora Plantarum Cryptogamarum URSS Vol VIII. Fasc. 1:95. 1966.

Figure 5 p

Loricas spherical 22-26 µm diam. Known in Africa: Ivory Coast and Sierra Leone, America: Argentine and USA, Asia: China. This is the first record of this variety for Colombia and for the Caribbean region.

Trachelomonas gracillima Bal. & Dast., Physis Sec. A 12:355, fig.2:7. 1938.

Figures 13 d-e

Loricas 37-41 µm long, 14-19 µm wide, cauda 4-5 µm long. Their ultrastructure was similar to that described by Conforti & Tell (1986)Conforti, V. & Tell, G. 1986. Ultraestructura de la loriga de Trachelomonas Ehr. (Euglenophyta) en Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido (MEB). Nova Hedwigia 43: 45-79. and Conforti (1999)Conforti, V. 1999. Taxonomic and ultrastructural study of Trachelomonas Ehr. (Euglenophyta) from subtropical Argentina. Cryptogamie Algologie 20: 167-207.. The species was only cited for the subtropical and temperate region of Argentina. This is the first record for both regions studied and Colombia.

Trachelomonas granulosa var. granulosa Playf., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 40:18, pl.II, fig.18. 1915.

Figure 5 t

Loricas 18-21.5 µm long, 17-18.5 µm wide. Widespread. This is the first record for Colombia and the Caribbean region.

Trachelomonas granulosa var. subglobosa Playf., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 40:19, pl.II: fig.19. 1915.

Figs. 6k, 11 a-b

Loricas 21.5-31 µm long, 20-27 µm wide. The ultrastructure of their wall showed more densely granularly ornamented (114/100 µm2) than those described by Conforti & Nudelmann (1994) and Conforti & Ruiz (2001)Conforti, V. & Ruiz, L. 2001. Euglenophytes from Chunam reservoir (South Korea) II. Trachelomonas Ehr. Algological Studies 102: 117-145.. Widespread. Cited in Lago Tarapoto, Colombia Amazon by Conforti & Nudelmann (1994), this is the first record of this variety for the Caribbean area.

Trachelomonas helvetica Lemm., Kryptfl. Mark Brandenburg 3:529. 1910.

Figure 3 i

Loricas 34-37 µm long, 15-17 µm wide, elongated ellipsoid, densely punctuated and ornamented with conical spines. Anterior end concave, wide, without neck surrounded by some spines. Sides attenuated towards the posterior end, ending into a short trunk conical cauda. Known in South America: Brazil; Europe: Czech Republic, Germany, Scandinavia; Australia. This is the first record for the Caribbean and Amazon region in Colombia.

Trachelomonas hispida var. hispida f. minor Bourr. & Manguin, Alg. Guad.:183, pl.XXIII, fig.316. 1952.

Figure 6 e

The loricas 16.5-23.5 µm long, 14-18 µm wide. Widespread. It was previously cited by the Colombian Amazon region (Conforti & Nudelmann 1994). This is the first record for the Caribbean region.

Trachelomonas hispida var. coronata Lemm., Pascher, Süsswasserfl. Deutschl. 2:150. 1913.

Figure 6 h

Loricas 21-36 µm long, 13.5-21.5 µm wide. Widespread. This variety was previously cited by the Brazilian Amazon (Thomasson 1971Thomasson, K. 1971. Amazonian algae. Studies on South American fresh-water plankton. 8. Mémoire de l´Instute Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 86: 1-57., Uherkovich & Schmidt 1974Uherkovich, G. & Schmidt, G.W. 1974. Phytoplanktontaxa in dem zentralamazonischen Schwemmlandsee Lago de Castanho. Amazoniana V: 243-283., Bittencourt-Oliveira 1997Bittencourt-Oliveira, M.C. 1997. Euglenophyceae do reservatório de Balbina, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Hoehnea 24 (1): 21-35.) and the Caribbean region of Venezuela (Yacubson 1980Yacubson, S. 1980. The Phytoplankton of some freshwater bodies from Zulia State (Venezuela). Nova Hedwigia 23: 279-339., Yacubson & Bravo 1982-1983Yacubson, S. & Bravo C.R. 1982-83. Especies de Trachelomonas (Euglenophyta) de algunos cuerpos de agua de los Distritos Urdaneta y Perijá (estado Zulia, Venezuela). Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas 15: 17-47., Prescott 1955Prescott, G.W. 1955. Algae of the Panama Canal and its tributaries I. Flagellated organisms. The Ohio Journal of Science 55 (2): 99.) and Cuba (Comas González, 2009Comas González, A. 2009. Catálogo de las algas y cianoprocariotas dulceacuícolas de Cuba. Cienfuegos: Editorial Universo Sur.). This is the first record for Colombia.

Trachelomonas irregularis Swk., Arch. Hydrobiol. 9:634, pl.19, fig.9. 1914.

Figure 9 j

Loricas 17.5-18.5 µm long, 15-16 µm wide. Their ultrastructure was totally coincident with the described by Conforti (1999)Conforti, V. 1999. Taxonomic and ultrastructural study of Trachelomonas Ehr. (Euglenophyta) from subtropical Argentina. Cryptogamie Algologie 20: 167-207. in materials from Chaco, Argentina. Widespread. In South America: Colombia, Argentina and Brazil. It is the first record for the Caribbean region.

Trachelomonas kelloggii var. effigurata Skv., J. North-China Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. Ser. 2(50):99, pl.1, fig.6. 1919.

Figs. 3 a, 10 k-l

Loricas 40-41 µm long, 38-39 µm wide. South America: Argentine and Brazil, Asia: China, Europe: France. It was cited previously by the Amazon region of Colombia (Duque 1995Duque, S. 1995. Euglenofitas pigmentadas de la Amazonia Colombiana. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 19 (75): 651-659., Duque & Nuñez Avellaneda 2000Duque, S. & Nuñez Avellaneda, M. 2000. Microalgas acuáticas de la Amazonia Colombiana. Biota Colombiana 1 (2): 208-216.). It is the first record of this variety in the Caribbean region.

Trachelomonas komarowii Skv., J. North-China Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. Ser. 2(50):98. 1919.

Figure 5 j

Loricas spherical, smooth, they presented a wider range of dimensions than those described by Huber-Pestalozzi (1955)Huber-Pestalozzi, G. 1955. Das Phytoplankton des Süβwassers. Systematik und Biologie. 4. Teil, Euglenophyceen. E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung., 15-34.5 µm in diameter. Known in Europe: Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia; North America: USA; Asia: Manchuria. It is the first record in Colombia, Caribbean and Amazon regions.

Trachelomonas lacustris Drez., Kosmos, 50:217, pl.2, fig.67. 1925.

Figure 2 g

Loricas 25.5-27 µm long, 15.5-17 µm wide. Cosmopolitan. It was cited in the Brazilian Amazon (Rodrigues 1992Rodrigues, M.S. 1992. A Comunidade Fitoplanctônica de um lago de várzea da Amazônia Central (Lago Camaleão, Ilha de Marchantaria): Variação temporal e espacial, Biomassa, composição de espécies e produtividade. Tese de Doutorado. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. Fundação Universidade de Amazonas., Menezes et al. 1995Menezes, M., Fonseca, C.G. & Nascimento, E.P. 1995. Algas de três ambientes de águas claras do município de Parintins, estado do Amazonas, Brasil: Euglenophyceae e Dinophyceae. Hoehnea 22 (1/2): 1-15.) and the Caribbean region in Cuba (Comas González, 2009Comas González, A. 2009. Catálogo de las algas y cianoprocariotas dulceacuícolas de Cuba. Cienfuegos: Editorial Universo Sur.). This is the first record for Colombia.

Trachelomonas lemmermannii var. lemmermannii Wołosz., Bull. Int. l’Acad. Sci. Crac., Cl. Sc. Mat. Nat. Ser. B, Sc. Nat: 696, fig.19D. 1912.

Figure 2 p

Loricas 21.5-23.5 µm long, 13-14 µm wide. Widespread. This species was previously cited in the Amazon region from Bolivia (Couté & Therezién 1985) and Brazil (Rodrigues 1992Rodrigues, M.S. 1992. A Comunidade Fitoplanctônica de um lago de várzea da Amazônia Central (Lago Camaleão, Ilha de Marchantaria): Variação temporal e espacial, Biomassa, composição de espécies e produtividade. Tese de Doutorado. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. Fundação Universidade de Amazonas.). In the Venezuela Caribbean region previously cited by Yacubson & Bravo (1982)Yacubson, S. & Bravo C.R. 1982-83. Especies de Trachelomonas (Euglenophyta) de algunos cuerpos de agua de los Distritos Urdaneta y Perijá (estado Zulia, Venezuela). Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas 15: 17-47.. It is the first record for Colombia.

Trachelomonas lemmermannii var. acuminata (Wołosz.) Defl., Nemours: 95, pl.7, fig.404,407-409. 1926.

Figure 3 e

The studied specimens were longer than those described by Balech (1944)Balech, E. 1944. Trachelomonas de la Argentina. Anales del Museo Argentino de Cs. Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” 41: 221-322., loricas 39-41 µm long, 17-19 µm wide. This variety differs from the type because the sides of the posterior cone are straight or concave rather than convex. Known in France and Argentina. It is the first record for Colombia and its Amazon region.

Trachelomonas megalacantha var. crenulatocollis (Da Cunha) Bourr. & Manguin, Soc. d’Edition d’Enseignement sup. 184, pl. 23, fig.322-323. 1952.

Figures 12 g-h

Loricas 48-50 µm long, 23-29 µm wide. Their ultrastructure was coincident with the described by Conforti & Nudelman (1994)Conforti, V. & Nudelman, A. 1994. Ultrastructure of lorica of Trachelomonas Ehr. from Colombian Amazonia. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 27 (4): 301-314. and Conforti (1999)Conforti, V. 1999. Taxonomic and ultrastructural study of Trachelomonas Ehr. (Euglenophyta) from subtropical Argentina. Cryptogamie Algologie 20: 167-207.. This species was only cited from South America: Argentina and Brazil. It is the first record for Colombia and the Caribbean region.

Trachelomonas molesta Defl., Rev. Algol. 3(1-2): 223, fig.74. 1928.

Figure 3 n

The loricas were smaller than those described by (Yacubson 1980Yacubson, S. 1980. The Phytoplankton of some freshwater bodies from Zulia State (Venezuela). Nova Hedwigia 23: 279-339., Yacubson & Bravo 1982-1983Yacubson, S. & Bravo C.R. 1982-83. Especies de Trachelomonas (Euglenophyta) de algunos cuerpos de agua de los Distritos Urdaneta y Perijá (estado Zulia, Venezuela). Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas 15: 17-47.), 68-69 µm long, 22-23 µm wide. Previously recorded in Venezuela and Mexico. It is the first record for Colombia.

Trachelomonas nexilis Palmer, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci: 16, pl.I, fig.1. 1925.

Figs. 5 q, 9 e-f

Loricas 18-19 µm diameter. Their ultrastructure was coincident with the described by Conforti & Tell (1986Conforti, V. & Tell, G. 1986. Ultraestructura de la loriga de Trachelomonas Ehr. (Euglenophyta) en Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido (MEB). Nova Hedwigia 43: 45-79., 1989Conforti, V. 1989. Algunos euglenoideos nuevos o interesantes de la Argentina. Cryptogamie: Algology 10(1): 69-79.), Conforti (1993aConforti, V. 1993a. Study of the Euglenophyta from Camaleâo lake (Manaus-Brazil). I. Trachelomonas Ehr. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (1): 3-18., 2010Conforti, V. 2010. Ultrastructure of the lorica of Trachelomonas species (Euglenophyta) from New Jersey, U.S.A. Algological Studies 135: 15-40.), Conforti & Pérez (2000Conforti, V. & Peréz, M.C. 2000. Euglenophyceae of Negro River, Uruguay, South America. Algological Studies 97: 59-78.), Duangjan et al. (2012)Duangjan, K., Wołowski, K. & Peerapornpisal Y. 2012. A taxonomic and ultrastructural study of Trachelomonas spp. (Euglenophyta) from agricultural area pond, Lamphun Province. Journal of Microscopy Society of Thailand 5 (1-2): 23-27.. Widespread. This species was previously cited for the Brazilian Amazon by Rodrigues (1992)Rodrigues, M.S. 1992. A Comunidade Fitoplanctônica de um lago de várzea da Amazônia Central (Lago Camaleão, Ilha de Marchantaria): Variação temporal e espacial, Biomassa, composição de espécies e produtividade. Tese de Doutorado. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. Fundação Universidade de Amazonas. and Conforti (1993a)Conforti, V. 1993a. Study of the Euglenophyta from Camaleâo lake (Manaus-Brazil). I. Trachelomonas Ehr. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (1): 3-18.. It is the first record for Colombia and the Caribbean region.

Trachelomonas nigra Swk., Arch. Hydrobiol. 9: 635, pl.19: figs.13-14. 1914

Figure 10 h

Figure 10
a-b. Trachelomonas verrucosa var. macrotuberculata, a. general view, b. apical view, showing detail of the pore, c. T. rotunda, d-e. T. parvicollis, d. general view, e. detail of the apical pore, f. T. oblonga var. australica, g. T. verrucosa var. verrucosa f. irregularis, h. T. nigra, i-j. T. hispida var. hispida, i. immature specimen, j. mature specimen, k-l. T. kelloggii var. effigurata, k. general view of the lorica, l. detail of the apical pore.

Loricas 15-20 µm long, 11-14 µm wide, broadly ellipsoid, irregularly punctuated (235/100 µm2), slightly and irregularly papillate. Pore (2.5-3 µm diam.) surrounded by an annular thickening. Widespread. This record is the first in America.

Trachelomonas oblonga var. attenuata (Lemm.) Playf., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 40: 12, pl.I, figs. 22-23. 1915.

Figure 5 v

Loricas 8.5-15 µm long, 7-9 µm wide, ovoid, smooth. Widespread. In America: Brazil and Panama. It is the first record for Colombia.

Trachelomonas oblonga var. australica (Lemm.) Playf., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 40: 12, pl.I, figs.17-21. 1915.

Figure 10 f

Loricas 14-15.5 µm long, 12-13.5 µm wide, ovoid, smooth. Pore surrounded by a very short collar (0.5-1×2.5-3 µm). This is the first time that this taxon was examined by SEM. Widespread. This variety was previously cited from the Caribbean region of Venezuela by Yacubson (1980)Yacubson, S. 1980. The Phytoplankton of some freshwater bodies from Zulia State (Venezuela). Nova Hedwigia 23: 279-339., it is the first record for Colombia.

Trachelomonas oblonga var. truncata Lemm., Abh. Naturw. Ver. Bremen, 16:344. 1899.

Figure 5 u

Loricas 10-13 µm long, 8.5-10 µm wide. Widespread. This is the first record of this variety for Colombia and the Caribbean region.

Trachelomonas parvicollis Defl., Rev. Gén. Bot. 38:704, pl.23, fig.493. 1926.

Figs. 3 l, 10 d-e

Loricas 17-19.5 µm long, 16-17 µm wide, from subspherical to broadly ellipsoidal, anterior end somewhat flattened, posterior end rounded. Pore surrounded by a neck of very characteristic shape (3-3.5×2-2.5 µm), cylindrical, right, with a wide annular thickening at its distal edge (3.5-4 µm diam.). It is the first time that this taxon was examined by SEM. It was only recorded from warm areas of Argentina, and the Caribbean region of Venezuela, this is the first record for Colombia.

Trachelomonas pisciformis Prescott, Ohio J. Sc. 55:117, pl.I, fig.20. 1955.

Figure 13 h

Loricas 43-48 µm long, 19-25 µm wide, spindle shaped, punctate, with long conical spines scattered (6-8.5 µm). Anterior end narrowed into a cylindrical collar (4.5-5.5 × 5-5.5 µm) surrounded at the distal end by a crown of 4-5 robust conical spines (6.5-7 µm long). Posterior end with a subconical tail (5.5-6 µm long) ornate with 3 spines (6.5-7 µm). Previously reported by Prescott (1955)Prescott, G.W. 1955. Algae of the Panama Canal and its tributaries I. Flagellated organisms. The Ohio Journal of Science 55 (2): 99. in the Panama Canal, this is the first registration for Colombia.

Trachelomonas planctonica var. oblonga Drez., Rozpr. Wiad. Muz. Dzieduszyckich 7/8:6,15, pl.I, fig.14. 1923.

Figures 3 c, 11 c

Loricas 24.5-28 µm long, 15-20 µm wide. Cosmopolitan. Known in America: Argentina, Venezuela, and USA. This is the first record for Colombia.

Trachelomonas pulcherrima var. minor Playf., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.N. 40:14, pl.I, figs.37-38. 1915.

Figure 2 j

Loricas 17.5-19 µm long, 9-11 µm wide. Widespread. Known in South America: Argentina, Brazil; North America: Laurentian Great Lakes and Northwest Territories in Canada. This is the first record of the variety for Colombia and the Caribbean region.

Trachelomonas pusilla var. punctata Playf., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 40: 12, pl.I, fig.27. 1915.

Figure 6 j

Loricas 13-17 µm long, 10.5-13 µm wide. Known in South America: Argentina and Brazil, Caribbean Islands: Cuba, North America: USA, Asia: Taiwan, Australia and New Zealand. This is the first record of the species for the Amazon region of Colombia.

Trachelomonas pusilla var. pusilla Playf., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 40: 12, pl.I, fig.25. 1915.

Figure 6 i

Loricas 13-17 µm long, 10.5-13 µm wide. Widespread. This is the first record of the species for the Caribbean and Amazon regions of Colombia.

Trachelomonas pyramidata Couté & Thérézien, Rev. Hydrobiol. Trop. 18(2): 115, pl.VI, figs.7-8. 1985.

Figure 4 e

Loricas trapezoidal, 35-47 µm long, the observed specimens were broader than those described by Couté & Thérézien (1985)Couté, A. & Thérézien, Y. 1985. Première contribution à l’étude des Trachelomonas (Algae, Euglenophyta) de l’Amazonie bolivienne. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 18 (2): 111-131. 48-50 µm wide. This species was only recorded in temperate regions of America: Argentina and Brazil (as T. armata var. litoralensis), Bolivia, Venezuela (as T. armata var. trapeciformis), previously registered from Colombia by Duque 1995Duque, S. 1995. Euglenofitas pigmentadas de la Amazonia Colombiana. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 19 (75): 651-659.; Duque & Nuñez Avellaneda 2000Duque, S. & Nuñez Avellaneda, M. 2000. Microalgas acuáticas de la Amazonia Colombiana. Biota Colombiana 1 (2): 208-216., this is the first record for the Caribbean region.

Trachelomonas raciborskii var. raciborskii Wołosz., Bull. Int. l’Acad. Sci. Crac., Cl. Sc. Mat. Nat. Ser. B, Sc. Nat: 696, fig.19F. 1912.

Figures. 2 l, 11 h

Loricas 32-34.5 µm long, 25.5-28 µm wide. Widespread. Previously reported in the Amazon region from Brazil (Rodrigues 1992Rodrigues, M.S. 1992. A Comunidade Fitoplanctônica de um lago de várzea da Amazônia Central (Lago Camaleão, Ilha de Marchantaria): Variação temporal e espacial, Biomassa, composição de espécies e produtividade. Tese de Doutorado. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. Fundação Universidade de Amazonas., Conforti 1993aConforti, V. 1993a. Study of the Euglenophyta from Camaleâo lake (Manaus-Brazil). I. Trachelomonas Ehr. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (1): 3-18.) and Bolivia (Couté & Thérézien 1985Couté, A. & Thérézien, Y. 1985. Première contribution à l’étude des Trachelomonas (Algae, Euglenophyta) de l’Amazonie bolivienne. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 18 (2): 111-131.). Earlier cited for the Caribbean area in Cuba (Comas González, 2009Comas González, A. 2009. Catálogo de las algas y cianoprocariotas dulceacuícolas de Cuba. Cienfuegos: Editorial Universo Sur.). This is the first record for Colombia.

Trachelomonas raciborskii var. incerta Drez. Kosmos 50(1): 221, fig. 55. 1925.

Figs. 2 o, 11 g

Loricas 28-30 µm long, 20-21 µm wide, strongly punctuated, ornate by very few and short conical spines (1-1.5 µm long) located on both ends. Pore 3-3.5 µm diam. surrounded by a fine annular thickening. The ultrastructure of the studied specimens differ from that described by Conforti & Nudelman (1994)Conforti, V. & Nudelman, A. 1994. Ultrastructure of lorica of Trachelomonas Ehr. from Colombian Amazonia. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 27 (4): 301-314., probably we observe young loricas. Known in Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela and Poland. Previously cited in the Colombian Amazon by Conforti & Nudelman (1994)Conforti, V. & Nudelman, A. 1994. Ultrastructure of lorica of Trachelomonas Ehr. from Colombian Amazonia. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 27 (4): 301-314. in materials from Lago Buutaa, Rio Cotuhé.

Trachelomonas raciborskii var. nova f. minor Hortob., Magyar. Biol. Kutatóint. Munk 15:93, pl. III, fig. 74. 1943.

Figure 2 n

Loricas 21-30 µm long, 17-24.5 µm wide, finely punctuated, ornate by short conical spines (1-1.5 µm long) distributed only around the anterior end. Pore 2.5-3 µm diam. surrounded by a fine annular thickening. This is the first time that this variety is studied by SEM. Known in Argentina, Brazil and Hungary. It is the first record for Colombia and the Caribbean region.

Trachelomonas raciborskii var. nova f. nova Drez., Kosmos 50(1):221, fig. 52. 1925.

Figure 2 m

The loricas dimensions were coincident with those indicated by Duque (1995)Duque, S. 1995. Euglenofitas pigmentadas de la Amazonia Colombiana. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 19 (75): 651-659. description, 31-33 µm long, 27-29 µm wide. Known in Argentina, Colombia and Poland. In Colombia was cited in its Amazon area by Duque (1995)Duque, S. 1995. Euglenofitas pigmentadas de la Amazonia Colombiana. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 19 (75): 651-659. and Duque & Nuñez Avellaneda (2000)Duque, S. & Nuñez Avellaneda, M. 2000. Microalgas acuáticas de la Amazonia Colombiana. Biota Colombiana 1 (2): 208-216., this is the first record for the Caribbean region.

Trachelomonas recticollis Defl., Rev. Gén. Bot. 38:703. 1926.

Figure 3 k

Loricas 19-21 µm long, 16.5-18 µm wide. Widespread. Known in South America: Argentina and Brazil.This species was previously cited in the Caribbean region of Venezuela (Yacubson & Bravo 1982-1983Yacubson, S. & Bravo C.R. 1982-83. Especies de Trachelomonas (Euglenophyta) de algunos cuerpos de agua de los Distritos Urdaneta y Perijá (estado Zulia, Venezuela). Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas 15: 17-47.), this is the first record for Colombia.

Trachelomonas robusta (Swk.) Defl., Rev. Gén. Bot. 38:657. 1926.

Figs. 6 n, 12 f

Loricas 19-23 µm long, 16-20.5 µm wide. Their ultrastructure was coincident with others previous MEB studies (Couté & Iltis 1981Couté, A. & Iltis, A. 1981. Ultraestructure stéréoscopique de la logette de Trachelomonas (Algae, Euglenophyta) récoltés en Côte d’Ivoire. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 14 (2): 115-133., Conforti & Tell 1986Conforti, V. & Tell, G. 1986. Ultraestructura de la loriga de Trachelomonas Ehr. (Euglenophyta) en Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido (MEB). Nova Hedwigia 43: 45-79., Couté & Thérézien 1985Couté, A. & Thérézien, Y. 1985. Première contribution à l’étude des Trachelomonas (Algae, Euglenophyta) de l’Amazonie bolivienne. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 18 (2): 111-131., Conforti 1993aConforti, V. 1993a. Study of the Euglenophyta from Camaleâo lake (Manaus-Brazil). I. Trachelomonas Ehr. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (1): 3-18., Conforti & Nudelman 1994Conforti, V. & Nudelman, A. 1994. Ultrastructure of lorica of Trachelomonas Ehr. from Colombian Amazonia. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 27 (4): 301-314., Conforti & Ruiz 2001Conforti, V. & Ruiz, L. 2001. Euglenophytes from Chunam reservoir (South Korea) II. Trachelomonas Ehr. Algological Studies 102: 117-145., Wołowski & Walne 2007Wołowski, K. & Walne, P. 2007. Strombomonas and Trachelomonas species (Euglenophyta) from south-eastern USA. European Journal of Phycology 42: 409-431. and Da et al. 2009Da, K.P., Mascarell, G. & Couté, A. 2009. Étude au microscope électronique à balayage du genre Trachelomonas (Euglenophyta) dans le Sud-Est de la Côte d’Ivoire (Afrique de l’Ouest). Cryptogamie Algologie 30 (1): 31-90.). Cosmopolitan. In South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. This species was previously cited in the Colombian Amazon (Duque & Nuñez Avellaneda 2000Duque, S. & Nuñez Avellaneda, M. 2000. Microalgas acuáticas de la Amazonia Colombiana. Biota Colombiana 1 (2): 208-216.), this is the first record by the Caribbean region.

Trachelomonas rotunda Swk., Arch. Hydrobiol. 9:636, pl.9, fig.19. 1914.

Figs. 6 l, 10 c

Loricas 30-34 µm long, 27-31 µm wide. Widespread. In South America: Argentina and Brazil. This species was cited for the Amazon region in Brazil (Rodrigues 1992Rodrigues, M.S. 1992. A Comunidade Fitoplanctônica de um lago de várzea da Amazônia Central (Lago Camaleão, Ilha de Marchantaria): Variação temporal e espacial, Biomassa, composição de espécies e produtividade. Tese de Doutorado. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. Fundação Universidade de Amazonas.). This is the first record for the Caribbean and Amazon regions of Colombia.

Trachelomonas rugulosa f. steinii Defl., Rev. Gén. Bot. 38:581, pl.16, fig.88. 1926.

Figs. 5 s, 9 b

The loricas studied were smaller than those studied by Conforti & Nudelman (1994)Conforti, V. & Nudelman, A. 1994. Ultrastructure of lorica of Trachelomonas Ehr. from Colombian Amazonia. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 27 (4): 301-314., 17-18 µm diam, but they showed similar ultrastructure. Known in America: Colombia; Europe: France and Austria. In the Amazon region of Colombia this forma was previously cited by Conforti & Nudelman 1994Conforti, V. & Nudelman, A. 1994. Ultrastructure of lorica of Trachelomonas Ehr. from Colombian Amazonia. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 27 (4): 301-314. and Duque & Nuñez Avellaneda 2000Duque, S. & Nuñez Avellaneda, M. 2000. Microalgas acuáticas de la Amazonia Colombiana. Biota Colombiana 1 (2): 208-216.. This is the first record for the Caribbean region.

Trachelomonas sculpta Balech, An. Mus. Argent. Cs. Nat. 41:245. fig.32, 167. 1944.

Figure 5 r

Loricas were smaller than those described by Conforti (1993a)Conforti, V. 1993a. Study of the Euglenophyta from Camaleâo lake (Manaus-Brazil). I. Trachelomonas Ehr. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (1): 3-18., 16-18 µm diameter. This species was only recorded in South America: Argentina and the Amazon region of Brazil (Rodrigues, 1992Rodrigues, M.S. 1992. A Comunidade Fitoplanctônica de um lago de várzea da Amazônia Central (Lago Camaleão, Ilha de Marchantaria): Variação temporal e espacial, Biomassa, composição de espécies e produtividade. Tese de Doutorado. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. Fundação Universidade de Amazonas.; Conforti, 1993aConforti, V. 1993a. Study of the Euglenophyta from Camaleâo lake (Manaus-Brazil). I. Trachelomonas Ehr. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (1): 3-18.). This is the first record of this species for the Caribbean and Amazon regions of Colombia.

Trachelomonas similis var. similis Stokes, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., 28:76. fig.12. 1890.

Figs. 3 f, 11 d

Loricas 23-25.5 µm long, 15-17.5 µm wide. Their ultrastructure was coincident with those described by Conforti & Tell (1986)Conforti, V. & Tell, G. 1986. Ultraestructura de la loriga de Trachelomonas Ehr. (Euglenophyta) en Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido (MEB). Nova Hedwigia 43: 45-79., Couté & Thérézien (1985)Couté, A. & Thérézien, Y. 1985. Première contribution à l’étude des Trachelomonas (Algae, Euglenophyta) de l’Amazonie bolivienne. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 18 (2): 111-131., Conforti (1993a)Conforti, V. 1993a. Study of the Euglenophyta from Camaleâo lake (Manaus-Brazil). I. Trachelomonas Ehr. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (1): 3-18., Conforti & Nudelman (1994)Conforti, V. & Nudelman, A. 1994. Ultrastructure of lorica of Trachelomonas Ehr. from Colombian Amazonia. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 27 (4): 301-314., Wołowski & Walne (2007)Wołowski, K. & Walne, P. 2007. Strombomonas and Trachelomonas species (Euglenophyta) from south-eastern USA. European Journal of Phycology 42: 409-431., Conforti (2010)Conforti, V. 2010. Ultrastructure of the lorica of Trachelomonas species (Euglenophyta) from New Jersey, U.S.A. Algological Studies 135: 15-40.. Widespread. In the Caribbean region, it was recorded for Venezuela (Yacubson & Bravo 1982-1883Yacubson, S. & Bravo C.R. 1982-83. Especies de Trachelomonas (Euglenophyta) de algunos cuerpos de agua de los Distritos Urdaneta y Perijá (estado Zulia, Venezuela). Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas 15: 17-47.) and Panama (Prescott 1955Prescott, G.W. 1955. Algae of the Panama Canal and its tributaries I. Flagellated organisms. The Ohio Journal of Science 55 (2): 99.). In the Amazon region was recorded from Bolivia (Couté & Thérézien 1985Couté, A. & Thérézien, Y. 1985. Première contribution à l’étude des Trachelomonas (Algae, Euglenophyta) de l’Amazonie bolivienne. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 18 (2): 111-131.) and Brazil (Rodrigues 1992Rodrigues, M.S. 1992. A Comunidade Fitoplanctônica de um lago de várzea da Amazônia Central (Lago Camaleão, Ilha de Marchantaria): Variação temporal e espacial, Biomassa, composição de espécies e produtividade. Tese de Doutorado. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. Fundação Universidade de Amazonas., Bittencourt-Oliveira 1997Bittencourt-Oliveira, M.C. 1997. Euglenophyceae do reservatório de Balbina, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Hoehnea 24 (1): 21-35. and Conforti 1993aConforti, V. 1993a. Study of the Euglenophyta from Camaleâo lake (Manaus-Brazil). I. Trachelomonas Ehr. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (1): 3-18.). It is the first record for Colombia.

Trachelomonas similis var. hyalina Skv., Arch. Protistenk 90:80, pl.10, fig.27. 1937.

Figure 3 g

Loricas 23-24.5 µm long, 14.5-15.5 µm wide, smooth, hyaline. This variety showed the same characteristics as the species type but without punctuations. Known by the Czech Republic, Thailand and India. This is the first record of this species for America.

Trachelomonas similis Stokes var. spinosa Hub.-Pest., Phytoplank. Süsswasser, v. 16, n. 4, p. 342, pl. 73, fig. 722a, 1955.

Figures 3 h, 11 e-f

Loricas 25-28 µm long, 15-18. 5 µm wide. Their ultrastructure was coincident with those described by Couté & Thérézien (1985)Couté, A. & Thérézien, Y. 1985. Première contribution à l’étude des Trachelomonas (Algae, Euglenophyta) de l’Amazonie bolivienne. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 18 (2): 111-131., Conforti & Tell (1986)Conforti, V. & Tell, G. 1986. Ultraestructura de la loriga de Trachelomonas Ehr. (Euglenophyta) en Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido (MEB). Nova Hedwigia 43: 45-79., Rino & Pereira (1989-1990), Conforti (1993a)Conforti, V. 1993a. Study of the Euglenophyta from Camaleâo lake (Manaus-Brazil). I. Trachelomonas Ehr. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (1): 3-18., Conforti & Nudelman (1994)Conforti, V. & Nudelman, A. 1994. Ultrastructure of lorica of Trachelomonas Ehr. from Colombian Amazonia. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 27 (4): 301-314., Conforti (1999)Conforti, V. 1999. Taxonomic and ultrastructural study of Trachelomonas Ehr. (Euglenophyta) from subtropical Argentina. Cryptogamie Algologie 20: 167-207., Conforti & Ruiz (2001)Conforti, V. & Ruiz, L. 2001. Euglenophytes from Chunam reservoir (South Korea) II. Trachelomonas Ehr. Algological Studies 102: 117-145., Wołowski & Walne (2007)Wołowski, K. & Walne, P. 2007. Strombomonas and Trachelomonas species (Euglenophyta) from south-eastern USA. European Journal of Phycology 42: 409-431., Conforti (2010)Conforti, V. 2010. Ultrastructure of the lorica of Trachelomonas species (Euglenophyta) from New Jersey, U.S.A. Algological Studies 135: 15-40.. Widespread. For the Amazon region was recorded in Bolivia (Couté & Thérézien 1985Couté, A. & Thérézien, Y. 1985. Première contribution à l’étude des Trachelomonas (Algae, Euglenophyta) de l’Amazonie bolivienne. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 18 (2): 111-131.), Brazil (Conforti 1993aConforti, V. 1993a. Study of the Euglenophyta from Camaleâo lake (Manaus-Brazil). I. Trachelomonas Ehr. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (1): 3-18.) and Tarapoto Lake, Amazonas River, Colombia (Conforti & Nudelman 1994Conforti, V. & Nudelman, A. 1994. Ultrastructure of lorica of Trachelomonas Ehr. from Colombian Amazonia. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 27 (4): 301-314.). It is the first record for the Caribbean region of Colombia.

Trachelomonas sparsesetulosa Hub.-Pest., Phytoplankton Süsswassers 4:257, fig.370. 1955.

Figure 5 o

The observed organisms were similar to those described by their author, 17-18.5 µm diameter. Known by Switzerland and India. This is the first record of this species for America, found in Pozo Hondo, Sinu River, Colombia.

Trachelomonas spectabilis Defl., Rev. Gén. Bot. 38:687, pl.19, figs.284-285. 1927.

Figure 4 h

Loricas 51-67 µm long, 31-45 µm wide. Known in North America: Laurentian Great Lakes, Asia: India, Australia and New Zealand. In the Caribbean region this species was previously cited by Presscot (1955). This is the first record for Colombia and its Amazon region.

Trachelomonas spinosa var. hirsuta Couté & Thérézien., Rev. Hydrobiol. Trop. 18(2):116, pl.III,

fig.5-8, pl. XIII, fig.4 .1985.

Figure 4 g

The observed loricas, without spines, were longer than those studied by Conforti (1993a)Conforti, V. 1993a. Study of the Euglenophyta from Camaleâo lake (Manaus-Brazil). I. Trachelomonas Ehr. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (1): 3-18., 45-47 µm long, 30-33 µm wide. This variety was described in materials from warm zones of Bolivian Amazonian (Couté & Thérézien, 1985Couté, A. & Thérézien, Y. 1985. Première contribution à l’étude des Trachelomonas (Algae, Euglenophyta) de l’Amazonie bolivienne. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 18 (2): 111-131.), Camaleāo Lake, Brazil (Conforti, 1993aConforti, V. 1993a. Study of the Euglenophyta from Camaleâo lake (Manaus-Brazil). I. Trachelomonas Ehr. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (1): 3-18.) and Chaco, Argentina (Conforti, 1999Conforti, V. 1999. Taxonomic and ultrastructural study of Trachelomonas Ehr. (Euglenophyta) from subtropical Argentina. Cryptogamie Algologie 20: 167-207.). It is the first record for Colombia.

Trachelomonas stokesii Drez. Kosmos 50(1): 222, fig. 84. 1925.

Figure 11 i

Figure 11
a-b. Trachelomonas granulosa var. subglobosa, a. general view, b. detail of the lorica ornamentation, c. T. planctonica var. oblonga, d. T. similis var. similis, e-f. T. similis var. spinosa, g. T. raciborskii var. incerta, h. T. raciborskii var. Raciborskii, i. T. stokesii.

Figure 12
a. Trachelomonas allia, b-e. T. hirta, b. general view of an immature lorica, c. detail of an immature lorica, d. general view of a mature lorica, e. detail of a mature lorica, f. T. robusta, g-h. T. megalocantha var. crenulatocollis, g. general view, h. detail of lorica ornamentation.

Figure 13
a. Trachelomonas sydneyensis var. minima, b-c. T. sydneyensis var. sydneyensis, b. general view, c. apical view, showing detail of the neck, d-e. T. gracillima, d. general view, e. detail of lorica surface, f. T. acanthophora var. acanthophora, g. T. acanthophora var. minor, h. T. pisciformis, i. T. dastuguei.

Loricas 9-22 µm long, 14-17 µm wide, ovoid, anterior end wide rounded, posterior end shaper, finely punctuated, ornate by short conical spines (1-1.5 µm long). The study of their ultrastructure showed spines longer than those present in the specimen photographed by Rino & Pereira (1989-90)Rino, J.A. & Pereira, M.J. 1989-90. Euglenophyta da região centro de Portugal. II. Género Trachelomonas Ehr. 1833 emend. Defl. 1926. II. Estrutura da lorica em microscopia electronica de varrimento. Revista Biologia Universidade de Aveiro 3: 139-187.. Pore without a neck. Widespread. Known in South América: Argentina. It is the first record for Colombia, and the Caribbean region.

Trachelomonas stokesiana var. conradi (Defl.) Hub.-Pest., Phytoplankton Süsswassers 4:265. 1955.

Figures 9 c-d

Loricas broadly ellipsoid to ovoid, they were bigger than those described by Conforti (2010)Conforti, V. 2010. Ultrastructure of the lorica of Trachelomonas species (Euglenophyta) from New Jersey, U.S.A. Algological Studies 135: 15-40. as T. conradi, 21-26 µm long, 20-23.5 µm wide. The study of their ultrastructure showed similar ornamentation than those photographed by the mentioned author, but the depressions were less pronounced. Known in América: USA; Europe: Belgium, France. It is the first record for Colombia, the Caribbean and Amazon regions.

Trachelomonas sydneyensis var. sydneyensis Playf., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 40: 22, pl. IV, figs. 15-16. 1915.

Figures 3 d, 13 b-c

Loricas 36.5-44 µm long, 23-26 µm wide. Their ultrastructure was coincident with those described by Conforti & Tell (1986)Conforti, V. & Tell, G. 1986. Ultraestructura de la loriga de Trachelomonas Ehr. (Euglenophyta) en Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido (MEB). Nova Hedwigia 43: 45-79., Conforti (1993a)Conforti, V. 1993a. Study of the Euglenophyta from Camaleâo lake (Manaus-Brazil). I. Trachelomonas Ehr. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (1): 3-18., Conforti (1999)Conforti, V. 1999. Taxonomic and ultrastructural study of Trachelomonas Ehr. (Euglenophyta) from subtropical Argentina. Cryptogamie Algologie 20: 167-207., Da et al. (2009)Da, K.P., Mascarell, G. & Couté, A. 2009. Étude au microscope électronique à balayage du genre Trachelomonas (Euglenophyta) dans le Sud-Est de la Côte d’Ivoire (Afrique de l’Ouest). Cryptogamie Algologie 30 (1): 31-90.. Widespread. This species was previously cited in the Amazon region from Brazil (Thomasson 1971Thomasson, K. 1971. Amazonian algae. Studies on South American fresh-water plankton. 8. Mémoire de l´Instute Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 86: 1-57., Rodrigues 1992Rodrigues, M.S. 1992. A Comunidade Fitoplanctônica de um lago de várzea da Amazônia Central (Lago Camaleão, Ilha de Marchantaria): Variação temporal e espacial, Biomassa, composição de espécies e produtividade. Tese de Doutorado. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. Fundação Universidade de Amazonas. and Conforti 1993aConforti, V. 1993a. Study of the Euglenophyta from Camaleâo lake (Manaus-Brazil). I. Trachelomonas Ehr. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (1): 3-18.). From the Caribbean region was previously cited by Yacubson (1980)Yacubson, S. 1980. The Phytoplankton of some freshwater bodies from Zulia State (Venezuela). Nova Hedwigia 23: 279-339. in Venezuela. This is the first record for Colombia.

Trachelomonas sydneyensis var. minima Playf., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 40: 23, pl. IV, fig. 18. 1915.

Figure 13 a

Loricas 23-25 µm long, 15.5-18 µm wide. Their ultrastructure was coincident with those described by Conforti & Tell (1989)Conforti, V. & Tell, G. 1989. Ultrastructure of the pellicle and the envelope of some euglenoid flagellates from Argentina by means of S.E.M. Nova Hedwigia 48 (1-2): 187-206., Conforti (1999)Conforti, V. 1999. Taxonomic and ultrastructural study of Trachelomonas Ehr. (Euglenophyta) from subtropical Argentina. Cryptogamie Algologie 20: 167-207., Conforti & Pérez, (2000Conforti, V. & Peréz, M.C. 2000. Euglenophyceae of Negro River, Uruguay, South America. Algological Studies 97: 59-78.), Conforti & Ruiz (2001)Conforti, V. & Ruiz, L. 2001. Euglenophytes from Chunam reservoir (South Korea) II. Trachelomonas Ehr. Algological Studies 102: 117-145., Wołowski & Walne (2007)Wołowski, K. & Walne, P. 2007. Strombomonas and Trachelomonas species (Euglenophyta) from south-eastern USA. European Journal of Phycology 42: 409-431., Conforti (2010)Conforti, V. 2010. Ultrastructure of the lorica of Trachelomonas species (Euglenophyta) from New Jersey, U.S.A. Algological Studies 135: 15-40.. Widespread. Known in America: Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and USA. This is the first record of the species for the Caribbean region and Colombia.

Trachelomonas verrucosa var. macrotuberculata (Stokes) Grandori, Bachic. R. Ist. sup. agr. Milano, 4. 1935.

Figures 10 a-b

Loricas 10-12 µm diam., pore 1.5-2 µm diam. Their ultrastructure was similar to that shown by Wołowski & Walne (2007)Wołowski, K. & Walne, P. 2007. Strombomonas and Trachelomonas species (Euglenophyta) from south-eastern USA. European Journal of Phycology 42: 409-431.. Known in Spain, Italy and the USA. This species is recorded for the first time in Colombia and its Caribbean region.

Trachelomonas verrucosa var. verrucosa f. irregularis Defl., Rev. Gén. Bot. 38:580, pl.16: fig.80. 1926.

Figure 10 g

Loricas subspherical, 16-17 µm long, 15-16 µm wide. Pore 1.5-2 µm diameter. Their ultrastructure was similar to those showed by Couté & Iltis (1981)Couté, A. & Iltis, A. 1981. Ultraestructure stéréoscopique de la logette de Trachelomonas (Algae, Euglenophyta) récoltés en Côte d’Ivoire. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 14 (2): 115-133., Rino & Pereira (1989-1990), Conforti & Joo (1994)Conforti, V. & Joo, G.J. 1994. Taxonomic and ultrastructural study of Trachelomonas Ehr. and Strombomonas Defl. (Euglenophyta) from Oxbow Lakes in Alabama and Indiana (USA). Cryptogamie Algologie 15 (4): 267-286., Conforti & Ruiz (2001)Conforti, V. & Ruiz, L. 2001. Euglenophytes from Chunam reservoir (South Korea) II. Trachelomonas Ehr. Algological Studies 102: 117-145., Da et al. (2009)Da, K.P., Mascarell, G. & Couté, A. 2009. Étude au microscope électronique à balayage du genre Trachelomonas (Euglenophyta) dans le Sud-Est de la Côte d’Ivoire (Afrique de l’Ouest). Cryptogamie Algologie 30 (1): 31-90. and Conforti (2010)Conforti, V. 2010. Ultrastructure of the lorica of Trachelomonas species (Euglenophyta) from New Jersey, U.S.A. Algological Studies 135: 15-40.. Widespread. Known in America: USA. This is the first record of the species for the Caribbean region and Colombia.

Trachelomonas volvocina var. volvocina Ehr., Abh. K. Ak. Wiss. Berlin, Physik KI: 315, pl.VII, Figures III. 1834.

Figure 5 a

Loricas spherical 15-22.5 µm diameter, smooth. Cosmopolitan. This variety was previously reported in the Amazon region of Brazil (Thomasson 1971Thomasson, K. 1971. Amazonian algae. Studies on South American fresh-water plankton. 8. Mémoire de l´Instute Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 86: 1-57., 1977Thomasson, K. 1977. Two conspicuous desmids from Amazonas. Notiser Stockholm 130: 41-51., Uherkovich y Schmidt 1974Uherkovich, G. & Schmidt, G.W. 1974. Phytoplanktontaxa in dem zentralamazonischen Schwemmlandsee Lago de Castanho. Amazoniana V: 243-283., Rodrigues 1992Rodrigues, M.S. 1992. A Comunidade Fitoplanctônica de um lago de várzea da Amazônia Central (Lago Camaleão, Ilha de Marchantaria): Variação temporal e espacial, Biomassa, composição de espécies e produtividade. Tese de Doutorado. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. Fundação Universidade de Amazonas., Menezes et al. 1995Menezes, M., Fonseca, C.G. & Nascimento, E.P. 1995. Algas de três ambientes de águas claras do município de Parintins, estado do Amazonas, Brasil: Euglenophyceae e Dinophyceae. Hoehnea 22 (1/2): 1-15., Bittencourt-Oliveira 1997Bittencourt-Oliveira, M.C. 1997. Euglenophyceae do reservatório de Balbina, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Hoehnea 24 (1): 21-35.) and in the Caribbean region of Venezuela (Yacubson 1980Yacubson, S. 1980. The Phytoplankton of some freshwater bodies from Zulia State (Venezuela). Nova Hedwigia 23: 279-339., Yacubson & Bravo 1982-1983Yacubson, S. & Bravo C.R. 1982-83. Especies de Trachelomonas (Euglenophyta) de algunos cuerpos de agua de los Distritos Urdaneta y Perijá (estado Zulia, Venezuela). Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas 15: 17-47.), Panama (Prescott 1955Prescott, G.W. 1955. Algae of the Panama Canal and its tributaries I. Flagellated organisms. The Ohio Journal of Science 55 (2): 99.) and Cuba (Comas González, 2009Comas González, A. 2009. Catálogo de las algas y cianoprocariotas dulceacuícolas de Cuba. Cienfuegos: Editorial Universo Sur.). This is the first record for Colombia.

Trachelomonas volvocina var. derephora Conrad, Ann. Biol. Lacustre 8: 201, pl.I, fig.3. 1916.

Figures 5 d, 9 g

Loricas 15-23 µm diameter, spherical, smooth. Collar 1.5-2×4.5-5 µm. Their ultrastructure was coincident with those described by (Conforti 1993aConforti, V. 1993a. Study of the Euglenophyta from Camaleâo lake (Manaus-Brazil). I. Trachelomonas Ehr. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (1): 3-18., 1999Conforti, V. 1999. Taxonomic and ultrastructural study of Trachelomonas Ehr. (Euglenophyta) from subtropical Argentina. Cryptogamie Algologie 20: 167-207.; Wołowski & Walne 2007Wołowski, K. & Walne, P. 2007. Strombomonas and Trachelomonas species (Euglenophyta) from south-eastern USA. European Journal of Phycology 42: 409-431.; Da et al. 2009; Conforti 2010Conforti, V. 2010. Ultrastructure of the lorica of Trachelomonas species (Euglenophyta) from New Jersey, U.S.A. Algological Studies 135: 15-40.). Widespread. This variety was previously cited in the Caribbean region for Venezuela (Yacubson 1980Yacubson, S. 1980. The Phytoplankton of some freshwater bodies from Zulia State (Venezuela). Nova Hedwigia 23: 279-339., Yacubson & Bravo 1982-1983Yacubson, S. & Bravo C.R. 1982-83. Especies de Trachelomonas (Euglenophyta) de algunos cuerpos de agua de los Distritos Urdaneta y Perijá (estado Zulia, Venezuela). Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas 15: 17-47.), Cuba (Comas González, 2009Comas González, A. 2009. Catálogo de las algas y cianoprocariotas dulceacuícolas de Cuba. Cienfuegos: Editorial Universo Sur.) and the Amazon region of Brazil (Rodrigues 1992Rodrigues, M.S. 1992. A Comunidade Fitoplanctônica de um lago de várzea da Amazônia Central (Lago Camaleão, Ilha de Marchantaria): Variação temporal e espacial, Biomassa, composição de espécies e produtividade. Tese de Doutorado. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. Fundação Universidade de Amazonas., Conforti 1993aConforti, V. 1993a. Study of the Euglenophyta from Camaleâo lake (Manaus-Brazil). I. Trachelomonas Ehr. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (1): 3-18.). It is the first record for Colombia.

Trachelomonas volvocina var. punctata Playf., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 40: 9, pl. I, fig. 2. 1915.

Figure 5 c

Loricas 15-18.5 µm diameter. Widespread. This variety was previously cited in the Amazon region from Brazil (Rodrigues 1992Rodrigues, M.S. 1992. A Comunidade Fitoplanctônica de um lago de várzea da Amazônia Central (Lago Camaleão, Ilha de Marchantaria): Variação temporal e espacial, Biomassa, composição de espécies e produtividade. Tese de Doutorado. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. Fundação Universidade de Amazonas., Conforti 1993aConforti, V. 1993a. Study of the Euglenophyta from Camaleâo lake (Manaus-Brazil). I. Trachelomonas Ehr. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 26 (1): 3-18.) and Colombia (Duque & Nuñez Avellaneda 2000Duque, S. & Nuñez Avellaneda, M. 2000. Microalgas acuáticas de la Amazonia Colombiana. Biota Colombiana 1 (2): 208-216.). This is the first record for the Caribbean region.

Trachelomonas volvocina var. scutella Schiller, Arch. Protistenk. 56(1):32, fig.28b. 1926.

Figure 5 b

Loricas 14.5-16 µm diameter. This variety presents an anterior slit surrounded by a thin, short neck. Known for South America: Brazil; Europe: Belgium and Germany; Asia: Indonesia. This variety is recorded for the first time for Colombia and the Caribbean region.

Trachelomonas volvocinopsis var. volvocinopsis Swk., Arch. Hydrobiol. Planktonic., 9:633. pl. 19. Figs. 1-3. 1914.

Figure 5 e

Loricas spherical 13-22 µm diameter, smooth. This variety was previously cited in the Amazon region from Bolivia (Couté & Thérézien 1985Couté, A. & Thérézien, Y. 1985. Première contribution à l’étude des Trachelomonas (Algae, Euglenophyta) de l’Amazonie bolivienne. Revue d’hydrobiologie Tropicale 18 (2): 111-131.), Brazil (Rodrigues 1992Rodrigues, M.S. 1992. A Comunidade Fitoplanctônica de um lago de várzea da Amazônia Central (Lago Camaleão, Ilha de Marchantaria): Variação temporal e espacial, Biomassa, composição de espécies e produtividade. Tese de Doutorado. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. Fundação Universidade de Amazonas.) and Colombia (Duque & Nuñez Avellaneda 2000Duque, S. & Nuñez Avellaneda, M. 2000. Microalgas acuáticas de la Amazonia Colombiana. Biota Colombiana 1 (2): 208-216.). This taxon was cited in the Caribbean region by Yacubson (1980)Yacubson, S. 1980. The Phytoplankton of some freshwater bodies from Zulia State (Venezuela). Nova Hedwigia 23: 279-339. for Venezuela and by Comas González (2009)Comas González, A. 2009. Catálogo de las algas y cianoprocariotas dulceacuícolas de Cuba. Cienfuegos: Editorial Universo Sur. for Cuba. It is recorded for the first time in Colombia.

Trachelomonas volvocinopsis var. coronata (Skv.) Bourr., Hub.-Pest. Phytoplank. Süsswasser 4:260. 1955.

Figure 5 f

Loricas spherical, 18-19.5 µm diameter. This taxon was registered in India and Burma. It is their first record for America, it was found in the Sinú River, Caribbean region of Colombia.

Trachelomonas volvocinopsis f. punctata (Roll) Pop., Opred. Presnov. Vodor. USSR 7:85, pl. I, fig. 19. 1955.

Figure 5 h

Loricas 17-21 µm diameter. Known in South America: Argentina and Brazil; Europe: Netherlands; Australia. This variety was previously cited in Antilles (Guadeloupe Island by Bourrelly & Manguin 1952Bourrelly, P. & Manguin, E. 1952. Algues d’eau douce de la Guadeloupe et dépendances. Paris, Société d’Edition d’Enseignement Supérieur.) and the Amazon region of Brazil (Rodrigues 1992Rodrigues, M.S. 1992. A Comunidade Fitoplanctônica de um lago de várzea da Amazônia Central (Lago Camaleão, Ilha de Marchantaria): Variação temporal e espacial, Biomassa, composição de espécies e produtividade. Tese de Doutorado. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. Fundação Universidade de Amazonas., Menezes et al. 1995Menezes, M., Fonseca, C.G. & Nascimento, E.P. 1995. Algas de três ambientes de águas claras do município de Parintins, estado do Amazonas, Brasil: Euglenophyceae e Dinophyceae. Hoehnea 22 (1/2): 1-15.). It is the first record for Colombia.

Trachelomonas volvocinopsis var. tubigera (Skv.) Bourr. Hub.-Pest. Phytoplank. Süsswasser 4: 254. 1955.

Figure 5 g

Loricas 20-21.5 µm diam. This variety was previously cited in India and Burma. It is their first record for America; from Purísima and Pozo Hondo, Sinu River, Colombia.

Trachelomonas woycickii var. woycickii Koczwara, Kosmos 40(7-12):260, pl.1, fig.10. 1915.

Figure 5 m

Loricas spherical, 20-29.5 µm diameter. Widespread. This is the first record for Colombia and the Caribbean region.

Trachelomonas woycickii var. pusilla Drez., Kosmos 50(1):225, fig.15. 1925.

Figure 5 n

Loricas 11.5-16.5 µm diam. Widespread. This is the first record for Colombia and the Caribbean region.

Discussion

The tychoplanktonic algae community present in the Sinú River was composed of 78 taxa belonging to Trachelomonas (67) and Strombomonas (11). In addition, the same community in Putumayo River and its basin presented 36 taxa belonging to Trachelomonas (32) and Strombomonas (4). Only two species integrated this community in the Ortegüaza and Caqueta basins. Fifty-three taxa were found exclusively in the Sinú River. In the Amazonian region, 11 taxa were found exclusively in Putumayo River and its basin, and 3 in the Orteguaza and Caqueta basins.

The phytoplanktonic community in the Sinú River was composed of 78 taxa belonging to Trachelomonas (67) and Strombomonas (11). The same community in Putumayo River and its basin was composed of 56 taxa belonging to Trachelomonas (49) and Strombomonas (7). In Orteguaza and Caqueta basins the phytoplanktonic community was represented by only 8 taxa belonging to genus Trachelomonas. In the Magdalena River no euglenoids were found.

Table 2 lists the total taxa found in the materials studied. Among the taxa described for the first time seventy-nine were from Colombia, seventeen and sixty were from the Amazonian and Caribbean regions respectively. Six species were recorded for the first time in America: T. nigra was found in La Herradura (Putumayo River), T. diploperforata in Barbudo (Sinú River), T. similis var. hyalina, T. sparsesetulosa and T. volvocinopsis var. coronata in Pozo Hondo (Sinú River) and T. volvocinopsis var. tubigera in Purísima and Pozo Hondo (Sinú River).

Among the total studied taxa, 46 were examined and photographed by scanning electron microscopy, 9 of them were studied for the first time: S. acuminata var. deflandreana, S. girardiana, S. globulosa, S. lanceolata, S. schauinslandii var. schauinslandii, T. acanthophora var. acanthophora, T. oblonga var. australica, T. parvicollis and T. raciborskii var. nova f. minor.

The present work provides a taxonomic survey of species previously recorded in studies developed in the Amazon and Caribbean regions and greatly increases the knowledge of its biodiversity. Additionally, new taxonomic data such as new metric limits and ultrastructural details of the loricas are described.

Although the Euglenophyta are better represented in the phytoplankton community, this work shows clearly that its biodiversity is underestimated if the tychoplankton community is not also included.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the projects PIP CONICET Nº 11220130100674 and UBACYT 01/W290. Res. (CS) N°2657/11 granted to Dr. Visitación Conforti. The sampling was supported by Urrá SA-ESP, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana Seccional Montería, ECOPETROL-ICP 2001, Ramsar Convention, the Small Grants Fund, Project SGF/00/COL/, INADE (Perú), Sinchi (Colombia), UNAL Amazonia, Natura Foundation and Natural Conservancy International.

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Edited by

Associate Editor: Gisele Marquardt

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    01 Mar 2024
  • Date of issue
    2024

History

  • Received
    11 Sept 2023
  • Accepted
    17 Nov 2023
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