New records of Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs in lotic environment, adjacent to the Iguaçu National Park, Paraná State, Brazil

Camila Akemy Nabeshima Aquino Norma Catarina Bueno Liliane Caroline Servat Jascieli Carla Bortolini About the authors

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to document the Cosmarium (Desmiadiales, Zygnematophyceae) taxa at a subtropical stream located in an area adjacent to the Iguaçu National Park, an important environmental protection area in the further west of Paraná State. For this purpose, monthly samplings of periphytic material associated to Eleocharis minima Kunth were performed in the period of August 2012 to July 2013. This taxonomic inventory allowed the identification of 37 taxa at specific and infra-specific levels. There were 15 new records for Paraná State: Cosmarium bipunctatum Börgensen, C. clepsydra Nordstedt var. bicardia (Reinsch) Croasdale, C. crenatum var. crenatum Ralfs, C. difficile Lütkemüller var. dilatatum Borge, C. isthmochondrum var. isthmochondrum Nordstedt, C.obsoletum (Hantzsch) Reinsch var. obsoletum, C. ordinatum (Borge) West & West var. ordinatum, C.ornatum Ralfs var. ornatum f. ornatum, C. pseudoconnatum Nordstedt var. pluriradians Scott & Grönblad, C. pseudoretusum F. Ducell. var. pseudoretusum Krieger et Gerlof, C. pyramidatum var. borgei Krieger & Gerloff, C. regnellii var. minimum Eichler & Gutwinski, C. repandum var. minus (West & West) Krieger & Gerloff, C. securiforme Borge var. brasiliense Grönblad and C. variolatum var. variolatum Lundell.

Keywords:
Biogeography; desmids; stream; taxonomy; Zygnematophyceae

RESUMO

Este estudo objetivou documentar os táxons do gênero Cosmarium (Desmiadiales, Zygnematophyceae) em um riacho subtropical localizado em área adjacente ao Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, importante área de proteção ambiental no extremo oeste do Estado do Paraná. Para isso, foram realizadas amostragens mensais de material perifítico associado a Eleocharis minima Kunth no período de agosto de 2012 a julho de 2013. Este inventário taxonômico possibilitou a identificação de 37 táxons em nível específico e infra-específico. Foram 15 as novas ocorrências para o Estado do Paraná: Cosmarium bipunctatum Börgensen, C. clepsidra Nordstedt var. bicardia (Reinsch) Croasdale, C. crenatum var. crenatum Ralfs, C. difficile Lütkemüller var. dilatatum Borge, C. isthmochondrum var. isthmochondrum Nordstedt, C.obsoletum (Hantzsch) Reinsch var. obsoletum, C. ordinatum (Borge) West & West var. ordinatum, C.ornatum Ralfs var. ornatum f. ornatum, C. pseudoconnatum Nordstedt var. pluriradians Scott & Grönblad, C. pseudoretusum F. Ducell. var. pseudoretusum Krieger et Gerlof, C. pyramidatum var. borgei Krieger & Gerloff, C. regnellii var. minimum Eichler & Gutwinski, C. repandum var. minus (West & West) Krieger & Gerloff, C. securiforme Borge var. brasiliense Grönblad e C. variolatum var. variolatum Lundell.

Palavras-chave:
Biogeografia; desmídias; riacho; taxonomia; Zygnematophyceae

Introduction

The Zygnematophyceae Class is the biggest and most diverse algae group of the Streptophyta lineage (Gontcharov & Melkonian 2005Gontcharov, A.A. & Melkonian, M. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of Staurastrum Meyen ex Ralfs and related genera (Zygnemathophyceae, Streotophyta) based on coding and noncoding rDNA sequence comparisons. Journal of Phycology 41: 887-899.), encompassing organisms characterized by the absence of flagellated cells in its life cycle, besides presenting sexual reproduction through conjugation. It comprehends two Orders: Zygnematales and Desmidiales (Hoek et al.1995Hoek ,C., Mann, D.G. & Jahns, H.M. 1995. Algae: An introduction to phycology. Cambridge: University Press Cambridge., Bicudo et al. 2014Bicudo, C.E.M., Azevedo, M.T.P. & Castro, A.A.J. 2014. Flora Ficológica do Estado de São Paulo: Zygnemaphyceae. Rima, São Carlos.).

Desmidiales, popularly known as desmids, are microscopic green algae, which stand out mainly by its specific richness, distributed in a cosmopolitan way, so they can be found in plankton, periphyton or metaphyton (Coesel 1982Coesel, P.F.M. 1982. Structural characteristics and adaptations of desmids communities. Journal of Ecology 70: 163-177., Margalef 1983Margalef, R. 1983. Limnologia. Barcelona: Omega, Felisberto & Rodrigues 2002Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2002. Desmidiales (exceto o gênero Cosmarium) perifíticas no reservatório de Corumbá, Goiás, Brasil. Iheringia - Série Botanica 57: 75-97., Felisberto & Rodrigues 2008Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2008. Desmidiaceae, Gonatozygaceae e Mesotaeniaceae na comunidade perifítica do reservatório de Salto do Vau (Bacia do rio Iguaçu, PR). Hoehnea 35: 235-254., Menezes et al. 2011bMenezes, V.C., Bueno, N.C., Bortolini, J.C., Biolo, S. & Siqueira, N.S. 2011b. O gênero Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae) no Reservatório de Itaipu, PR, Brasil. Hoehnea 38: 483-493.). They comprehend a group of high morphological diversity and great ecological importance in the continental aquatic ecosystems, acting as biological indicators (Coesel 2001Coesel, P.F.M. 2001. A method for quantifying conservation value in lentic freshwater habitats using desmids as indicator organisms. Biodiversity and Conservation 10: 177-187., Šťastný 2009Šťastný, J. 2009. The desmids of the Swamp Nature Reserve (North Bohemia, Czech Republic) and a small neighboring bog: species composition and ecological condition of both sites. Fottea 9: 135-148.). They present as mainly characteristics two identical semi cells formed by a median constriction and the isthmus, with cell wall morphologically diverse, rich in ornamentations, such as granules, spinules, pores or processes (Hoek et al. 1995Hoek ,C., Mann, D.G. & Jahns, H.M. 1995. Algae: An introduction to phycology. Cambridge: University Press Cambridge.). The Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs genus is one of the oldest and largest in number of taxa described (ca. 1500 species) to the Desmidiales Order, its representatives having preference by environments with acid oligo- to eutrophic waters (Bicudo & Menezes 2006Bicudo, C.E.M. & Menezes, M. 2006. Gêneros de algas deáguas continentais do Brasil: chave para identificação e descrições. 2 ed. Rima, São Carlos.).

For the Paraná State 26 studies have contributed to the desmids knowledge until the present moment: Bittencourt-Oliveira (1993aBittencourt-Oliveira, M.C. 1993a. Ficoflórula do Rio Tibagi, Estado do Paraná, Brasil I: Desmídias Filamentosas e Gêneros Gonatozygon, Penium, Pleurotaenium e Tetmemorus (Zygnemaphyceae). Semina Ciências Biológicas 14: 61-73., b)Bittencourt-Oliveira, M.C. 1993b. Ficoflórula do Rio Tibagi, Estado do Paraná, Brasil III: gêneros Actinotaenium, Cosmarium e Staurodesmus (Zygnemaphyceae). Semina Ciências Biológicas 14: 86-95., Bittencourt-Oliveira & Castro (1993)Bittencourt-Oliveira, M.C. & Castro, A.A.J. 1993. Ficoflórula do Rio Tibagi, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, II: gênero Closterium (Zygnemaphyceae). Semina Ciências Biológicas 14: 74-85., Cecy (1993)Cecy, I.I.T. 1993. Estudo das Algas Microscópicas (Nostocophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Chrysophyceae e Chlorophyceae) do Lago do Parque Barigüi, Curitiba, Estado do Paraná, Brasil Arquivo Biológico e Tecnológico 29: 383-405., Bittencourt- Oliveira & Mecenas (1994)Bittencourt-Oliveira, M.C. & Mecenas, P.R. 1994. Ficoflórula do Rio Tibagi, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, IV: gêneros Micrasterias, Staurastrum e Xanthidium (Zygnemaphyceae). Semina Ciências Biológicas 15: 133-152., Cecy et al. (1997)Cecy, I.I.T, Silva, S.R.V.F. & Boccon, R. 1997. Fitoplâncton da Represa do Rio Passaúna, Município de Araucária, Estado do Paraná. I - Divisão Chlorophyta - Família Desmidiaceae. Estudos de Biologia 41: 5-32., Picelli-Vicentim (2001)Picelli-Vicentim, M.M., Treuersch, M. & Domingues, L.L. 2001. Fitoplâncton da Represa do Passaúna, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 28: 53-76, Cetto et al. (2004)Cetto, J.M., Leandrini, J.A., Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2004. Comunidade de algas perifíticas no reservatório de Iraí, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences 26: 1-7., Silva & Cecy (2004)Silva, S.R.V.F. & Cecy, I.I.T. 2004. Desmídias (Zygnemaphyceae) da área de abrangência da Usina Hidrelétrica de Salto Caxias, Paraná, Brasil, I: Gênero Cosmarium. Iheringia - Série Botânica 59: 13-26., Biolo et al. (2008Biolo, S., Siqueira, N.S. & Bueno, N.C. 2008. Desmidiaceae (exceto Cosmarium) de um tributário do Reservatório de Itaipu, Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 35: 145-162., 2013)Biolo, S., Bueno, N.C., Siqueira, N.S. & Moresco, C. 2013. New records of Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae, Zygnematophyceae) in a tributary of the Itaipu Reservoir, Paraná, Brazil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 27: 1-12., Felisberto & Rodrigues (2007Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2007. Gênero Closterium (Closteriaceae) na comunidade perifítica do Reservatório de Salto do Vau, sul do Brasil. Iheringia - Série Botanica 62: 45-54., 2008Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2008. Desmidiaceae, Gonatozygaceae e Mesotaeniaceae na comunidade perifítica do reservatório de Salto do Vau (Bacia do rio Iguaçu, PR). Hoehnea 35: 235-254., 2010bFelisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2010b. Cosmarium (Desmidiaceae, Zygnemaphyceae) da ficoflórula perifítica do reservatório, bacia do rio Paranapanema, Paraná/São Paulo, Brasil. Hoehnea 37: 267-292., 2013Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2013 GênerosStaurastrum Meyen ex Ralfs e Staurodesmus Teiling na comunidade perifítica do Reservatório de Rosana, Paraná/São Paulo, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Biociências 11: 64-75., 2014)Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2014. Taxonomical and ecological characteristics of the desmids placoderms in reservoir: analyzing the spatial and temporal distribution. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia 26: 392-403., Moresco et al. (2009)Moresco, C., Biolo, S. & Bueno, N.C. 2009. O gênero Micrasterias Agardh ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae, Zygnemaphyceae) em um lago artificial urbano, Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 36: 349-358., Bortolini et al. (2008Bortolini, J.C., Moresco, C., Siqueira, N.S., Biolo, S., Meurer, T. & Bueno, N.C. 2008. Desmidiaceae do Lago Municipal de Cascavel, Paraná, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Biociências 6: 19-21., 2009Bortolini, J.C., Moresco, C., Siqueira, N.S., Biolo, S. & Bueno, N.C. 2009. Closterium Nitzsch ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae) em um lago artificial urbano, Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 36: 445-454., 2010aBortolini, J.C., Meurer, T. & Bueno, N.C. 2010a. Desmidias (Zygnemaphyceae) do Rio São João, Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 37: 293-313.,b)Bortolini, J.C., Bueno, N.C., Moresco, C., Biolo, S. & Siqueira, N.S. 2010b. Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae) em um lago artificial urbano, Paraná, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Biociências 8: 229-237., Menezes et al. (2011aMenezes, V.C., Bueno, N.C. & Bortolini, J.C. 2011a. Composição florística de Desmidiales (exceto Cosmarium) em um lago subtropical brasileiro. Revista Brasileira de Biociências 9: 465-476., bMenezes, V.C., Bueno, N.C., Bortolini, J.C., Biolo, S. & Siqueira, N.S. 2011b. O gênero Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae) no Reservatório de Itaipu, PR, Brasil. Hoehnea 38: 483-493., 2013)Menezes, V.C., Bueno, N.C., Sobjak, T.M., Bortolini, J.C. & Temponi, L.G. 2013. Zygnemaphyceae associada à Utricularia foliosa L. no Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brasil. Iheringia Série Botânica 68: 5-26., Aquino et al.(2014)Aquino, C.A.N., Bueno, N.C. & Menezes, V.C. 2014. Desmidioflórula (Zygnemaphyceae, Desmidiales) do rio Cascavel, Oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 41: 365-392. and Carvalho et al. (2015)Carvalho, J.K., Burack, C. & Moresco, C. 2015. Cosmarium (Zygnemaphyceae) de um lago do parque municipal Joaquim Teodoro de Oliveira, Campo Mourão-PR. Sabios: Saúde e Biologia 10: 01-13.. Among them, only four comprise exclusively the Cosmarium genus: Felisberto & Rodrigues (2010b)Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2010b. Cosmarium (Desmidiaceae, Zygnemaphyceae) da ficoflórula perifítica do reservatório, bacia do rio Paranapanema, Paraná/São Paulo, Brasil. Hoehnea 37: 267-292., Menezes et al. (2011b)Menezes, V.C., Bueno, N.C., Bortolini, J.C., Biolo, S. & Siqueira, N.S. 2011b. O gênero Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae) no Reservatório de Itaipu, PR, Brasil. Hoehnea 38: 483-493., Biolo et al. (2013)Biolo, S., Bueno, N.C., Siqueira, N.S. & Moresco, C. 2013. New records of Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae, Zygnematophyceae) in a tributary of the Itaipu Reservoir, Paraná, Brazil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 27: 1-12. and Carvalho et al. (2015)Carvalho, J.K., Burack, C. & Moresco, C. 2015. Cosmarium (Zygnemaphyceae) de um lago do parque municipal Joaquim Teodoro de Oliveira, Campo Mourão-PR. Sabios: Saúde e Biologia 10: 01-13..

Thus, due the importance of floristic studies about the Paranaense desmid flora, and the knowledge about the biogeographic distribution of the taxon in continental aquatic environments, besides the great species diversity within Cosmarium, this study aimed to taxonomically document the occurrence of the taxa belonging to this genus in a subtropical stream, area adjacent to the Iguaçu National Park, an important environmental protection area located in the further west of Paraná State.

Material and methods

The study was carried out in the Tenente João Gualberto stream, an important tributary of the lower Iguaçu River hydrographic basin, located at São Miguel do Iguaçu municipality (25º20'S and 54º14'W), further west of Paraná. This stream is situated in an area adjacent to the Iguaçu National Park Conservation Unit. This region has Cfa climate (humid temperate with hot summer), humid-mesothermal subtropical, with well-defined summer and winter periods, besides having rainfalls well distributed during the year (Álvares et al. 2014Alvares, C.A., Stape, J.L., Sentelhas, P.C., Gonçalves, J.L.M. & Sparovek, G. 2014. Köppen’s climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorologische Zeitschrift 22: 711-728.). The sampling station (figure 1) has a narrow stretch, approximately 3.4 m wide between margins, about 20 cm depth. The area presents approximately 2 m of riparian vegetation in its surroundings.

Figure 1
Location of the sampling station in the Tenente João Gualberto stream, Paraná, Brazil.

The biological material was collected in the period between August 2012 and July 2013, comprehending 12 samplings. The periphytic material was collected from the aquatic macrophyte Eleocharis minima Kunth, and removed with the help of a brush and distilled water jets. Samples were preserved in 1:1 Transeau solution, according to Bicudo & Menezes (2006)Bicudo, C.E.M. & Menezes, M. 2006. Gêneros de algas deáguas continentais do Brasil: chave para identificação e descrições. 2 ed. Rima, São Carlos.. The biological material is deposited in the State University of West Paraná Herbarium, Cascavel campus (UNOP-Algae).

For the qualitative analysis, an average of 15 slides per sample were prepared. Morphometric and photographic analysis of microalgae were performed in a trinocular microscope with infinite correction optics, Olympus model CX31, with camera attached. Systematic and taxonomic framework for identified taxa was performed based in the classic literature (e.g., Prescott et al. 1981Prescott, G.W., Croasdale, H.T., Vinyard, W.C. & Bicudo, C.E.M. 1981. A Synopsis of North American Desmids: part II. Desmidiaceae: Placodermae. Section 2-3. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.), as well as in specialized scientific papers of the area.

The measures (in µm) are represented by the symbols L - length, W- width and I - isthmus. The geographic distribution for the Paraná State and morphometric data were recorded to all taxa. Descriptions were made just for the first taxa cited for the State. Comments were elaborated when deemed necessary.

Results and Discussion

The taxonomic assessment of the genus Cosmarium allowed the identification of 37 taxa. These, 15 taxa are new records for the State of Paraná.

Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs

Artificial key to identify the Cosmarium taxa found in the analyzed samples. Cell size followed detail the categories proposed by Araújo & Bicudo (2006)Araújo, A. & Bicudo, C.E.M. 2006. Criptógamos do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, São Paulo, SP. Algas, 22: Zygnemaphyceae (gêneros Actinotaenium, Cosmarium e Heimansia). Hoehnea 33: 219-237.. Taxa with asterisk are new records.

  1. 1. Cell wall smooth, finely or diminutively punctuate

    1. 2. Circular, semicircular, elliptical, subelliptical or oval semicells

      1. 3. Cells with different L:W ratio

        1. 4. Cells wider than long

          1. 5. Open or shallow median sinus, basal angles acute ending in a short bifurcation ....................................................................................................................................... C. securiforme var. brasiliense*

          2. 5. Median sinus closed, basal angles mamillately thickened ........................ C. obsoletum var. obsoletum*

        2. 4. Cells longer than wide

          1. 6. Median sinus open or shallow

            1. 7. Cells of small (6-20 µm) to median size (21-35 µm) ....................... C. moniliforme var. moniliforme

            2. 7. Cells of large size (>35 µm)

              1. 8. Cells with parietal chloroplasts with 4 lobes in each semicell, one pyrenoid .............................................................................................................. C. pseudoconnatum var. pseudoconnatum

              2. 8. Cells with parietal chloroplasts with 6 lobes in each semicell, two to three pyrenoids ........................................................................................................ C. pseudoconnatum var. pluriradians*

          2. 6. Median sinus closed

            1. 9. Semicells with 1 pyrenoid

              1. 10. Cells of medium-sized (21-35 µm) with rounded apex and two large tuberculations on both sides .................................................................... C. mamilliferum var. mamilliferum

              2. 10. Cells small (6-20 µm) with apex narrow, flattened and slightly retuse ...................................................................................................................................................... C. laeve var. leave

            2. 9. Semicells with 2 pyrenoids

              1. 11. Cells of large size (>35 µm) with thickened cell wall and visible pore canals .................................................................................................................. C. pachydermum var. pachydermum

              2. 11. Cells of medium size (21-35 µm) with undulate cell wall .................... C. dispersum f. dispersum

      2. 3. Cells about as long as wide

        1. 12. Cells with protrusion, median inflation ........................................................ C. clepsydra var. bicardia*

        2. 12. Cells without protrusion, median inflation

          1. 13. Cells of small size (6-20 µm), truncate apex, cell wall smooth, chloroplast with 1

            pyrenoid ............................................................................................... C. abbreviatum var. minus

          2. 13. Cells of large size (>35 µm), truncate-rounded apex, wall finely punctate with two

            pyrenoids ......................................................................................... C. candianum var. candianum

    2. 2. Semicells shaped otherwise

      1. 14. Pyramidal and trilobed semicells

        1. 15. Cells of small (6-20 µm) to medium size (21-35 µm) ................................ C. granatum var. granatum

        2. 15. Cells of large size (>35 µm)

          1. 16. Narrow and rounded apex, closed sinus, rounded angles

            1. 17. Cells with conical protuberance in the median portion, wall diminutively punctate ......................

              .................................................................................................... C. pyramidatum var. borgei*

            2. 17. Cells without protuberance in the median portion, wall finely punctate .................................

              ................................................................... C. pseudopyramidatum var. pseudopyramidatum

          2. 16. Broad apex, closed sinus, rounded angles

            1. 18. Trilobed semicells with strong basal angles bearing a small papilla on both sides

              of the semicell .......................................................... C. pseudoretusum var. pseudoretusum*

            2. 18. Trilobed semicells with basal lobes strongly projected, irregularly 3-ondulate,

              basal papilla absent ............................................................ C. pseudoretusum var. africanum

      2. 14. Trapeziform, subtrapeziform, rhomboid or quadrangular semicells

        1. 19. Cells about as long as wide

          1. 20. Median sinus open, small cells (6-20 µm), subtrapeziform, small papilla in the

            superior angles of the semicell .................................................. C. sphagnicolum var. sphagnicolum

          2. 20. Median sinus closed, small hexagonal trapeziform cells (6-20 µm) ......... C. regnelli var. minimum*

        2. 19. Cells with different L: W ratio

          1. 21. Rhomboid cells, closed sinus, semicell face with 3 transversal rows of visible

            pores ................................................................................................... C. difficile var. dilatatum*

          2. 21. Oblong-trapeziform cells, median sinus linear, truncate apex and divergent lateral

            margins ................................................................................................ C. repandum var. minus*

  2. 1. Ornamented cell wall

    1. 22. Semicircular, subsemicircular, elliptic, semielliptic or oval semicells

      1. 23. Median sinus open or shallow

        1. 24. Cells of small (6-20 µm) to medium size (21-35 µm), sinus very wide and shallow, isthmus elongated, cell wall granulate ................................................... C. excavatum var. excavatum

        2. 24. Cells of medium (21-35 µm) to large size (>35 µm)

          1. 25. Cells longer than wide, sinus with acute angle, opening outwards, margin granular-undulate, cell wall ornamented with verrucae .................................. C. ordinatum var. ordinatum*

          2. 25. Cells wider than long, sinus open and U-shaped within, margin granulate spine-like, midregion with prominent inflation ............................................... C. lagoense var. amoebum

      2. 23. Median sinus closed

        1. 26. Cells ornamented with tubercles, truncate apex, a pair of prominent granules within the apical margin, two pyrenoids per semicell ........................ C. isthmochondrum var. isthmochondrum*

        2. 26. Cell wall densely scrobiculate, subretuse apex, one pyrenoid per semicell ............................................................................................................................................. C. variolatum var. variolatum*

    2. 22. Semicells shaped otherwise

      1. 27. Reniform and subretangular cells

        1. 28. Cells of medium size (21-35µm) with linear sinus, retuse and truncate apex, cell wall with marginal granules, median region with a prominent granulate inflation ................................................................................................................................................... C. ornatum var. ornatum*

        2. 28. Cell of large size (>35 µm)

          1. 29. Subretangular cells, about as long as wide, linear sinus, rounded angles, straight apex, cell wall densely granulate ............................................................... C. quadrum var. minus

          2. 29. Subretangular cells with different C:L ratio (longer than wide)

            1. 30. Cells measuring approximately: 60-105 µm length, 56-82 µm width, isthmus 19-31 µm, linear sinus, truncate apex, cell wall uniformly granulate ................................................................................................... C. margaritatum var. margaritatum f. margaritatum

            2. 30. Cells measuring approximately: 44-60 µm length, 38-51 µm width., isthmus 12-19 µm, linear sinus, truncate apex, cell wall uniformly granulates ................................................................................................. C. margaritatum var. margaritatum f. minor

      2. 27. Cells shaped otherwise

        1. 31. Trilobular cells with linear sinus, dilated apex with rounded angles, granulate cell wall, semicell with a median region inflated ..................................... C. protractum var. protractum

        2. 31. Pyramidal and trapeziform cell

          1. 32. Trapeziform cells, about as long as wide, constriction deep, closed sinus, margin undulate, 2 granules, transversely disposed in the center of the semicell ..................................................................................................................................... C. bipunctatum var. bipunctatum*

          2. 32. Cells with different L:W ratio (longer than wide)

            1. 33. Trapeziform cells of small size (6-20 µm), closed sinus, truncate apex, 2 to 4-undulate, one large granule in the center of each semicell .......................... C. blyttii var. blyttii

            2. 33. Cell of medium (21-35µm) to large size (>35µm)

              1. 34. Pyramidal cells of medium size (21-35 µm), truncate apex, lateral margin with 3 to 4-undulate, midregion without dilation .................... C. crenatum var. crenatum*

              2. 34. Cells of medium size (21-35µm), truncate apex, lateral margins rounded without undulations, midregion without prominence ...... C. punctulatum var. punctulatum

                1. 35. Cells of large size (>35 µm), truncate apex, cell wall with 6 triangular scrobiculations disposed around each granule ......................................... C. decoratum

                2. 35. Cells of large size (>35 µm), truncate apex with approximately 4 crenulations, cell wall with rows of granules extending up to the dilated midregion ....................................................... C. subspeciosum var. subspeciosum

Cosmarium abbreviatum Raciborski var. minus (West & West) Krieger & Gerloff, Gattung. Cosmarium: 3-4: 242. 1965; 2: pl. 42, fig. 18. 1965.

Figures 2a-b

Figure 2a-9c
Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs in lotic environment adjacent to the Iguaçu National Park. 2a-b. Cosmarium abbreviatum var. minus . 2b. Apical view. 3a-c. C. bipunctatum var. bipunctatum. 3b. Lateral view. 3c. Apical view. 4a-b. C. blyttii var. blyttii. 4b. Apical view. 5a-c. C. candianum var. candianum. 5b. Lateral view. 5c. Apical view. 6a-b. C. clepsydra var. bicardia. 6b. Apical view. 7a-c. C. crenatum var. crenatum. 7b. Lateral view. 7c. Apical view. 8a-b. C. decoratum. 8b. Detail of the wall ornamentation. 9a-c. C. difficile var. dilatatum. 9b. Detail of the punctate wall. 9c. Apical view. Scale = 10 µm.

Morphometric data: L: 10.7-11.5 µm, W: 11.4-12.1 µm, I: 4.7-5.1 µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 30-VII-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3930); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X- 2012, L.C. Servat. (UNOP-Algae 3962).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: Felisberto & Rodrigues (2008Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2008. Desmidiaceae, Gonatozygaceae e Mesotaeniaceae na comunidade perifítica do reservatório de Salto do Vau (Bacia do rio Iguaçu, PR). Hoehnea 35: 235-254., 2010b)Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2010b. Cosmarium (Desmidiaceae, Zygnemaphyceae) da ficoflórula perifítica do reservatório, bacia do rio Paranapanema, Paraná/São Paulo, Brasil. Hoehnea 37: 267-292..

Cosmarium bipunctatum Börgensen, var. bipunctatum Vidensk. Medd. Naturh. Foren. Kjöbenhavn 1890: 40, pl. 4, fig. 33. 1890.

Figures 3a-c

Cells of small size, almost as long as wide. L: 15.9-19.8 µm, W: 14.8-18.5 µm, I: 5.1-7.3 µm. Median constriction deep, closed linear sinus, trapeziform semicells with convex lateral margins, apical margin broadly truncate, with two prominent granules disposed in the center of the semicell, in apical view circular, with one granule on either side of the midregion, in lateral view semicell elliptic, with one granule on either side of the midregion, cell wall granulate, chloroplastid with one central pyrenoid per semicell.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 30-VII-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3930); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 25-IX-2012, L.C. Servat. (UNOP-Algae3943); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3962); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 13-XI-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3976); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 18-XII-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4035); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 6-II-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4057); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 04-IV-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4093); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 6-VI-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4116).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: First record of the taxon.

According to Estrela et al. (2011)Estrela, L.M.B., Fonseca, B.M. & Bicudo, C.E.M. 2011. Desmídias perifíticas de cinco lagoas do Distrito Federal, Brasil: I - Gênero Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs, Hoehnea 38: 527-552., Cosmarium bipunctatum Börgensen may look like to C. punctulatum Brébisson and C. orthosthicum Lundell, although these not show a verrucae of considerable size in the midregion of the semicell, and also C. spharelostichum Nordstedt f. bituberculatum Förster, however this presents verrucae below the apex and not in the central region of the cell. The individuals found in the present study, have cell measures close to the ones found by Estrela et al. (2011)Estrela, L.M.B., Fonseca, B.M. & Bicudo, C.E.M. 2011. Desmídias perifíticas de cinco lagoas do Distrito Federal, Brasil: I - Gênero Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs, Hoehnea 38: 527-552., being a bit below the measures presented by Prescott et al. (1981)Prescott, G.W., Croasdale, H.T., Vinyard, W.C. & Bicudo, C.E.M. 1981. A Synopsis of North American Desmids: part II. Desmidiaceae: Placodermae. Section 2-3. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. (L: 20-25 µm, W: 19-20 µm, I: 5-8 µm).

Cosmarium blyttii Wille var. blyttii, Forh. Vidensk. Selsk. Christiania 11: 25, pl. 1, fig. 7. 1880.

Figures 4a-b

Morphometric data: L: 19.8 µm, W: 17 µm, I: 5.9 µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 4-IV-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4093).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: Felisberto & Rodrigues (2005a)Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2005a. Influência do gradiente longitudinal (rio-barragem) na similaridade das comunidades de desmídias perifíticas. Revista Brasileira de Botânica 28: 241-254., Carvalho et al. (2015)Carvalho, J.K., Burack, C. & Moresco, C. 2015. Cosmarium (Zygnemaphyceae) de um lago do parque municipal Joaquim Teodoro de Oliveira, Campo Mourão-PR. Sabios: Saúde e Biologia 10: 01-13..

According to Oliveira et al. (2010)Oliveira, I.B., Bicudo, C.E.M., Moura, C.W.N. 2010. Contribuição ao conhecimento de Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae, Zygnematophyceae) para a Bahia e o Brasil. Hoehnea 37: 571-600., morphological changes can be found in Cosmarium blyttii var. blyttii, mainly associated to the number of undulations in the apical and lateral margins and the number of granules decorate the semicell face, can appear only a central granule or one ring.

Cosmarium candianum Delponte var. candianum, Mém. R. Accad. Sc. Torino 28: 113, pl. 8, fig. 1-6. 1877.

Figures 5a-c

Morphometric data: L: 39.2-47.1 µm, W: 33.9-41.5 µm, I: 12.7-14.3 µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3962); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 13-XI-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3976); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 18-XII-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4035); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 15-I-2013, L.C. Servat. (UNOP-Algae4044); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 6-II-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4057); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 4-IV-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4093); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 9-V-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4102).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: Bortolini et al. (2010a)Bortolini, J.C., Meurer, T. & Bueno, N.C. 2010a. Desmidias (Zygnemaphyceae) do Rio São João, Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 37: 293-313., Menezes et al. (2013)Menezes, V.C., Bueno, N.C., Sobjak, T.M., Bortolini, J.C. & Temponi, L.G. 2013. Zygnemaphyceae associada à Utricularia foliosa L. no Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brasil. Iheringia Série Botânica 68: 5-26. and Aquino et al. (2014)Aquino, C.A.N., Bueno, N.C. & Menezes, V.C. 2014. Desmidioflórula (Zygnemaphyceae, Desmidiales) do rio Cascavel, Oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 41: 365-392..

Cosmarium clepsydra Nordstedt var. bicardia (Reinsch) Croasdale, Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc., 75(1): 22, pl. 11. fig. 26. 1956.

Figures 6a-b

Cells of medium size, longer than wide. L: 24.4-27.2 µm, W: 21.1-22.9 µm, I: 6.1-7.7 µm. Median constriction deep, closed linear sinus, semicells subsemicircular or broadly subtriangular, with lateral margins slightly convex, apical margin rounded truncate, in apical view elliptic and in lateral view cuneate with rounded angles, cell wall finely punctate, chloroplastid with one pyrenoid per semicell.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 30-VIII-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3930); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3962); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 11-III-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4081).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: First record of the taxon.

According to Prescott et al. (1981)Prescott, G.W., Croasdale, H.T., Vinyard, W.C. & Bicudo, C.E.M. 1981. A Synopsis of North American Desmids: part II. Desmidiaceae: Placodermae. Section 2-3. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press., the variety bicardia (Reinsch) Croasdale differs from the species typical variety by showing cuneate lateral view with rounded angles and vertical view oval and tumid.

Cosmarium crenatum var. crenatum Ralfs, Brit. Desm, p.96. pl.15, fig.7.1848.

Figures 7a-c

Cells of medium size, longer than wide. L: 22-24.1 µm, W: 15-18.5 µm, I: 6-6.1µm. Median constriction deep and linear sinus, semicells pyramidal-quadrate, with rounded lateral margins, slightly retuse with four undulations, truncate apical margin with four crenulations, in apical view elliptic with the midregion inflated on both sides, cell wall with one to three small crenulations on each apical and lateral crenulation, chloroplastid with pyrenoids not observed.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3962).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: First record of the taxon.

Cosmarium decoratum West & West, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot., II, 5(2): 61, pl.7, fig.21. 1895.

Figures 8a-b

Morphometric data: L: 68.5-69 µm, W: 55.4-56.1 µm, I: 23.8-24 µm.

Material Examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3962).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: Felisberto & Rodrigues (2010b)Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2010b. Cosmarium (Desmidiaceae, Zygnemaphyceae) da ficoflórula perifítica do reservatório, bacia do rio Paranapanema, Paraná/São Paulo, Brasil. Hoehnea 37: 267-292., Biolo et al. (2013)Biolo, S., Bueno, N.C., Siqueira, N.S. & Moresco, C. 2013. New records of Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae, Zygnematophyceae) in a tributary of the Itaipu Reservoir, Paraná, Brazil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 27: 1-12. and Aquino et al. (2014)Aquino, C.A.N., Bueno, N.C. & Menezes, V.C. 2014. Desmidioflórula (Zygnemaphyceae, Desmidiales) do rio Cascavel, Oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 41: 365-392..

The individuals found in the present study showed cell measures a bit smaller than the ones presented by Prescott et al. (1981)Prescott, G.W., Croasdale, H.T., Vinyard, W.C. & Bicudo, C.E.M. 1981. A Synopsis of North American Desmids: part II. Desmidiaceae: Placodermae. Section 2-3. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press., such as L: 70-86 µm, W: 52-63 µm and I: 23-32.5 µm, although all the other characteristics are in accordance with the description.

Cosmarium difficile Lütkemüller, var. dilatatum Borge, Ark. f. Bot. 19 (17): 32, pl. 1, fig. 38. 1925.

Figures 9a-c

Cells of medium size, longer than wide. L: 26.2-28.3 µm, W: 14.8-15.8 µm, I: 4.5-4.6 µm. Median constriction deep, closed linear sinus, semicells with rounded lateral margins, diverging to a broadly rounded apex, apical and lateral view elliptic, cell wall smooth, showing three rows of pores or small conspicuous scrobiculations, cell wall finely punctate, chloroplastid with 1 pyrenoid per semicell.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3962); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 11-III-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4081).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: First record of the taxon.

According to Prescott et al. (1981)Prescott, G.W., Croasdale, H.T., Vinyard, W.C. & Bicudo, C.E.M. 1981. A Synopsis of North American Desmids: part II. Desmidiaceae: Placodermae. Section 2-3. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press., the variety dilatatum Borge differs from the typical by having more rhomboid semicells and more rounded apex.

Cosmarium dispersum L.N.Johnson f. dispersum L.N.Johnson, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 297, pl. 233, fig. 19. 1895.

Figure 10a-c

Figure 10a-19b
Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs in lotic environment adjacent to the Iguaçu National Park. 10a-c. Cosmarium dispersum f. dispersum. 10b. Detail of the ornamentation. 10c.Apical view. 11a-b. C. excavatum var. excavatum. 11b. Apical view. 12. C. granatum var. granatum. 13a-c. C. isthmochondrum var. isthmochondrum. 13b. Lateral view. 13c. Apical view. 14a-c. C. laeve var. laeve. 14b. Lateral view. 14c. Apical view. 15a-b. C. lagoense var. amoebum 15b. Detail of the ornamentation. 16a-c. C. mamilliferum var. mamilliferum. 16b. Lateral view. 16c. Apical view. 17. C. margaritatum var. margaritatum f. margaritatum. 18a-b. C. margaritatum var. margaritatum f. minor. 18b. Detail of the punctate wall. 19a-b. C. moniliforme var. moniliforme. 19b. Apical view. Scale = 10 µm.

Morphometric data: L: 36.5-38.5 µm, W: 31.5-34.5 µm, I: 8.7-11.9 µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3962); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 18-XII-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4035); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 15-I-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4044); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 4-IV-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4093).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: Aquino et al. (2014)Aquino, C.A.N., Bueno, N.C. & Menezes, V.C. 2014. Desmidioflórula (Zygnemaphyceae, Desmidiales) do rio Cascavel, Oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 41: 365-392..

Cosmarium excavatum Nordst. var. excavatum Vidensk., Meddr Naturh. Foren. Kjöbenhavn 21: 214, pl. 3, fig. 25. 1870

Figures 11a-b

Morphometric data: L: 22.1 µm, W: 12.6 µm, I: 8.2 µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 15-I-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4044).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: Felisberto & Rodrigues (2010 aFelisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2010a. Periphytic algal community in artificial and natural substratum in a tributary of the Rosana reservoir (Corvo Stream, Paraná State, Brazil). Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences 34: 365-371., b)Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2010b. Cosmarium (Desmidiaceae, Zygnemaphyceae) da ficoflórula perifítica do reservatório, bacia do rio Paranapanema, Paraná/São Paulo, Brasil. Hoehnea 37: 267-292., Biolo et al. (2013)Biolo, S., Bueno, N.C., Siqueira, N.S. & Moresco, C. 2013. New records of Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae, Zygnematophyceae) in a tributary of the Itaipu Reservoir, Paraná, Brazil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 27: 1-12. and Menezes et al. (2013)Menezes, V.C., Bueno, N.C., Sobjak, T.M., Bortolini, J.C. & Temponi, L.G. 2013. Zygnemaphyceae associada à Utricularia foliosa L. no Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brasil. Iheringia Série Botânica 68: 5-26..

The individuals found in the present work showed cell measures a bit bigger than the ones found by Prescott et al. (1981Prescott, G.W., Croasdale, H.T., Vinyard, W.C. & Bicudo, C.E.M. 1981. A Synopsis of North American Desmids: part II. Desmidiaceae: Placodermae. Section 2-3. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.), such as L: 19-20 µm, W: 10-11.5 µm and I: 7.5-7.6 µm, although all the other characteristics are in accordance with the description.

Cosmarium granatum Bréb. ex Ralfs var. granatum, Bréb. in litt. Cum ícone, 1846 Ralfs, Brit. Desmid. 96, pl. 32: fig. 6. 1848.

Figure 12

Morphometric data: L: 24.1-28.3 µm, W: 17.7-18.8 µm, I: 4.9-5.8 µm.

Material Examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 30-VIII-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3930); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3962).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: Cecy (1993)Cecy, I.I.T. 1993. Estudo das Algas Microscópicas (Nostocophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Chrysophyceae e Chlorophyceae) do Lago do Parque Barigüi, Curitiba, Estado do Paraná, Brasil Arquivo Biológico e Tecnológico 29: 383-405., Picelli-Vicentim et al. (2001)Picelli-Vicentim, M.M., Treuersch, M. & Domingues, L.L. 2001. Fitoplâncton da Represa do Passaúna, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 28: 53-76, Cetto et al. (2004)Cetto, J.M., Leandrini, J.A., Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2004. Comunidade de algas perifíticas no reservatório de Iraí, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences 26: 1-7., Silva & Cecy (2004)Silva, S.R.V.F. & Cecy, I.I.T. 2004. Desmídias (Zygnemaphyceae) da área de abrangência da Usina Hidrelétrica de Salto Caxias, Paraná, Brasil, I: Gênero Cosmarium. Iheringia - Série Botânica 59: 13-26., Felisberto & Rodrigues (2005aFelisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2005a. Influência do gradiente longitudinal (rio-barragem) na similaridade das comunidades de desmídias perifíticas. Revista Brasileira de Botânica 28: 241-254., bFelisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2005b. Abundance of periphytic desmids in two Brazilian reservoirs with distinct environmental conditions. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia 17: 433-443., 2010bFelisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2010b. Cosmarium (Desmidiaceae, Zygnemaphyceae) da ficoflórula perifítica do reservatório, bacia do rio Paranapanema, Paraná/São Paulo, Brasil. Hoehnea 37: 267-292., 2012Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2012. Dinâmica sucessional de comunidade de algas perifíticas em um ecossistema lótico subtropical. Rodriguésia 63: 463-473.), Bortolini et al. (2010b)Bortolini, J.C., Bueno, N.C., Moresco, C., Biolo, S. & Siqueira, N.S. 2010b. Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae) em um lago artificial urbano, Paraná, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Biociências 8: 229-237., Menezes et al. (2011b)Menezes, V.C., Bueno, N.C., Bortolini, J.C., Biolo, S. & Siqueira, N.S. 2011b. O gênero Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae) no Reservatório de Itaipu, PR, Brasil. Hoehnea 38: 483-493. and Aquino et al. (2014)Aquino, C.A.N., Bueno, N.C. & Menezes, V.C. 2014. Desmidioflórula (Zygnemaphyceae, Desmidiales) do rio Cascavel, Oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 41: 365-392..

Cosmarium isthmochondrum var. isthmochondrum Nordstedt, Acta Univ.Lund. 9: 12. pl. 1, fig. 2. 1873.

Figures 13a-c

Cells of medium size, a bit longer than wide. L: 25.5-29.5 µm, W: 20.7-23.2 µm, I: 6.4-7.9 µm. Median constriction deep, closed linear sinus, semicircular semicells with rounded angles, lateral margins convex and crenulate, with a pair of more prominent crenulations on either side of the semicell, apical margin truncate with a marginal row of granules, the two central granules more prominent, apical view of the semicell elliptic, in lateral view oblong, cell wall granulate, chloroplastid with 2 pyrenoids per semicell.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 25-IX-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3943); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3962); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 13-XI-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3976); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 15-I-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4044); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 6-VI-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4116); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 16-VII-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4126).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: First record of the taxon.

Cosmarium isthmochondrum var. isthmochondrum Nordstedt resembles Cosmarium polymorphum Nordstedt var. groenbladii Förster, although Cosmarium isthmochondrum differs from the latter by showing granules close to isthmus (Estrela et al. 2011Estrela, L.M.B., Fonseca, B.M. & Bicudo, C.E.M. 2011. Desmídias perifíticas de cinco lagoas do Distrito Federal, Brasil: I - Gênero Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs, Hoehnea 38: 527-552.). The individuals found showed cell measurements a bit smaller than the ones recorded by Prescott et al. (1981)Prescott, G.W., Croasdale, H.T., Vinyard, W.C. & Bicudo, C.E.M. 1981. A Synopsis of North American Desmids: part II. Desmidiaceae: Placodermae. Section 2-3. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press., such as: L: 30-35 µm, W: 27-30 µm and I: 7.5-11 µm, however all the other characteristics are in accordance with the description.

Cosmarium laeve Rabenhorst var. laeve, Öfv. Kongl. Vet.-Akad. Förhandl., 6: 29, pl. 12, fig. 4. 1876.

Figures 14a-b

Morphometric data: L: 19-19.5 µm, W: 12.6-12.7 µm, I: 5.8-6.1 µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 18-XII-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4035); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 6-VI-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4116).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: Cetto et al. (2004)Cetto, J.M., Leandrini, J.A., Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2004. Comunidade de algas perifíticas no reservatório de Iraí, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences 26: 1-7., Silva & Cecy (2004)Silva, S.R.V.F. & Cecy, I.I.T. 2004. Desmídias (Zygnemaphyceae) da área de abrangência da Usina Hidrelétrica de Salto Caxias, Paraná, Brasil, I: Gênero Cosmarium. Iheringia - Série Botânica 59: 13-26., Felisberto & Rodrigues (2005aFelisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2005a. Influência do gradiente longitudinal (rio-barragem) na similaridade das comunidades de desmídias perifíticas. Revista Brasileira de Botânica 28: 241-254., bFelisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2005b. Abundance of periphytic desmids in two Brazilian reservoirs with distinct environmental conditions. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia 17: 433-443., 2008Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2008. Desmidiaceae, Gonatozygaceae e Mesotaeniaceae na comunidade perifítica do reservatório de Salto do Vau (Bacia do rio Iguaçu, PR). Hoehnea 35: 235-254., 2010aFelisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2010a. Periphytic algal community in artificial and natural substratum in a tributary of the Rosana reservoir (Corvo Stream, Paraná State, Brazil). Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences 34: 365-371., 2012)Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2012. Dinâmica sucessional de comunidade de algas perifíticas em um ecossistema lótico subtropical. Rodriguésia 63: 463-473., Algarte et al. (2006)Algarte, V.M., Moresco, C. & Rodrigues L. 2006. Algas do perifíton de distintos ambientes na planície de inundação do alto Rio Paraná. Acta Scientiarium. Biological Sciences 28: 243-251., Bortolini et al. (2010a)Bortolini, J.C., Meurer, T. & Bueno, N.C. 2010a. Desmidias (Zygnemaphyceae) do Rio São João, Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 37: 293-313. and Aquino et al. (2014)Aquino, C.A.N., Bueno, N.C. & Menezes, V.C. 2014. Desmidioflórula (Zygnemaphyceae, Desmidiales) do rio Cascavel, Oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 41: 365-392..

Cosmarium lagoense Nordst. var. amoebum Förster & Eckert, in Förster, Hydrobiologia 23(3-4): 394, pl. 24, fig. 10-13. 1964.

Figures 15a-b

Morphometric data: L: 38.6 µm, W: 43.1 µm, I: 11.5 µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3962).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: Felisberto & Rodrigues (2005aFelisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2005a. Influência do gradiente longitudinal (rio-barragem) na similaridade das comunidades de desmídias perifíticas. Revista Brasileira de Botânica 28: 241-254., 2010b)Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2010b. Cosmarium (Desmidiaceae, Zygnemaphyceae) da ficoflórula perifítica do reservatório, bacia do rio Paranapanema, Paraná/São Paulo, Brasil. Hoehnea 37: 267-292. and Menezes et al. (2011bMenezes, V.C., Bueno, N.C., Bortolini, J.C., Biolo, S. & Siqueira, N.S. 2011b. O gênero Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae) no Reservatório de Itaipu, PR, Brasil. Hoehnea 38: 483-493., 2013)Menezes, V.C., Bueno, N.C., Sobjak, T.M., Bortolini, J.C. & Temponi, L.G. 2013. Zygnemaphyceae associada à Utricularia foliosa L. no Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brasil. Iheringia Série Botânica 68: 5-26..

The individuals found presented lower size than the ones cited by Prescott et al. (1981)Prescott, G.W., Croasdale, H.T., Vinyard, W.C. & Bicudo, C.E.M. 1981. A Synopsis of North American Desmids: part II. Desmidiaceae: Placodermae. Section 2-3. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press., such as: L: 40-46 µm, W: 43-52 µm and I: 13-29 µm. The measurements found are similar to the ones found by Camargo et al. (2009), L: 36-38 µm, W: 34-43 µm and I: 11-13 µm.

Cosmarium mamilliferum var. mamilliferum Nordstedt, Vidensk. Medd. Naturh. Foren. Kjöbenhavn 1869 (14-15): 212, pl. 3, fig. 22. 1870.

Figures 16a-b

Morphometric data: L: 22-23.3 µm, W: 17.1-18µm, I: 5-5.6 µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 13-XI-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3976); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 18-XII-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4035).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: Felisberto & Rodrigues (2010b)Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2010b. Cosmarium (Desmidiaceae, Zygnemaphyceae) da ficoflórula perifítica do reservatório, bacia do rio Paranapanema, Paraná/São Paulo, Brasil. Hoehnea 37: 267-292..

Cosmarium margaritatum var. margaritatum f. margaritatum (Lund.) Roy & Bisset, Jd. Bot., v. 27, n. 1, p. 194. 1886.

Figure 17

Morphometric data: L: 69.1 µm, W: 56.1 µm, I: 15.6 µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 15-I-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4044).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: Lozovei & Luz (1976)Lozovei, A.L. & Luz, E. 1976. Diptera Culicidae em Curitiba e arredores, 2: alimentação. Arquivos de Biologia e Tecnologia 19: 43-83., Lozovei & Hohmann (1977)Lozovei, A.L. & Hohmann, E. 1977. Principais gêneros de microalgas em biótipos de larvas de mosquitos de Curitiba, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. III Levantamento e constatação da ecologia. Acta Biológica Paranaense 6: 123-152., Cecy et al. (1997)Cecy, I.I.T, Silva, S.R.V.F. & Boccon, R. 1997. Fitoplâncton da Represa do Rio Passaúna, Município de Araucária, Estado do Paraná. I - Divisão Chlorophyta - Família Desmidiaceae. Estudos de Biologia 41: 5-32., Cetto et al. (2004)Cetto, J.M., Leandrini, J.A., Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2004. Comunidade de algas perifíticas no reservatório de Iraí, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences 26: 1-7., Bortolini et al. (2010a)Bortolini, J.C., Meurer, T. & Bueno, N.C. 2010a. Desmidias (Zygnemaphyceae) do Rio São João, Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 37: 293-313., Menezes et al. (2011b)Menezes, V.C., Bueno, N.C., Bortolini, J.C., Biolo, S. & Siqueira, N.S. 2011b. O gênero Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae) no Reservatório de Itaipu, PR, Brasil. Hoehnea 38: 483-493. and Aquino et al. (2014)Aquino, C.A.N., Bueno, N.C. & Menezes, V.C. 2014. Desmidioflórula (Zygnemaphyceae, Desmidiales) do rio Cascavel, Oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 41: 365-392..

Cosmarium margaritatum (Lund.) Roy & Bisset var. margaritatum f. minor (Boldt) West & West, Welw. Afric. Freshw. Alg.: 121. 1897.

Figures 18a-b

Morphometric data: L: 45-51.6 µm, W: 35.2-43.6 µm, I: 13.3-15.9 µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 30-VII-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3930); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 13-XII-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3976); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 15-I-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4044).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: Silva & Cecy (2004)Silva, S.R.V.F. & Cecy, I.I.T. 2004. Desmídias (Zygnemaphyceae) da área de abrangência da Usina Hidrelétrica de Salto Caxias, Paraná, Brasil, I: Gênero Cosmarium. Iheringia - Série Botânica 59: 13-26., Felisberto & Rodrigues (2005aFelisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2005a. Influência do gradiente longitudinal (rio-barragem) na similaridade das comunidades de desmídias perifíticas. Revista Brasileira de Botânica 28: 241-254., bFelisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2005b. Abundance of periphytic desmids in two Brazilian reservoirs with distinct environmental conditions. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia 17: 433-443., 2010aFelisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2010a. Periphytic algal community in artificial and natural substratum in a tributary of the Rosana reservoir (Corvo Stream, Paraná State, Brazil). Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences 34: 365-371.,bFelisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2010b. Cosmarium (Desmidiaceae, Zygnemaphyceae) da ficoflórula perifítica do reservatório, bacia do rio Paranapanema, Paraná/São Paulo, Brasil. Hoehnea 37: 267-292.), Bortolini et al. (2010b)Bortolini, J.C., Bueno, N.C., Moresco, C., Biolo, S. & Siqueira, N.S. 2010b. Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae) em um lago artificial urbano, Paraná, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Biociências 8: 229-237., Menezes et al. (2011bMenezes, V.C., Bueno, N.C., Bortolini, J.C., Biolo, S. & Siqueira, N.S. 2011b. O gênero Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae) no Reservatório de Itaipu, PR, Brasil. Hoehnea 38: 483-493., 2013)Menezes, V.C., Bueno, N.C., Sobjak, T.M., Bortolini, J.C. & Temponi, L.G. 2013. Zygnemaphyceae associada à Utricularia foliosa L. no Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brasil. Iheringia Série Botânica 68: 5-26. and Aquino et al. (2014)Aquino, C.A.N., Bueno, N.C. & Menezes, V.C. 2014. Desmidioflórula (Zygnemaphyceae, Desmidiales) do rio Cascavel, Oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 41: 365-392..

Cosmarium moniliforme var. moniliforme (Turpin) Ralfs, Brit. Desmid., 107, pl. 17, fig. 6. 1848.

Figures 19a-b

Morphometric data: L: 25.2-26.2 µm, W: 14.8-15.6 µm, I: 5.2-5.4 µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3962); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 18-XII-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4035); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 6-II-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4057); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 11-III-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4081).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: Bittencourt-Oliveira (1993)Bittencourt-Oliveira, M.C. & Castro, A.A.J. 1993. Ficoflórula do Rio Tibagi, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, II: gênero Closterium (Zygnemaphyceae). Semina Ciências Biológicas 14: 74-85., Silva & Cecy (2004)Silva, S.R.V.F. & Cecy, I.I.T. 2004. Desmídias (Zygnemaphyceae) da área de abrangência da Usina Hidrelétrica de Salto Caxias, Paraná, Brasil, I: Gênero Cosmarium. Iheringia - Série Botânica 59: 13-26., Biolo et al. (2013)Biolo, S., Bueno, N.C., Siqueira, N.S. & Moresco, C. 2013. New records of Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae, Zygnematophyceae) in a tributary of the Itaipu Reservoir, Paraná, Brazil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 27: 1-12., Menezes et al. (2013)Menezes, V.C., Bueno, N.C., Sobjak, T.M., Bortolini, J.C. & Temponi, L.G. 2013. Zygnemaphyceae associada à Utricularia foliosa L. no Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brasil. Iheringia Série Botânica 68: 5-26. and Aquino et al. (2014)Aquino, C.A.N., Bueno, N.C. & Menezes, V.C. 2014. Desmidioflórula (Zygnemaphyceae, Desmidiales) do rio Cascavel, Oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 41: 365-392..

Cosmarium obsoletum (Hantzsch) Reinsch var. obsoletum, Acta Soc. Senckenberg 6: 142, pl. 22D1, fig. 1-4. 1867. 1862.

Figure 20

Figure 20-30c
Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs in lotic environment adjacent to the Iguaçu National Park. 20. Cosmarium obsoletum var. obsoletum. 21a-c. C. ordinatum var. ordinatum f. ordinatum. 21b. Lateral view. 21c. Apical view. 22a-b. C. ornatum var. ornatum f. ornatum. 22b. Lateral view. 23. C. pachydermum var. pachydermum f. pachydermum.24a-c. Cosmarium protractum var. protractum. 24b. Lateral view. 24c. Apical view. 25a-b. C. pseudoconnatum var. pluriradians 25b. Apical view. 26a-b. C. pseudoconnatum var. pseudoconnatum 26b. Apical view. 27a-b. C. pseudopyramidatum var. pseudopyramidatum. 27b. Apical view. 28a-b. C. pseudoretusum var. africanum. 28b. Apical view. 29a-c. C. pseudoretusum var. pseudoretusum. 29b. Lateral view. 29c. Apical view. 30a-c. C. punctulatum var. punctulatum. 30b. Detail of the punctuations. 30c. Apical view. Scale = 10 µm.

Cells of large size, broader than long. L: 38.8 µm, W: 46.1 µm, I: 15.1 µm. Median constriction deep, closed linear sinus, slightly open at extremities, semicircular semicells with smooth and rounded margins, apical margin slightly truncate, in apical view semicells elliptic and in lateral view semicells globose, cell wall finely punctate, chloroplastid with 2 pyrenoids per semicell.

Material Examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3962).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: First record of the taxon.

According to Ramos et al. (2011)Ramos, G.J.P., Oliveira, I.B. & Moura, C.W.N. 2011. Desmídias de ambiente fitotelmata bromelícola da Serra da Jiboia, Bahia, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Biociências 9: 103-113., C. obsoletum (Hantzsch) Reinsch var. obsoletum, has great morphological similarity with C. ralfsii Breb., differing only because of its lower cell size, and by having an apical margin retuse and strongly rounded.

Cosmarium ordinatum (Borge) West & West var. ordinatum f. ordinatum, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot., II, 5(5): 251, pl. 15, fig. 14. 1896a.

Figures 21a-b

Cells of medium size, a little longer than broad. L: 24-24.9 µm, W: 20.6-25.8 µm, I: 6.7-8.9 µm. Median constriction deep, open sinus, semicells semicircular-elliptic, lateral margins convex, apical margin rounded, in apical view elliptic, in lateral view subcircular, cell wall ornamented with approximately 5 to 6 series of emarginated verrucae, margin granular-undulate, chloroplastid with 1 pyrenoid per semicell.

Material Examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 30-VIII-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae 930); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 15-I-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4044); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 6-II-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4057).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: First record of the taxon.

Cosmarium ornatum Ralfs var. ornatum f. ornatum, Brit. Desmidieae: 104, pl. 17, fig. 7. 1848.

Figures 22a-b

Cells of medium size, about as long as broad. L: 24.6-25.9 µm, W: 23.8-27 µm, I: 8-10.2 µm. Median constriction deep, closed linear sinus, reniform semicells showing granulated protuberance in the midregion, lateral margin with 7 to 9 prominent and rounded granules, in apical view semicells elliptic-oblong with an inflation in the midregion on either side, in lateral view subcircular, cell wall granulate, chloroplastid with 2 pyrenoids per semicell.

Material Examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 25-IX-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3943); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3962); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 11-III-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4081); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 6-VI-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4116).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: First record of the taxon.

The individuals found showed lower size than the ones cited by Prescott et al. (1981)Prescott, G.W., Croasdale, H.T., Vinyard, W.C. & Bicudo, C.E.M. 1981. A Synopsis of North American Desmids: part II. Desmidiaceae: Placodermae. Section 2-3. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press., such as: L: 32-41 µm, W: 30-41 µm and I: 9-13 µm. Although all the other characteristics are in accordance with the description.

Cosmarium pachydermum Lundell var. pachydermum f. pachydermum, Nova Acta R. Soc. Scient. Upsal. 3, 8(2): 39, pl. 2, fig. 15. 1871.

Figure 23

Morphometric data: L: 109.9-114.1µm, W: 83.2-88.7 µm, I: 36-39.5 µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3962); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 18-XII-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4035).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: Bittencourt-Oliveira (1993)Bittencourt-Oliveira, M.C. & Castro, A.A.J. 1993. Ficoflórula do Rio Tibagi, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, II: gênero Closterium (Zygnemaphyceae). Semina Ciências Biológicas 14: 74-85., Bortolini et al. (2010b)Bortolini, J.C., Bueno, N.C., Moresco, C., Biolo, S. & Siqueira, N.S. 2010b. Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae) em um lago artificial urbano, Paraná, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Biociências 8: 229-237., Felisberto & Rodrigues (2010b)Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2010b. Cosmarium (Desmidiaceae, Zygnemaphyceae) da ficoflórula perifítica do reservatório, bacia do rio Paranapanema, Paraná/São Paulo, Brasil. Hoehnea 37: 267-292. and Menezes et al. (2011b)Menezes, V.C., Bueno, N.C., Bortolini, J.C., Biolo, S. & Siqueira, N.S. 2011b. O gênero Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae) no Reservatório de Itaipu, PR, Brasil. Hoehnea 38: 483-493..

Cosmarium protractum (Nägeli) De Bary var. protractum, Untersuch. Conjugaten: 72. 1858. G. West & W. West, Monogr. III, p. 181, pl. 82, fig. 8, pl. 94, figs. 4-5.

Figure 24a-c

Morphometric data: L: 26.4-31.9 µm, W: 26.1-35.4 µm, I: 9.3-10.8 µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 25-IX-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3943); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3962); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 16-VII-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4126).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: Cecy et al. (1997)Cecy, I.I.T, Silva, S.R.V.F. & Boccon, R. 1997. Fitoplâncton da Represa do Rio Passaúna, Município de Araucária, Estado do Paraná. I - Divisão Chlorophyta - Família Desmidiaceae. Estudos de Biologia 41: 5-32., Felisberto & Rodrigues (2005aFelisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2005a. Influência do gradiente longitudinal (rio-barragem) na similaridade das comunidades de desmídias perifíticas. Revista Brasileira de Botânica 28: 241-254., 2010aFelisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2010a. Periphytic algal community in artificial and natural substratum in a tributary of the Rosana reservoir (Corvo Stream, Paraná State, Brazil). Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences 34: 365-371., b)Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2010b. Cosmarium (Desmidiaceae, Zygnemaphyceae) da ficoflórula perifítica do reservatório, bacia do rio Paranapanema, Paraná/São Paulo, Brasil. Hoehnea 37: 267-292., Bortolini et al. (2010a)Bortolini, J.C., Meurer, T. & Bueno, N.C. 2010a. Desmidias (Zygnemaphyceae) do Rio São João, Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 37: 293-313., Biolo et al. (2013)Biolo, S., Bueno, N.C., Siqueira, N.S. & Moresco, C. 2013. New records of Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae, Zygnematophyceae) in a tributary of the Itaipu Reservoir, Paraná, Brazil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 27: 1-12. and Menezes et al. (2013)Menezes, V.C., Bueno, N.C., Sobjak, T.M., Bortolini, J.C. & Temponi, L.G. 2013. Zygnemaphyceae associada à Utricularia foliosa L. no Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brasil. Iheringia Série Botânica 68: 5-26..

The individuals found showed lower size than the ones cited by Prescott et al. (1981)Prescott, G.W., Croasdale, H.T., Vinyard, W.C. & Bicudo, C.E.M. 1981. A Synopsis of North American Desmids: part II. Desmidiaceae: Placodermae. Section 2-3. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press., being closest to the cell measures found by Moresco et al. (2015)Moresco, G.A., Paula, A.C.M., Bortolini, J.C., Jati, S., Reis, L.M. & Rodrigues, L.C. 2015. Zygnemaphyceae em um lago de várzea na planície do alto rio Paraná: gêneros Closterium, Cosmarium, Euastrum, Micrasterias e Pleurotaenium. Iheringia Série Botânica 70: 143-155., such as: L: 24.6-35 µm, W: 24.6-37 µm and I: 7.4-10.4 µm.

Cosmarium pseudoconnatum Nordstedt var. pluriradians Scott & Grönblad, Acta Soc. Sci. Fennicae, II, B, 2(8): 20, pl. 6, figs. 12-14. 1957.

Figures 25a-b

Cells of large size, longer than wide. L: 82.1-92.4 µm, W: 60.7-63.3 µm, I: 58.1-60.6 µm. Median constriction very slight, sinus very broad and shallow, semielliptic semicells, apical and lateral margins rounded, apical view circular, lateral view almost the same as the frontal view, cell wall punctate, chloroplastid with 2 to 3 pyrenoids.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. (UNOP-Algae3962).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: First record of the taxon.

According to Prescott et al. (1981)Prescott, G.W., Croasdale, H.T., Vinyard, W.C. & Bicudo, C.E.M. 1981. A Synopsis of North American Desmids: part II. Desmidiaceae: Placodermae. Section 2-3. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press., Cosmarium pseudoconnatum Nordstedt var. pluriradians differs from the typical variety by showing a superior cell seize, measuring: L: 40-49 µm, W: 29-48 µm and I: 26-46 µm and by presenting a large chloroplast.

Cosmarium pseudoconnatum Nordst. var. pseudoconnatum Vidensk., Medd. Naturh. Foren. Kjöbenhavn 21: 214, pl. 3, fig. 17. 1870.

Figures 26a-b

Morphometric data: L: 33.6-52.4 µm, W: 26.9-40.4 µm, I: 24.2-37.4 µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 30-VIII-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3930); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3962); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 13-XI-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3976); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 18-XII-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4035); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 15-I-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4044); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 6-II-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4057); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 11-III-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4081); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 4-IV-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4093); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 6-VI-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4116); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 16-VII-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4126).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: Bittencourt-Oliveira (1993)Bittencourt-Oliveira, M.C. & Castro, A.A.J. 1993. Ficoflórula do Rio Tibagi, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, II: gênero Closterium (Zygnemaphyceae). Semina Ciências Biológicas 14: 74-85., Cecy et al. (1997)Cecy, I.I.T, Silva, S.R.V.F. & Boccon, R. 1997. Fitoplâncton da Represa do Rio Passaúna, Município de Araucária, Estado do Paraná. I - Divisão Chlorophyta - Família Desmidiaceae. Estudos de Biologia 41: 5-32., Silva & Cecy (2004)Silva, S.R.V.F. & Cecy, I.I.T. 2004. Desmídias (Zygnemaphyceae) da área de abrangência da Usina Hidrelétrica de Salto Caxias, Paraná, Brasil, I: Gênero Cosmarium. Iheringia - Série Botânica 59: 13-26., Picelli-Vicentim et al. (2001)Picelli-Vicentim, M.M., Treuersch, M. & Domingues, L.L. 2001. Fitoplâncton da Represa do Passaúna, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 28: 53-76, Felisberto & Rodrigues (2005aFelisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2005a. Influência do gradiente longitudinal (rio-barragem) na similaridade das comunidades de desmídias perifíticas. Revista Brasileira de Botânica 28: 241-254.,bFelisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2005b. Abundance of periphytic desmids in two Brazilian reservoirs with distinct environmental conditions. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia 17: 433-443., 2008Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2008. Desmidiaceae, Gonatozygaceae e Mesotaeniaceae na comunidade perifítica do reservatório de Salto do Vau (Bacia do rio Iguaçu, PR). Hoehnea 35: 235-254., 2010aFelisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2010a. Periphytic algal community in artificial and natural substratum in a tributary of the Rosana reservoir (Corvo Stream, Paraná State, Brazil). Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences 34: 365-371., b)Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2010b. Cosmarium (Desmidiaceae, Zygnemaphyceae) da ficoflórula perifítica do reservatório, bacia do rio Paranapanema, Paraná/São Paulo, Brasil. Hoehnea 37: 267-292., Bortolini et al. (2010a)Bortolini, J.C., Meurer, T. & Bueno, N.C. 2010a. Desmidias (Zygnemaphyceae) do Rio São João, Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 37: 293-313., Menezes et al. (2011bMenezes, V.C., Bueno, N.C., Bortolini, J.C., Biolo, S. & Siqueira, N.S. 2011b. O gênero Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae) no Reservatório de Itaipu, PR, Brasil. Hoehnea 38: 483-493., 2013Menezes, V.C., Bueno, N.C., Sobjak, T.M., Bortolini, J.C. & Temponi, L.G. 2013. Zygnemaphyceae associada à Utricularia foliosa L. no Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brasil. Iheringia Série Botânica 68: 5-26.) and Aquino et al. (2014)Aquino, C.A.N., Bueno, N.C. & Menezes, V.C. 2014. Desmidioflórula (Zygnemaphyceae, Desmidiales) do rio Cascavel, Oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 41: 365-392..

Cosmarium pseudopyramidatum Lund. var. pseudopyramidatum, Nova Acta Reg. Soc. Sci. Upsal., ser. 3, 8(2): 41, pl. 2, fig. 18. 1871.

Figures 27a-b

Morphometric data: L: 38.5-62.9 µm, W: 27.3-39.7 µm, I: 9.2-14 µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3962); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 13-XI-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3976); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 18-XII-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4035); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 15-I-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4044); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 6-II-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4057); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 4-IV-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4093); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 6-VI-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4116); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 16-VII-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4126).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: Cetto et al. (2004)Cetto, J.M., Leandrini, J.A., Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2004. Comunidade de algas perifíticas no reservatório de Iraí, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences 26: 1-7., Bortolini et al. (2010b)Bortolini, J.C., Bueno, N.C., Moresco, C., Biolo, S. & Siqueira, N.S. 2010b. Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae) em um lago artificial urbano, Paraná, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Biociências 8: 229-237., Ferreira et al. (2011)Ferreira, F.A., Mormul, R.P., Biolo, S. & Rodrigues, L. 2011. Podostemum rutifolium subsp. rutifolium como estruturador da comunidade de algas perifíticas em um rio neotropical. Rodriguésia 62: 813-825. and Menezes et al. (2013)Menezes, V.C., Bueno, N.C., Sobjak, T.M., Bortolini, J.C. & Temponi, L.G. 2013. Zygnemaphyceae associada à Utricularia foliosa L. no Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brasil. Iheringia Série Botânica 68: 5-26..

Cosmarium pseudoretusum F. Ducell. var. africanum (Fritsch) West & G. S.West, Gatt. 97. 1962.

Figures 28a-b

Morphometric data: L: 19.9-23.3 µm, W: 15.9-19 µm, I: 5.1-6.9 µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 30-VII-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3930); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 25-IX-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3943); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3962); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 13-XI-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3976); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 18-XII-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4035); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 15-I-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4044); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 6-II-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4057); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 11-III-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4081); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 4-IV-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4093); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 9-V-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4102); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 6-VI-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4116); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 16-VII-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4126).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: Aquino et al. (2014)Aquino, C.A.N., Bueno, N.C. & Menezes, V.C. 2014. Desmidioflórula (Zygnemaphyceae, Desmidiales) do rio Cascavel, Oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 41: 365-392..

Cosmarium pseudoretusum F. Ducell. var. pseudoretusum Krieger et Gerlof, Bull. Soc. Bot. Genève, II, 10: 99. 1918

Figures 29a-c

Cells of medium size, longer than wide. L: 32.2-34.5 µm, W: 26.1-27.8 µm, I: 8-12 µm. Median constriction deep, closed linear sinus, semicells slightly diverging and slightly retuse from the sinus, lateral margins rounded and basal margins strongly elliptic bearing a small papilla on either side, in apical and lateral view elliptic with a slight median swelling, cell wall punctate, the puncta stronger near the base, chloroplastid with 1 pyrenoid per semicell.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3962); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 18-XII- 2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4035); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 15-I-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4044); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 11-III-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4081); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 16-VII-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4126).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: First record of the taxon.

Cosmarium pseudoretusum Ducellier is very similar to C.trilobulatum Reinsch, differing solely because of its less flattened apex and tumid ventral view (Prescott et al. 1981Prescott, G.W., Croasdale, H.T., Vinyard, W.C. & Bicudo, C.E.M. 1981. A Synopsis of North American Desmids: part II. Desmidiaceae: Placodermae. Section 2-3. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.).

Cosmarium punctulatum Bréb. var. punctulatum Mém. Soc. Imp. Sci. Nat. Cherboug 4: 129,pl.1, fig. 16. 1856.

Figures 30a-c

Morphometric data: L: 15.0-28.1 µm, W: 21.0-25.6 µm, I: 7.0-8.4 µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 16-VII-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4126).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: Lozovei & Luz (1976)Lozovei, A.L. & Luz, E. 1976. Diptera Culicidae em Curitiba e arredores, 2: alimentação. Arquivos de Biologia e Tecnologia 19: 43-83.; Cecy et al. (1997)Cecy, I.I.T, Silva, S.R.V.F. & Boccon, R. 1997. Fitoplâncton da Represa do Rio Passaúna, Município de Araucária, Estado do Paraná. I - Divisão Chlorophyta - Família Desmidiaceae. Estudos de Biologia 41: 5-32.; Cetto et al. (2004)Cetto, J.M., Leandrini, J.A., Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2004. Comunidade de algas perifíticas no reservatório de Iraí, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences 26: 1-7.; Silva & Cecy (2004)Silva, S.R.V.F. & Cecy, I.I.T. 2004. Desmídias (Zygnemaphyceae) da área de abrangência da Usina Hidrelétrica de Salto Caxias, Paraná, Brasil, I: Gênero Cosmarium. Iheringia - Série Botânica 59: 13-26.; Felisberto & Rodrigues (2005bFelisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2005b. Abundance of periphytic desmids in two Brazilian reservoirs with distinct environmental conditions. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia 17: 433-443., 2008Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2008. Desmidiaceae, Gonatozygaceae e Mesotaeniaceae na comunidade perifítica do reservatório de Salto do Vau (Bacia do rio Iguaçu, PR). Hoehnea 35: 235-254., 2010bFelisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2010b. Cosmarium (Desmidiaceae, Zygnemaphyceae) da ficoflórula perifítica do reservatório, bacia do rio Paranapanema, Paraná/São Paulo, Brasil. Hoehnea 37: 267-292., 2012)Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2012. Dinâmica sucessional de comunidade de algas perifíticas em um ecossistema lótico subtropical. Rodriguésia 63: 463-473.; Algarte et al. (2006)Algarte, V.M., Moresco, C. & Rodrigues L. 2006. Algas do perifíton de distintos ambientes na planície de inundação do alto Rio Paraná. Acta Scientiarium. Biological Sciences 28: 243-251.; Bortolini et al. (2010a)Bortolini, J.C., Meurer, T. & Bueno, N.C. 2010a. Desmidias (Zygnemaphyceae) do Rio São João, Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 37: 293-313. e Aquino et al. (2014)Aquino, C.A.N., Bueno, N.C. & Menezes, V.C. 2014. Desmidioflórula (Zygnemaphyceae, Desmidiales) do rio Cascavel, Oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 41: 365-392..

Cosmarium pyramidatum var. borgei Krieger & Gerloff, Gatt. Cosmarium: 123, pl 25, fig. 5. 1965.

Figures 31a-d

Figure 31a-38c
Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs in lotic environment adjacent to the Iguaçu National Park. 31a-d. C. pyramidatum var. borgei. 31b. Detail of the punctuations. 31c. Lateral view. 31d. Apical view. 32. Cosmarium quadrum var. minus. 33a-b. C. regnellii var. minimum. 33b. Lateral view. 34a-b. C. repandum var. minus. 34b. Apical view. 35. C. securiforme var. brasiliense. 36a-b. C. sphagnicolum var. sphagnicolum. 36b. Apical view. 37a-b. C. subspeciosum var. subspeciosum. 37b. Lateral view. 38a-c. C. variolatum var. variolatum. 38b. Detail of the punctuations. 38c. Lateral view. Scale = 10 µm.

Cells of large size, longer than wide. L: 73.5 µm, W: 45.6 µm, I: 15.5 µm. Median constriction deep, closed linear sinus, pyramidal semicells with apical and basal margins rounded, bearing a conical protuberance on either side of the middle portion, lateral margins convex, in apical view elliptic, in lateral view elliptic-oblong, both with a swelling on either side of the semicell, cell wall diminutively punctate, chloroplastid with 1 to 5 pyrenoids.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 11-III-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4081).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: First record of the taxon.

According to Prescott et al. (1981)Prescott, G.W., Croasdale, H.T., Vinyard, W.C. & Bicudo, C.E.M. 1981. A Synopsis of North American Desmids: part II. Desmidiaceae: Placodermae. Section 2-3. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. the variety borgei Krieger & Gerloff, Gatt. differs from the typical variety by presenting a more rounded apex and by its conical protuberance in the middle portion of the semicell.

Cosmarium quadrum Lundell var. minus Nordst., Lund. Univ. Arsskr. 9(10): 11. 1873.

Figure 32

Morphometric data: L: 28.5-38.3 µm, W: 28.9-38.3 µm, I: 9.2-12.2 µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 25-IX-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3943); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3962); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 13-XI-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3976); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 18-XII-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4035); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 15-I-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4044); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 6-II-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4057); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 11-III-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4081); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 9-V-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4102); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 6-VI-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4116).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: Felisberto & Rodrigues (2005aFelisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2005a. Influência do gradiente longitudinal (rio-barragem) na similaridade das comunidades de desmídias perifíticas. Revista Brasileira de Botânica 28: 241-254., bFelisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2005b. Abundance of periphytic desmids in two Brazilian reservoirs with distinct environmental conditions. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia 17: 433-443.), Bortolini et al. (2010b)Bortolini, J.C., Bueno, N.C., Moresco, C., Biolo, S. & Siqueira, N.S. 2010b. Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae) em um lago artificial urbano, Paraná, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Biociências 8: 229-237., Menezes et al. (2011b)Menezes, V.C., Bueno, N.C., Bortolini, J.C., Biolo, S. & Siqueira, N.S. 2011b. O gênero Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae) no Reservatório de Itaipu, PR, Brasil. Hoehnea 38: 483-493. and Aquino et al. (2014)Aquino, C.A.N., Bueno, N.C. & Menezes, V.C. 2014. Desmidioflórula (Zygnemaphyceae, Desmidiales) do rio Cascavel, Oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 41: 365-392..

Cosmarium regnellii var. minimum Eichler & Gutwinski, 164, pl. IV [4], fig. 6. 1894.

Figures 33a-b

Cells of small to medium size, longer than wide. L: 11.6-12 µm, W: 9.1-10.7 µm, I: 2.9-4 µm. Median constriction deep, closed linear sinus, trapeziform to hexagonal semicells, lateral margins slightly diverging, smooth, with basal, lateral and apical angles rounded, apical margin broadly truncate, in apical view elliptic, in lateral view oval, cell wall smooth, chloroplastid with 1 pyrenoid per semicell.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 30-VIII-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3930); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3962); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 06-II-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4057).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: First record of the taxon.

Cosmarium regnellii var. minimum Eichler & Gutwinski differs by having lateral lobes shorter and less apparent when compared to the typical variety, besides showing smaller cells and a small swelling in the midregion of the semicells.

Cosmarium repandum var. minus (West & West) Krieger & Gerloff, nov. stat. Gatt. Cosmarium: 234.1965.

Figures 34a-b

Cells of small size, longer than wider. L: 16.5-16.6 µm, W: 14.5-14.9 µm, I: 5.9-6.1 µm. Median constriction deep, narrow linear sinus, semicells transversally oblong-trapeziform, lateral margins distinctly diverging, apical margin slightly truncate and with rounded angles, in apical view cell elliptic, in lateral view semicell subcircular, smooth cell wall, chloroplastid with pyrenoids not observed.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 30-VII-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3930); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 09-V-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4102).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: First record of the taxon.

The variety minus (West & West) Krieger & Gerloff differs from the typical variety of the species by presenting smaller measures. The measures of the typical species are: L: 40-56 µm, W: 35-45 µm and I: 12-21 µm (Prescott et al. 1981Prescott, G.W., Croasdale, H.T., Vinyard, W.C. & Bicudo, C.E.M. 1981. A Synopsis of North American Desmids: part II. Desmidiaceae: Placodermae. Section 2-3. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.).

Cosmarium securiforme Borge var. brasilienseGrönblad, Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn., sér. B, 2(6): 21, fig. 140. 1945Grönblad, R. 1945. De algus brasiliensibus: praecipue Desmidiacius, in regione inferiore fluminis Amazonas. Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae 2: 1-43..

Figure 35

Cells of large size, wider than long. L: 113.7-127.6 µm, W: 117.3-132.2 µm, I: 30.3-30.9 µm. Median constriction deep, angular median sinus, open, semicells oval-acuminated with lateral margins slightly convex and rounded apical margins, acute basal angles ending in a small bifurcation facing upwards, in apical view fusiform, cell wall finely punctate, eight chloroplastids with several scattered pyrenoids.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3962).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: First record of the taxon.

According to Grönblad (1945)Grönblad, R. 1945. De algus brasiliensibus: praecipue Desmidiacius, in regione inferiore fluminis Amazonas. Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae 2: 1-43.apudOliveira et al. (2010)Oliveira, I.B., Bicudo, C.E.M., Moura, C.W.N. 2010. Contribuição ao conhecimento de Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae, Zygnematophyceae) para a Bahia e o Brasil. Hoehnea 37: 571-600. the brasiliense variety differs from the typical by having two to three spines in the lateral angles.

Cosmarium sphagnicolum var. sphagnicolum West & G.S.West, Alg. S. England, p. 4S6, t. 6, f. 13-14. 1897.

Figures 36a-b

Morphometric data: L: 6.8-7.4 µm, W: 6.1-8.3 µm, I: 3.1-3.6 µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 30-VIII-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3930); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 25-IX-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3943).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: Aquino et al. (2014)Aquino, C.A.N., Bueno, N.C. & Menezes, V.C. 2014. Desmidioflórula (Zygnemaphyceae, Desmidiales) do rio Cascavel, Oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 41: 365-392..

Cosmarium subspeciosum var. subspeciosum Nordst., Ofvers. K. [Svenska] Vet.-Akad. Förh. 32(6): 22, pl. VI, fig. 13. 1875.

Figures 37a-b

Morphometric data: L: 47 µm, W: 34.3 µm, I: 11.3 µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae 3962); Tenente João Gualberto stream, 11-III-2013, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae4081).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: Felisberto & Rodrigues (2005aFelisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2005a. Influência do gradiente longitudinal (rio-barragem) na similaridade das comunidades de desmídias perifíticas. Revista Brasileira de Botânica 28: 241-254., 2008)Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2008. Desmidiaceae, Gonatozygaceae e Mesotaeniaceae na comunidade perifítica do reservatório de Salto do Vau (Bacia do rio Iguaçu, PR). Hoehnea 35: 235-254.; Bortolini et al. (2010b)Bortolini, J.C., Bueno, N.C., Moresco, C., Biolo, S. & Siqueira, N.S. 2010b. Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae) em um lago artificial urbano, Paraná, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Biociências 8: 229-237.; Menezes et al. (2011b)Menezes, V.C., Bueno, N.C., Bortolini, J.C., Biolo, S. & Siqueira, N.S. 2011b. O gênero Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs (Desmidiaceae) no Reservatório de Itaipu, PR, Brasil. Hoehnea 38: 483-493. and Aquino et al. (2014)Aquino, C.A.N., Bueno, N.C. & Menezes, V.C. 2014. Desmidioflórula (Zygnemaphyceae, Desmidiales) do rio Cascavel, Oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Hoehnea 41: 365-392..

Cosmarium variolatum var. variolatum Lundell, Nova Acta R. Soc. Sc.Upsal., 3,8(2): 41, pl. 2, fig. 19. 1871.

Figures 38a-c

Cells of medium size, longer than wide. L: 29.2-34.3 µm, W: 19.7-21 µm, I: 5.8-6.3 µm. Median constriction deep, closed sinus except at the extremities, semielliptic semicells with basal angles slightly rounded, lateral margins convex, apical margin truncate, in apical and lateral view elliptics, cell wall densely scrobiculated, chloroplastid with 1 pyrenoid per semicell.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: São Miguel do Iguaçu, Tenente João Gualberto stream, 29-X-2012, L.C. Servat (UNOP-Algae3962).

Geographic distribution in the Paraná State: First record of the taxon.

This species is characterized mainly by the cell walls which have dense and rough scrobiculations (Prescott et al. 1981Prescott, G.W., Croasdale, H.T., Vinyard, W.C. & Bicudo, C.E.M. 1981. A Synopsis of North American Desmids: part II. Desmidiaceae: Placodermae. Section 2-3. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.).

Of the 37 specific and infraspecific taxa of Cosmarium identified in this study, 15 constitute new records for the Paraná State: Cosmarium bipunctatum, C. clepsidra var. bicardia, C. crenatum var. crenatum, C. difficile var. dilatatum, C. isthmochondrum var. isthmochondrum, C.obsoletum var. obsoletum, C. ordinatum var. ordinatum, C.ornatum var. ornatum f. ornatum, C. pseudoconnatum var. pluriradians, C. pseudoretusum var. pseudoretusum, C. pyramidatum var. borgei, C.regnellii var. minimum, C. repandum var. minus, C. securiforme var. brasiliense and C. variolatum var. variolatum.

The taxa with highest frequency of occurrence were: Cosmarium pseudoretusum var. africanum (100%), C. pseudoconnatum var. pseudoconnatum (83%), C. quadrum var. minus (75%), C. bipunctatum (66%), C. pseudopyramidatum var. pseudopyramidatum (66%) and Cosmarium istmochondrum var. istmochondrum (50%). Regarding the months of study, October 2012 presented the greatest number of taxa (25 taxa), while May 2013 presented the lower number (4 taxa) (table 1).

Table 1
Distribution of the Cosmarium taxa at the Tenente João Gualberto stream, Paraná, Brazil. Emphasizing the presence (●) or absence (-) of taxa.

The number of Cosmarium taxa found was considered intermediate in comparison with other periphytic studies to Paraná. Among the taxonomic studies, stand out: Felisberto & Rodrigues (2008)Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2008. Desmidiaceae, Gonatozygaceae e Mesotaeniaceae na comunidade perifítica do reservatório de Salto do Vau (Bacia do rio Iguaçu, PR). Hoehnea 35: 235-254. presenting 17 species to Salto do Vau Reservoir; Felisberto & Rodrigues (2010b)Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2010b. Cosmarium (Desmidiaceae, Zygnemaphyceae) da ficoflórula perifítica do reservatório, bacia do rio Paranapanema, Paraná/São Paulo, Brasil. Hoehnea 37: 267-292. with 48 species to Rosana Reservoir; Biolo & Rodrigues (2011) with 4 taxa to Ressaco do Pau Véio and Menezes et al. (2013)Menezes, V.C., Bueno, N.C., Sobjak, T.M., Bortolini, J.C. & Temponi, L.G. 2013. Zygnemaphyceae associada à Utricularia foliosa L. no Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brasil. Iheringia Série Botânica 68: 5-26. with 13 taxa to Iguaçu National Park. In ecological studies we can mention: Cetto et al. (2004)Cetto, J.M., Leandrini, J.A., Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2004. Comunidade de algas perifíticas no reservatório de Iraí, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences 26: 1-7. that list 11 taxa to Irai Reservoir; Felisberto & Rodrigues (2005a)Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2005a. Influência do gradiente longitudinal (rio-barragem) na similaridade das comunidades de desmídias perifíticas. Revista Brasileira de Botânica 28: 241-254. with 57 taxa to Rosana and Salto do Vau Reservoir; Felisberto & Rodrigues (2005b)Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2005b. Abundance of periphytic desmids in two Brazilian reservoirs with distinct environmental conditions. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia 17: 433-443. with 22 taxa also to Rosana and Salto do Vau Reservoir; Felisberto & Rodrigues (2010a)Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2010a. Periphytic algal community in artificial and natural substratum in a tributary of the Rosana reservoir (Corvo Stream, Paraná State, Brazil). Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences 34: 365-371. with 49 taxa to Corvo Stream and Felisberto & Rodrigues (2012)Felisberto, S.A. & Rodrigues, L. 2012. Dinâmica sucessional de comunidade de algas perifíticas em um ecossistema lótico subtropical. Rodriguésia 63: 463-473. with 26 species to Corvo River.

This study, although of qualitative character, highlights the importance of the knowledge regarding the phycological flora of Paraná, due the high number of taxa recorded. Such findings emphasize the need to know the taxa biogeography, in order to serve as a comparative base for ecological studies in continental aquatic environments, as well as to proposed preservation and biological conservation measures.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Fundação Araucária for providing the post-graduate scholarship to CANA and LCS, also Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq for providing the post-doctoral scholarship to JCB (process 165796/2015-4). NCB is grateful to the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq, for the research grant (process 307196/2013-5).

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Oct-Dec 2016

History

  • Received
    07 July 2016
  • Accepted
    04 Nov 2016
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