Follicular and mantle cell lymphoma are low-grade B-cell malignancies that lack good responses to chemoimmunotherapy. This study aimed to assess retrospectively clinicopathological features and to determine independent prognostic factors for follicular and mantle cell lymphoma patients treated at two Brazilian medical centers: the Hematology and Hemotherapy Center of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), a public university hospital, and AC. Camargo Cancer Center, a specialized cancer center.
Two hundred and twenty-seven follicular and 112 mantle cell lymphoma cases were diagnosed between 1999 and 2016. Archived paraffin blocks were retrieved and reviewed. Corresponding demographics and clinical data were recovered from medical charts. Outcome analyses considered both overall and event-free survival.
For follicular lymphoma treated with the R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin hydrochloride, vincristine sulfate, prednisone) and R-CVP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine sulfate, prednisone) regimens, both B-symptoms (p-value < 0.01 for overall and event-free survival) and high-risk Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (p-value < 0.01 for overall survival) were independently associated to worse prognosis. Maintenance with rituximab improved the prognosis (p-value < 0.01 for overall survival). For mantle cell lymphoma, B-symptoms (p-value = 0.03 for overall survival and event-free survival) and bone marrow infiltration (p-value = 0.01 for overall survival) independently predicted reduced survival, and rituximab at induction increased both event-free and overall survival (p-value < 0.01 in both analyses). Combinations of these deleterious features could identify extremely poor prognostic subgroups. The administration of rituximab was more frequent in the AC. Camargo Cancer Center, which was the institution associated with better overall survival for both neoplasias.
This study represents the largest cohort of follicular and mantle cell lymphoma in South America thus far. Some easily assessable clinical variables were able to predict prognosis and should be considered in low-income centers. In addition, the underuse of rituximab in the Brazilian public health system should be reconsidered in future health policies.
Follicular lymphoma; Mantle cell lymphoma; Histopathology; Prognosis