Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: This study was performed to evaluate the degree of 3-day chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in children with cancer who received highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) to ascertain the efficacy of aprepitant single-dose on dayL 1 plus granisetron and dexamethasone (DEX). Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted on 120 patients in the age range of 5 to 18 years old who received chemotherapy. Patients were divided into two groups; Group A received aprepitant at 125 mg/kg on day 1 orally, followed by 80 mg/kg daily on days 2 and 3 and Group B received a single dose of aprepitant 125 mg/kg on day 1 orally and placebo on days 2 and 3. All groups received granisetron 3 mg/m2 on day 1 and DEX on days 1 to 3. The primary and secondary endpoints were to evaluate the proportion of patients with acute, delayed and overall CINV within each group. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups for vomiting, nausea or the use of rescue therapy. The number of patients without vomiting on day 1 was similar in both groups (96.5% vs. 98.3%, respectively; p = 0.848). Conclusion: According to the results of this study, a single dose of aprepitant 125 mg/kg was as effective as administering three doses of aprepitant on 3 days. Therefore, the use of a single dose of aprepitant in combination with other standard treatment regimens to prevent CINV in children who received HEC was safe and efficacious and can be beneficial.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: To translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the Sickle Cell Self-Efficacy Scale for application in the Brazilian cultural context. Methods: This is a methodological study performed in 6 steps: 1- Forward translation; 2- Translation synthesis; 3- Back-translation; 4- Assessment by expert committee, with computation of the Content Validity Index (CVI); 5- Cultural adequacy (pre-test); 6- Reproducibility. A pre-test was performed with the participation of 10 adolescents/young adults with sickle cell disease through a telephone call and their responses were recorded on a form in a web platform. The instrument validation step was carried out with 55 adolescents/young adults with sickle cell disease, 43 of them having participated in the retest. The analysis of internal consistency and reproducibility was calculated using the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), in the R statistical programming environment. Results: The translated instrument had good acceptance among the experts, reaching an average CVI of 1.0. In assessing reliability, the scale showed acceptable internal consistency, with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.84. In the agreement analysis, the ICC was 0.923 (95% CI: 0.857 to 0.958), which indicates good temporal reproducibility. Conclusions: Following the process of translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation, we obtained the Brazilian version of the Sickle Cell Self-Efficacy Scale, considered valid and reliable to be applied to adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease in Brazil.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (allo-HSCT) patients are exposed to acute and chronic nephrotoxic events (drugs, hypotension, infections, and microangiopathy). The need for hemodialysis (HD) may be associated with high mortality rates. However, the risk factors and clinical impact of HD are poorly understood. Aim: To analyze survival and risk factors associated with HD in allo-HSCT Patients and methods: single-center cohort study 185 (34 HD cases versus 151 controls) consecutive adult allo-HSCT patients from 2007-2019. We performed univariate statistical analysis, then logistic regression and competing risk regression were used to multivariate analysis. Survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional-hazards models. Results: The one-year HD cumulative incidence was 17.6%. Univariate analysis revealed that HD was significantly associated with male gender, age (p 0.056), haploidentical donor, grade II-IV acute GVHD, polymyxin B, amikacin, cidofovir, microangiopathy, septic shock (norepinephrine use) and steroid exposure. The median days of glycopeptides exposure (teicoplanin/vancomycin) was 16 (HD) versus 10 (no HD) (p 0.088). In multivariate analysis, we found: norepinephrine (hazard ratio, HR:3.3; 95% confidence interval, 95%CI:1.2-8.9; p 0.024), cidofovir drug (HR:11.0; 95%CI:4.6 - 26.0; p < 0.001), haploidentical HSCT (HR:1.94; 95%CI:0.81-4.65; p 0.14) and Age (HR:1.01; 95%CI: 0.99-1.03; p 0.18). The HD group had higher mortality rate (HR:6.68; 95% CI: 4.1-10.9; p < 0.001). Conclusion: HD was associated with decreased survival in allo-HSCT. Carefully use of nephrotoxic drugs and improving immune reconstitution could reduce severe infections (shock) and patients requiring cidofovir, which taken together may result in lower rates of HD, therefore improving survival.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: COVID-19 disease presentation is heterogeneous, from asymptomatic up to severe life-threatening forms. Getting further insights into patients with specific diseases is of particular interest. We aimed to identify profiles of hematology patients hospitalized with COVID-19 that would be associated with survival and to assess the differences between cohorts Methods: A binational cohort of 263 patients with COVID-19 and hematological disease was studied in Paris, France and São Paulo, Brazil. Patient profiles were based on age, comorbidities, biological measurements, COVID-19 symptoms and hematological disease characteristics. A semi-supervised learning method with a survival endpoint was first used, following which, a classifier was identified to allow the classification of patients using only baseline information Main results: Two profiles of patients were identified, one being young patients with few comorbidities and low C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimers, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatinine levels, and the other, older patients, with several comorbidities and high levels of the 4 biology markers. The profiles were strongly associated with survival (p < 0.0001), even after adjusting for age (p = 0.0002). The 30-day survival rate was 77.1% in the first profiles, versus 46.7% in the second. The Brazilian analysis emphasized the importance of age, while the French focused on the comorbidities Conclusion: This analysis showed the importance of CRP, LHD and creatinine in the COVID-19 presentation and prognosis, whatever the geographic origin of the patients.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: To date, 340 antigen-organized 43 blood group systems are recognized, being ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS and Diego the most clinically relevant. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of alleles and genotypes of the blood group systems Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS and Diego in 810 blood donors registered in the hemotherapy unit in northwest Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Methods: We evaluated the genetic variability of blood groups Rh (c.676G>C and c.307C>T), Kell (c.578C>T), Kidd (c.838A>G), Duffy (c.125A>G and c.l-67T>C), Diego (c.2561C>T) and MNS (c.143T>C) in 810 volunteer blood donors of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The genetic profiling was performed through allelic discrimination assays using hydrolysis probes (TaqMan®) real-time PCR system. Results: The most frequent blood group genotypes found in our study population were: RHC*Cc (51.5%), RHC*ee (70.1%), FY*A/FY*B (49.3%), GATA -67T/T (93.5%), KEL*2/KEL*2 (93.4%), Jk*A/JK*B (53.2%) and DI*02/DI*02 (95.4%). Some statistical differences were observed on comparing the population of this study with populations from other states in Brazil, mainly with population of Minas Gerais, Bahia and Paraná, which showed some differences from the population of Porto Alegre, which was more similar to those of Santa Catarina and São Paulo Conclusion: The frequency of red blood cell polymorphisms in our study is different from that of blood donors in other regions of Brazil. The results showed the importance of extended genotyping in adequate blood screening and the existence of rare genotypes in Brazilian regular blood donors
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) not only remains the main cause of late mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant, but also has the capacity of causing severe organ impairment in those who survive. The Notch, a highly conserved ligand-receptor pathway, is involved in many immunological processes, including inflammatory and regulatory responses. Recently, mouse models have shown that the blockage of canonical Notch signaling prevents GvHD. Objective and Method: Due to the lack of data on the Notch pathway in human chronic GvHD, we sought to study the expression of NOTCH components in primary samples of patients who received allo-HCT and presented active cGvHD or a long-term clinical tolerance to cGvHD. Results: Our results showed a significantly lower expression of NOTCH components in both groups that received allo-HCT, independently of their cGvHD status, when compared to healthy controls. Conclusion: Moreover, there were no differences in gene expression levels between the active cGvHD and clinically tolerant groups. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies performed in human primary samples and our data indicate that much remains to be learned regarding NOTCH signaling as a new regulator of GvHD.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Lymphopenia is a laboratory marker of poor prognosis and severity of disease in the SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study aims to describe the immune profile of a Brazilian population. Methods: A total of 121 consecutive patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) were analyzed between April and June 2020. Routine peripheral blood counts and multiparametric flow cytometry were performed on admission to assess lymphocytes and subsets (CD3, CD4, CD8). Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from hospital sources. Results: The total of 116 patients included 63 (54.3%) males; 76 (62.8%) COVID-19 patients were divided, based on clinical characteristics and mechanical ventilation (MV) use, into moderate (n = 41; no MV) and severe (n = 35; MV) groups. The control group (n = 40) was comprised of patients with SARS of different etiologies. All patients had lymphopenia, with overall lymphocyte counts and their subsets considerably lower in severe patients, when compared to the moderate and controls. Patients with a high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (> 15.2) and T-cell lymphopenia (CD3 < 593 cells/μL, CD4 < 326 cells/μL, CD8 < 121 cells/μL) had a higher risk of being intubated and progressing to death. A total of 39 patients (95.1%) in the moderate group and 54.3% (n = 19) in the severe group were discharged; 28 patients died. Conclusion: Laboratory assessment of the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and T-cell subsets may be predictive of mortality and may be useful for stratifying COVID-19 patients.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Anemia is a common issue in surgical patients and has been associated with worse clinical outcomes, such as a higher probability of transfusions and longer hospital stay. Therefore, Patient Blood Management programs are actively aiming to achieve early identification and treatment of anemia, previous to the surgery. Methods and materials: In this study, preoperative hemoglobin within the Blood Order Schedule (BOS) at 16 blood centers in several Brazilian regions were retrospectively evaluated. Data regarding hemoglobin, age, gender and Brazilian regions were further analyzed. Results: From the 20,201 BOSs evaluated, the mean age was 55.65 ± 23.52 years old, with an overall prevalence of preoperative anemia of 60.9%. Women had a lower mean preoperative hemoglobin (11.74 ± 2.84 for women and 12.27 ± 3.06 for men) and higher prevalence of anemia than men (66% of females and 52.2% of males). The individuals over 65 years old and under 18 were the most affected by preoperative anemia. All regions had a high prevalence of preoperative anemia, without any direct association with the Human Development Index. Conclusion: In summary, upon evaluating the BOS, our study showed a high prevalence of preoperative anemia in all Brazilian regions, regardless of the gender and age group, but that women and individuals less than 18 or over 65 years old have an even higher prevalence of preoperative anemia. This information can identify the institutions in which preoperative anemia is a critical issue and in which new strategies, such as preoperative screening clinics, might be helpful.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: The knowledge of clinicians regarding blood transfusion services may impact patient care and transfusion outcome. The wide variation in transfusion practices among clinicians leads to inappropriate blood product usage and jeopardizes patient safety. Hence, this survey study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice among the residents and interns of safe blood transfusion. Methods: The online survey was based on self-administered questionnaires of three sections: 1. Demography; 2. Knowledge, and; 3. Attitude and Practice. One point was assigned for the correct response of each question in every section. The knowledge score was further categorized into three categories, depending on the points obtained. The participants were also divided into four groups, depending on their experience. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to determine the difference of knowledge and practice scores in three designated groups of residents and interns. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Result: A total of 247 residents and interns participated in this study. Thirteen participants had an incomplete response. Out of 234 participants, Senior Residents (SR), Junior Residents (JR), and interns were 70, 96 and 68 participants, respectively. The knowledge scores of interns were significantly low, as compared to SRs and JRs. Practice scores of interns were also significantly low, compared to the JRs. However, most of the residents and interns (85%) were aware of the pre-transfusion testing. Conclusion: Therefore, the mandatory incorporation of the transfusion medicine subject in the undergraduate curriculum can help the young budding doctors to better implement the patient blood management.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Hypogonadism is one of the most frequent complications in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients and early recognition and treatment is the core element in restoring impaired gonadal function. Despite the high burden of disease, relevant studies are scarcely addressing the gonadal function of such patients in Bangladesh. The pattern of gonadal function in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients must be characterized before planning a generalized management plan. Moreover, since iron overload is a key reason behind hypogonadism in thalassemia patients, investigating the role of serum ferritin level as a diagnostic tool for hypongadism was also an aim of this study. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Transfusion Medicine of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 94 patients were enrolled in this study. A detailed history and thorough clinical examination were carried out in each patient and recorded using a pretested structured questionnaire. In addition, the laboratory assessment of serum ferritin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone and estradiol in serum were also performed. The data were analyzed using the STATA (v.16). Results: The mean age of the patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia was 18.81 ± 4.65 (SD), with 53.3% of the patients being male. The overall prevalence of hypogonadism was 35.11%, 18.1% being normogonadotropic, 11.7% being hypogonadotropic and 5.3% being hypergonadotropic. The serum ferritin level was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in patients with hypogonadism (Eugonadal: 2,174.79 (± 749.12) ng/ml; Hypogonadal: 3,572.59 (± 1,199.49) ng/ml). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of serum ferritin was high (0.83) and the p-value was highly significant (< 0.001). Conclusion: Therefore, the serum ferritin level and gonadal hormone analysis of transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients can be considered a screening tool for assessing gonadal function and early detection and prevention of hypogonadism.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The oral involvement in the Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation is well described in the literature. The goal of the dental treatment and management of the oral lesions related to the HSCT is to reduce the harm caused by preexisting oral infection or even the worsening of oral acute/chronic GVHD and late effects. The aim of this guideline was to discuss the dental management of patients subjected to HSCT, considering three phases of the HSCT: pre-HSCT, acute phase, and late phase. The literature published from 2010 to 2020 was reviewed in order to identify dental interventions in this patient population. The selected papers were divided into three groups: pre-HSCT, acute and late, and were reviewed by the SBTMO Dental Committee's members. When necessary, an expertise opinion was considered for better translating the guideline recommendations to our population dental characteristics. This manuscript focused on the pre-HSCT dental management. The objective of the pre-HSCT dental management is to identify possible dental situations that On behalf of the Dental Committee of the Brazilian Society of Gene Therapy and Bone Marrow Transplantation (SBTMO) can worsening during the acute phase after the HSCT. Each guideline recommendations were made considering the Dentistry Specialties. The clinical consensus on dental management prior to HSCT provides professional health caregivers with clinical setting-specific information to help with the management of dental problems in patients to be subjected to HSCT.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT During the state of immune vulnerability in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the patient has an increased risk of developing a vast number of complications, including severe problems in the oral cavity. These situations require professional oral care to act in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions, as well as to develop prevention protocols to minimize patient's complications. Oral mucositis, opportunistic infections, bleeding, specific microbiota, taste, and salivary alterations are complications that can occur during HSCT and interfere with various aspects, such as pain control, oral intake, nutrition, bacteremia and sepsis, days of hospitalization and morbidity. Several guidelines have been published to address the role of professional oral care during the HSCT, we describe a consensus regarding these recommendations.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) might present acute and late toxicities and the oral tissues are frequently affected. With the survival increasing, patients show late and long-term morbidities, and there is an important association between the general and the oral health. The first and second parts of this Consensus have showed the importance of the adequacy of oral health in the pre-HSCT, and the main alterations and oral care during the period of admission for HSCT. This third part aims to review specific themes of post-HSCT dental care, such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and the pediatric patient. It also aims to review pertinent subjects, both during the HSCT period and post-HSCT, concerning quality of life, pain, cost-effectiveness, and remote care. Based on this review, it is evident the importance of the work of the dental surgeon (DS) in the follow-up and treatment of the HSCT patient, always collaborating with the whole multidisciplinary team.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Infection is a major complication in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Newly diagnosed patients are at high risk of developing infection caused by encapsulated bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophylus influenzae. Method and Results: However, once treatment is initiated, the spectrum of pathogens causing infection broadens, depending on the treatment regimens. With disease progression, cumulative immunosuppression occurs as a consequence of multiple treatment lines and the risk of infection further increases. On the other hand, the use of targeted therapies in the treatment of CLL have brought new risks of infection, with an increased incidence of invasive fungal diseases, particularly aspergillosis, in patients receiving Bruton kinase inhibitors. Conclusion: In this article, we review the epidemiology of infection in patients with CLL, taking into account the treatment regimen, and briefly discuss the management of infection.