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International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology, Volume: 21, Issue: 4, Published: 2017
  • Perception of Noise Pollution in a Youth and Adults School in Curitiba-PR Original Research

    Borges, Orlando; Ribas, Angela; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio De Oliveira; Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira; Riesemberg, Renato; Klagenberg, Karlin

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Nowadays noise remains the third largest cause of environmental pollution on Earth. It appears that despite the existing noise control legislation the issue deserves further supervision by the public authorities so that the ceilings established for the various activities are observed. People exposed to noise are more likely to develop numerous auditory and non-auditory problems directly impacting persona family and working life. Objectives The objective of this study is to research and consequently understand how the population of students of a youth and adult school in Curitiba perceives noise pollution as well as look into the actions that the school adopts in order to guide the students on the topic. Method We applied a structured questionnaire to 120 individuals and assessed the following variables: characterization of the place of residence occupation leisure health and perception of soundscapes. We also applied a closed questionnaire about educational actions for noise pollution to the school’s geography teacher. Results Questionnaire responses show that people perceive noise in the most diverse environments they frequent and are able to identify the source of the noise but this perception proved fragile as themajority does not takemeasures to prevent ormitigate these noises. At school there are no actions aimed at environmental education on the subject studied. Conclusion The studied group does not perceive the noise as a harmful agent and does not prevent themselves from it and the school not work contents related to noise pollution leaving a significant gap in the awareness process of this population.
  • Air and Bone Conduction Frequency-specific Auditory Brainstem Response in Children with Agenesis of the External Auditory Canal Original Research

    Sleifer, Pricila; Didoné, Dayane Domeneghini; Keppeler, Ísis Bicca; Bueno, Claudine Devicari; Riesgo, Rudimar dos Santos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction The tone-evoked auditory brainstem responses (tone-ABR) enable the differential diagnosis in the evaluation of children until 12 months of age, including those with external and/or middle ear malformations. The use of auditory stimuli with frequency specificity by air and bone conduction allows characterization of hearing profile. Objective The objective of our study was to compare the results obtained in tone-ABR by air and bone conduction in children until 12 months, with agenesis of the external auditory canal. Method The study was cross-sectional, observational, individual, and contemporary. We conducted the research with tone-ABR by air and bone conduction in the frequencies of 500 Hz and 2000 Hz in 32 children, 23 boys, from one to 12 months old, with agenesis of the external auditory canal. Results The tone-ABR thresholds were significantly elevated for air conduction in the frequencies of 500 Hz and 2000 Hz, while the thresholds of bone conduction had normal values in both ears. We found no statistically significant difference between genders and ears for most of the comparisons. Conclusion The thresholds obtained by bone conduction did not alter the thresholds in children with conductive hearing loss. However, the conductive hearing loss alter all thresholds by air conduction. The tone-ABR by bone conduction is an important tool for assessing cochlear integrity in children with agenesis of the external auditory canal under 12 months.
  • Variation in the Hearing Threshold in Women during the Menstrual Cycle Original Research

    Souza, Dayse da Silva; Luckwu, Brunna; Andrade, Wagner Teobaldo Lopes de; Pessoa, Luciane Spinelli de Figueiredo; Nascimento, João Agnaldo do; Rosa, Marine Raquel Diniz da

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction The hormonal changes that occur during the menstrual cycle and their relationship with hearing problems have been studied. However, they have not been well explained. Objective The objective of our study is to investigate the variation in hearing thresholds in women during the menstrual cycle. Method We conducted a cohort and longitudinal study. It was composed of 30 volunteers, aged 18-39 years old, of which 20 were women during the phases of the menstrual cycle and 10 were men (control group) who underwent audiometry and impedance exams, to correlate the possible audiological changes in each phase of the menstrual cycle. Results There were significant changes in hearing thresholds observed during the menstrual cycle phases in the group of women who used hormonal contraceptives and the group who did not use such contraceptives. Improved hearing thresholds were observed in the late follicular phase in the group who did not use hormonal contraceptives and the hearing thresholds at high frequencies were better. Throughout the menstrual cycle phases, the mean variation was 3.6 db HL between weeks in the group who used hormonal contraceptives and 4.09 db HL in the group who did not use them. Conclusions The present study found that there may be a relationship between hearing changes and hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle based on changes in the hearing thresholds of women. In addition, this study suggests that estrogen has an otoprotective effect on hearing, since the best hearing thresholds were found when estrogen was at its maximum peak.
  • Evaluation of the Efficacy and Tolerability of Oral Ciprofloxacin used in the Comprehensive Treatment of External Bacterial Otitis: An Observational Prospective Study Original Research

    Gurov, Alexander Vladimirovich; Kriukov, Andrey Ivanovich; Kunelskaya, Vera Yakovlevna; Isotova, Galina Nikolaevna; Shadrin, Georgiy Borisovich; Luchsheva, Yuliya Vladislavovna; Yakimov, Vladislav Olegovich; Garg, Amit; Akku, Shyam Prasad; Gupta, Namita

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Otitis Externa is common ear infection with a prevalence of 1%. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical and microbiological efficacy and safety profile with oral ciprofloxacin in the external bacterial otitis (EBO) management. Methods This is a prospective observational study conducted with EBO outpatients referred to the otorhinolaryngology center in Moscow betweenMarch and August 2013. Our study included patients from two cohorts, acute external bacterial otitis (AEBO) - Group 1 - and exacerbation of chronic otitis externa (CEBO) - Group 2. We administered Ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily with standard topical EBO treatment for up to 10 days. Patients underwent evaluation on study visit days 1, 3, 5, and 10 for the severity. Bacteriological examination of ear canal cultures took place on Day 1 and Day 10. Results We collected data from 60 EBO outpatients (AEBO: N = 30 and CEBO: N = 30). Swimming was the major risk factor associated with the disease in addition to the most common pathogenic organisms - Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. was We attained complete resolution of the inflammatory process in 28 (93%) and 27 (90%) patients in the AEBO and CEBO group, respectively. We confirmed this by microbiological test with almost complete eradication of the causative organisms. Overall, we observed good positive dynamics of ear canal with no major side effects. Conclusion We found that Ciprofloxacin 500 mg, when administered orally twice daily for 7 to 10 days in otitis externa patients is clinically and microbiologically effective and comparatively safer than other antimicrobials.
  • Frequency Dependence Hearing Loss Evaluation in Perforated Tympanic Membrane Original Research

    Dawood, Mohammed Radef

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Tympanic membrane perforation is a relatively common problem that predisposes patients to varying degrees of conductive hearing loss. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate and analyze the frequency dependence hearing loss in tympanic membrane perforation based on the size and the site of perforation. Methods For the study, I selected 71 patients’ (89) ears for the cross-sectional study with tympanic membrane perforations; I examined the size and the site of perforations under the microscope and classified them into small, moderate, large, and subtotal perforations, and into anterior central, posterior central, malleolor central, and big central perforations. I measured mean level of speech frequencies hearing loss, and its relation with the site and the size of the perforation analyzed. Results The mean hearing loss at different sizes of the perforation at all speech frequencies was 37.4 dB, with ABG of 26.6 dB, and its maximum loss was detected in subtotal perforation of 42.3 dB, with ABG of 33.7 dB, at 500 Hz frequency, while in relation to the sites, it was 38.2 dB, with ABG of 26.8 dB, and its maximum loss was detected in big central site perforation of 42.1 dB, with ABG of 33.6 dB, at 500 Hz frequency. Conclusions The hearing loss was proportionally related with the sizes of the perforations, and the posterior site had greater impact on the hearing than anterior site perforations. This was also applied to the frequency dependence hearing level, as was detected to be worse at lower frequencies as 500 Hz, than those of 1000-2000 Hz.
  • Surgical Treatment of Acquired Atresia of the External Auditory Ear Canal Original Research

    Droessaert, Valerie; Vanspauwen, Robby; Offeciers, Erwin; Zarowski, Andrzej; Dinther, Joost van; Somers, Thomas

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Acquired atresia of the external auditory canal is characterized by the formation of fibrous tissue in themedial part. The causes include chronic otitis externa, perforated chronic otitis media, postoperative or idiopathic healing problems. Acquired atresia presents with hearing loss and can be associated with otorrhea. Objective We analyzed the results of surgery after six months and two years by checking (1) pre- and postoperative hearing thresholds; (2) presence of otorrhea; and (3) whether a dry and patent ear canal is achieved. Methods We conducted this retrospective study at a tertiary referral center. In total, 27 ears underwent treatment with resection of the fibrotic plug followed by transplantation of a split-thickness skin graft covering the bare bone and tympanic membrane. When necessary, we combined this with a myringoplasty and a (meato-) canalplasty. Results Otorrhea was present in 59.3% of the patients initially and in 14.8% at six months and 11% at two years postoperative. A dry and patent ear canal was obtained in 55.6% after six months and in 89% of the patients after two years (n = 27). The pure tone average before surgery was 39.1 dBHL (SD = 20 dBHL), at six months 31.4 dBHL (SD = 16.4 dBHL), and at 24 months postop 30.9 dBHL (SD = 17.1 dBHL). We observed a statistically significant improvement of hearing in 63% of the patients at six months (p = 0.005) and in 65% after two years (p = 0.022). Conclusions Treatment of acquired atresia remains a challenge. Using the appropriate surgical technique, including skin-grafting and regular postoperative check-up, rendered excellent results regarding otorrhea and a moderate improvement of hearing was achieved in 65% of the patients after two years.
  • P300: Waves Identification with and without Subtraction of Traces Original Research

    Romero, Ana Carla Leite; Reis, Ana Cláudia Mirândola Barbosa; Oliveira, Anna Caroline Silva de; Simões, Humberto de Oliveira; Junqueira, Cinthia Amorim de Oliveira; Frizzo, Ana Cláudia Figueiredo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction The P300 test requires well-defined and unique criteria, in addition to training for the examiners, for a uniform analysis of studies and to avoid variations and errors in the interpretation of measurement results. Objectives The objective of this study is to verify whether there are differences in P300 with and without subtraction of traces of standard and nonstandard stimuli. Method We conducted this study in collaboration with two research electrophysiology laboratories. From Laboratory 1, we selected 40 tests of subjects between 7 44 years, from Laboratory 2, we selected 83 tests of subjects between 18 44 years. We first performed the identification with the nonstandard stimuli; then, we subtracted the nonstandard stimuli fromthe standard stimuli. The examiners identified the waves, performing a descriptive and comparative analysis of traces with and without subtraction. Results After a comparative analysis of the traces with and without subtraction, there was no significant difference when compared with analysis of traces in both laboratories, within the conditions, of right ears (p = 0.13 and 0.28 for differences between latency and amplitude measurements) and left ears (p = 0.15 and 0.09 for differences between latency and amplitude measurements) from Laboratory 1. As for Laboratory 2, when investigating both ears, results did not identify significant differences (p = 0.098 and 0.28 for differences between latency and amplitude measurements). Conclusion There was no difference verified in traces with and without subtraction. We suggest the identification of this potential performed through nonstandard stimuli.
  • Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials with Simple (Tone Burst) and Complex (Speech) Stimuli in Children with Cochlear Implant Original Research

    Martins, Kelly Vasconcelos Chaves; Gil, Daniela

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction The registry of the component P1 of the cortical auditory evoked potential has been widely used to analyze the behavior of auditory pathways in response to cochlear implant stimulation. Objective To determine the influence of aural rehabilitation in the parameters of latency and amplitude of the P1 cortical auditory evoked potential component elicited by simple auditory stimuli (tone burst) and complex stimuli (speech) in children with cochlear implants. Method The study included six individuals of both genders aged 5 to 10 years old who have been cochlear implant users for at least 12 months, and who attended auditory rehabilitation with an aural rehabilitation therapy approach. Participants were submitted to research of the cortical auditory evoked potential at the beginning of the study and after 3 months of aural rehabilitation. To elicit the responses, simple stimuli (tone burst) and complex stimuli (speech) were used and presented in free field at 70 dB HL. The results were statistically analyzed, and both evaluations were compared. Results There was no significant difference between the type of eliciting stimulus of the cortical auditory evoked potential for the latency and the amplitude of P1. There was a statistically significant difference in the P1 latency between the evaluations for both stimuli, with reduction of the latency in the second evaluation after 3 months of auditory rehabilitation. There was no statistically significant difference regarding the amplitude of P1 under the two types of stimuli or in the two evaluations. Conclusion A decrease in latency of the P1 component elicited by both simple and complex stimuli was observed within a three-month interval in children with cochlear implant undergoing aural rehabilitation.
  • Differentiating Benign from Malignant Sinonasal Lesions: Feasibility of Diffusion Weighted MRI Original Research

    El-Gerby, Khaled M.; El-Anwar, Mohammad Waheed

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Appearance of nasal masses on routine CT and MRI are not pathognomonic. We utilized the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value obtained from diffusion weighted image (DWI) to detect the differences in the microstructures of tumor and non-tumor tissues. Objective The objective of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic role of DWI and ADC values in differentiating between malignant and benign sinonasal lesions and its correlation with histopathological results as the reference standard. Methods Patients with nasal and / or paranasal mass underwent CT, MRI, and DWI before any surgical intervention.We used diagnostic sinonasal endoscopy and biopsy to confirm the diagnosis after MRI. Results When we used ADC value of (1.2 x 10 3 mm2/s) as a cut-off value for differentiating benign from malignant sinonasal lesions, we achieved 90% accuracy, 100% sensitivity, 88.4% specificity, 77.8% positive predictive value, and 100% negative predictive value. At this cut-off, benign lesions show statistically significant higher ADC value than malignant tumors. Conclusion DW MRI and ADC value calculation are promising quantitative methods helping to differentiate betweenmalignant and benign sinonasal lesions. Thus, they are effective methods compared with other conventionalmethods with short imaging time thus it is recommended to be incorporated into routine evaluations.
  • Computed Tomography Measurement of Inferior Turbinate in Asymptomatic Adult Original Research

    El-Anwar, Mohammad Waheed; Hamed, Atef A.; Abdulmonaem, Ghada; Elnashar, Ismail; Elfiki, Inas M.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction The inferior turbinate (IT) is the most susceptible turbinate to enlargement causing nasal obstruction. The common belief ascribes most of the enlargement of the IT to mucosal elements. Objective This study aimed to investigate the detailed computed tomography (CT) measurement of the IT in asymptomatic adult by determining the thickness of both the non-bony (mucosa) and bony parts and their relation to nasal air space in different related areas of the nose. Methods We included in the study paranasal CT scans of 108 individuals (216 IT) that had no paranasal pathology. We acquired axial images with multiplanar reformates to obtain delicate details in coronal and sagittal planes for all subjects. We took separate measurements of the thickness of themedialmucosa, bones, and lateralmucosa of the IT on the anterior and posterior portions of ITs. We also measured the air space of the nasal cavity between the septum and IT anteriorly and posteriorly. Results The difference in the air space between nasal septum, anterior and posterior ends of IT was extremely statistically significant (P < 0.0001). The thickness of the medial mucosa was extremely significantly more than the lateral mucosa width (P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in length of IT at both sides (p = 0.5781). Conclusion The detailed CT measurement of the IT in normal adult is an easy and novel measurement. This study lays the foundation for CT measurement of IT for further work that can describe changes in IT measures after turbinate surgery.
  • Quality of Life in Pediatric Patients with Allergic Rhinitis treated at the Medical Clinic of Integrated Education - Unisul Original Research

    Dziekanski, Mariana; Marcelino, Taíse de Freitas

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Allergic rhinitis is a common disease among children and adolescents, reaching up to 40% of the population. During childhood, it is usually underdiagnosed because it has nonspecific symptoms. It has a negative impact on quality of life and may predispose to comorbidities. The diagnosis is clinical and treatment aims prevention. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of life in pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis. Methods This is an observational study with cross-sectional design. The population consisted of pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis treated at the Medical Clinic of Integrated Education (MCIE) - Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina - Unisul, Tubarão, SC, Brazil. We collected data from March to June 2016 through the application of the Sociodemographic and Health Questionnaire, rhinitis module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Questionnaire and the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire Modified. Results Out of the 69 respondents, 52.2% were boys with a mean age of 10.13 years old. The predominant education level of parents/guardians was incomplete second grade and average income level was two minimumwages. 81.2% said they had previous treatment for AR, 30.4% had asthma and 7.2% eczema. Incidence of patients smoking was absent and family (parents/guardians) smoking was 17.4%. March to July were the months of highest symptom occurrence, slightly disturbing daily activities. The mean value of severity was 51.9, nasal symptomswere themost uncomfortable, and nasal itchiness was themost cited. Conclusion Our results highlight that allergic symptoms negatively impact the life of people with allergic rhinitis, with a predominance of nasal symptoms, especially nasal itchy, representing a poor quality of life of the interviewed.
  • Persistent Tracheostomy after Organ Preservation Protocol in Patients Treated for Larynx and Hypopharynx Cancer Original Research

    Estomba, Carlos Miguel Chiesa; Reinoso, Frank Alberto Betances; Villasmil, Virginia Martinez; Cortés, Maria Jesus González; Hidalgo, Carmelo Santidrian

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx is currently the second most common malignancy of the airway after lung cancer, and hypopharyngeal cancer accounts for fewer than 5% of head and neck cancers. The nonsurgical options for patients with this disease are related to significant long-term toxicities and the need for persistent tracheostomy, which adversely affects the quality of life of these patients. Objective To evaluate the need for tracheostomy, and the influence of this in the overall and specific survival rates of patients diagnosed with all stages of laryngeal carcinoma treated by chemoradiotherapy. Methods A retrospective study of patients diagnosed with laryngeal carcinoma was performed according to the criteria of the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 7th edition, in a tertiary hospital. Results A total of 21 patients were evaluated, 8 patients required a tracheotomy (31%) during the treatment protocol, 7 (35%) men and 1 (100%) women. According to subsite 4/4 patient with glottis cancer (p ≤ 0.001), 2/10 patients with supra glottis cancer and 2/7 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer. During follow up, just in 1 patient was possible to close the tracheostomy. Conclusion Persistent tracheostomy dependence after primary chemoradiation increases significantly the morbidity, and decreases the quality of life of those patients. Patients with glottis cancer are prone to need a tracheostomy, but no statistical difference regarding the oncological stage and the need for a tracheostomy were detected. A more thorough selection of the patients is needed to improve the quality of life and reduce permanent tracheostomy dependence.
  • Parameters Influencing Tracheostomy Decannulation in Patients Undergoing Rehabilitation after severe Acquired Brain Injury (sABI) Original Research

    Perin, Cecilia; Meroni, Roberto; Rega, Vincenzo; Braghetto, Giacomo; Cerri, Cesare Giuseppe

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Tracheostomy weaning in patients who suffered a severe acquired brain injury is often a challenge and decannulation failures are not uncommon. Objective Our study objective is to describe the decannulation failure rate in patients undergoing rehabilitation following a severe acquired brain injury (sABI); to describe the factors associated with a successful tube weaning. Methods We conduct a retrospective analysis of charts, consecutively retrieved considering a 3-year window. Variables analyzed were: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), cause of hospitalization (stroke, trauma, cardiac arrest), date of the pathological event, gap between the index event and the first day of hospitalization, duration of Neurorehabilitation Ward hospitalization, comorbidities, chest morphological alteration, kind of tracheostomy tube used (overall dimension, cap, fenestration), SpO2, presentation and quantification of pulmonary secretion, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), respiratory frequency and pattern, cardiac frequency, presence of spontaneous cough, cough strength, and blood gas analysis. Results We analyzed 45 tracheostomised sABI patients following stroke, trauma, or cardiac arrest. The weaning success percentage was higher in Head Trauma patients and in patients presenting positive spontaneous cough. Failures seem to be associated with presence of secretions and anoxic brain damage. GCS seemed not related to the decannulation outcome. Conclusions Parameters that could be used as positive predictors of weaning are: mean expiratory pressure, presence of spontaneous cough, and cough strength. Provoked cough and GCS were not predictive of weaning success.
  • HMGB1 in the Pathogenesis of Nasal Inflammatory Diseases and its Inhibition as New Therapeutic Approach: A Review from the Literature Systematic Review

    Bellussi, Luisa Maria; Cocca, Serena; Passali, Giulio Cesare; Passali, Desideri

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction This study is a systematic review on recent developments about the importance of HMGB1 protein in the pathogenesis of rhino-sinusal inflammatory diseases. We also report data on the use of 18-β-glycyrrhetic acid (GA), which has been shown able to inhibit the pro-inflammatory activities of HMGB1, in young patients affected by allergic rhinitis and complaining of nasal obstruction as main symptom. Objectives The objective of this study was to review the literature to demonstrate the importance of HMGB1 in the pathogenesis of nasal inflammatory disorders and understand whether the inhibition of this protein may be an efficacious and innovative therapeutic strategy for patients with rhino-sinusal inflammation. Data Synthesis Authors searched for pertinent articles indexed in PubMed, Scopus, and other health journals between 2004 and 2015. In total, the authors gathered 258 articles: 219 articles through Pubmed and 39 articles from other search engines. The search terms used were as follows: HMGB1 AND “respiratory epithelium,” “airway inflammation,” “rhinitis,” “allergic rhinitis,” “rhinosinusitis,” “nasal polyposis,” “glycyrrhetic acid,” “children.” Conclusions Patients with severe symptoms have the highest serum levels and the highest extracellular expression of HMGB1. GA inhibits HMGB1 chemotactic and mitogenic function by a scavenger mechanism on extracellular HMGB1 accumulation stimulated by lipopolysaccharides in vitro. Treatment of allergic rhinitis with GA is not associated with local or systemic side effects in children and adults.
  • Head and Neck Lymphomas in HIV Patients: a Clinical Perspective Systematic Review

    Oishi, Natsuki; Bagán, José Vicente; Javier, Karla; Zapater, Enrique

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Because of the many HIV-related malignancies, the diagnosis and treatment of lymphoma in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus are challenging. Objective Here, we review current knowledge of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, symptomatology, diagnosis, and treatment of head and neck lymphomas in HIV patients from a clinical perspective. Data Synthesis Although Hodgkin’s lymphoma is not an AIDS-defining neoplasm, its prevalence is ten times higher in HIV patients than in the general population. NHL is the second most common malignancy in HIV patients, after Kaposi’s sarcoma. In this group of patients, NHL is characterized by rapid progression, frequent extranodal involvement, and a poor outcome. HIV-related salivary gland disease is a benign condition that shares some features with lymphomas and is considered in their differential diagnosis. Conclusion The otolaryngologist may be the first clinician to diagnose head and neck lymphomas. The increasing survival of HIV patients implies clinical and epidemiological changes in the behavior of this disease. Early diagnosis is important to improve the prognosis and avoid the propagation of HIV infection.
  • Clinical Features and Surgical Treatment of Schwannoma Affecting the Base of the Tongue: A Systematic Review Systematic Review

    Sitenga, Jenna Lamendola; Aird, Gregory Alan; Nguyen, Austin; Vaudreuil, Adam; Huerter, Christopher

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Schwannomas of the head and neck account for 25-40% of all cases, with presentation at the base of the tongue as the most frequent site for intraoral tumors. Objectives Here, a systematic review was conducted to include 15 cases of patients with schwannoma of the base of the tongue. Data Synthesis Most patients presented with a single, painless, well-encapsulated nodule at the base of the tongue. These nodules were slow-growing, with an average of 13.3 months from onset to presentation. Most cases were accompanied by airway obstruction, indicated by symptoms of dysphagia, dysarthria, snoring, and sleep apnea. Overall, the histological studies were consistent with a benign schwannoma with a palisading Antoni A and Antoni B pattern without malignant changes in cell morphology. These tumors were treated via complete surgical excision, and all cases achieved full remission by final follow-up. Conclusion Surgical removal is the primary mode of treatment with excellent postoperative prognosis and rare instances of recurrence. Given the rarity of this tumor, this review of available case studies serves to comprehensively describe clinical presentation and surgical treatment approaches to tongue base schwannoma.
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