Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) are difficult to test in toddlers who cannot follow instructions or stay calm. Objective Due to the growing need for vestibular testing in very young children as a part of a delayed walking assessment battery, this study aimed to provide a solution to this problem by recording the cVEMPs in toddlers during sedation. Method The cVEMPs measures were assessed in 30 toddlers aged 12 to 36 months with normal motormilestones. They were sedated with chloral hydrate. Then, the head was retracted ~ 30° backward with a pillow under the shoulders, and turned 45° contralateral to the side of stimulation to put the sternocleidomastoid (SCM)muscle in a state of tension. Results The P13 and N23 waves of the cVEMPs were recordable in all sedated toddlers. The cVEMPs measures resulted in the following: P13 latency of 17.5 ± 1.41 milliseconds, N23 latency of 25.58 ± 2.02 milliseconds, and peak-topeak amplitude of 15.39 ± 3.45 μV. One-sample t-test revealed statistically significant longer latencies and smaller amplitude of the toddlers’ cVEMPs relative to the normative data for adults. Conclusions The difficulty of cVEMPs testing in toddlers can be overcome by sedating them and attaining a position that contracts the SCM muscle. However, the toddlers’ recordings revealed delayed latencies and smaller amplitudes than those of adults.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Laryngotracheal stenosis is a difficult problem with varied etiology and various treatment options. The holmium laser represents another tool for the treatment of benign tracheal stenosis. Objectives To determine the utility of holmium laser treatment for benign tracheal stenosis with regards to safety and efficacy. Methods This was a retrospective case study examining patients with benign tracheal stenosis from 1998-2016 who underwent holmium laser treatment. Determining the safety of this procedure was the primary goal, and complications were monitored as a surrogate of safety. Results A total of 123 patients who underwent holmium laser treatment for benign tracheal stenosis were identified. In total, 123 patients underwent 476 procedures, with follow-up ranging from 1 month to 14 years. No intraoperative or post-operative complications were identified as a direct result of the use of this particular laser. Conclusions The holmium laser is an effective and safe laser to use for tracheal stenosis treatment. It is a contact laser with a short acting distance, which reduces the risk of injury to distal airway structures. Given the favorable experience reported here, the holmium laser should be considered when tracheal surgery is attempted.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Otogenic lateral sinus thrombosis is a rare intracranial complication of otitis media in the modern age of antibiotic treatment, but it is potentially a dangerous complication. Objectives The aim of this study is to focus on the various clinical presentations, management options and sequelae in a series of fifteen patients with otogenic lateral sinus thrombosis. Methods Retrospective chart review of inpatients treated for otogenic lateral sinus thrombosis at our tertiary care institution between 2010 and 2015. Results A total of 15 patients (11 males and 4 females) with ages ranging from 9 to 60 years were diagnosed with otogenic lateral sinus thrombosis. The most commonly reported symptoms were headache, ear discharge and hard of hearing, which were experienced by all 15 (100%) patients. In contrast to previous studies found in the literature, 7 (47%) patients in our series presented with neck pain and neck abscess. Imaging studies and microbiological cultures were performed for all patients, who also underwent a mastoidectomy procedure. Internal jugular vein ligation was performed on 5 (33%) patients. Incision and drainage of the neck abscess was performed on 7 (47%) patients. All patients had a satisfactory resolution of their symptoms, and the mortality rate was of 0%. Conclusions Otogenic lateral sinus thrombosis, though a rare complication, can still occur; therefore, keeping a high level of suspicion is important, especially in developing countries. We also describe the patients with neck abscess associated with this rare condition. Combining parenteral antibiotics with surgical intervention is the treatment of choice.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Grossly displaced membranes are characteristic of endolymphatic hydrops. The process whereby physiological membrane displacement becomes pathological may be mediated by stress, but the membrane biomechanics underlying this transition are unclear. Objective This study seeks to determine the role of suspensory tethers during pressure-induced membrane displacement in the generation of the membranous lesions seen in this disease entity using a biomechanical model approach. Methods The location of membrane suspensory tethers was identified histologically. The influence of tethers on model membrane configuration during displacement was assessed graphically. The relationship of membrane configuration during displacement to curvature radius was quantified trigonometrically. The relationship of curvature radius to stress susceptibility was determined mathematically. The net effect of suspensory tethers on membrane stress levels for various degrees of membrane distention and displacement was then calculated numerically. Results In the inferior labyrinth, suspensory tethers are found to occur on the membranes’ boundaries. Such tethering is found to impose a biphasic effect on membrane curvature with increasing degrees of displacement. As a consequence, tensile stress susceptibility is found to decline with initial membrane displacement to a critical point nadir beyond which stress then increases monotonically. No such effect was found for the superior labyrinth. Conclusion Boundary tethers in the inferior labyrinth are associated with significant tensile stress reductions until a critical point of membrane displacement is reached. Displacements short of the critical pointmay be physiological and even reversible,whereas such displacements beyond the critical point are apt to be overtly hydropic and irreversible.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction There has been a sudden idiopathic hearing loss case presented after methylphenidate treatment in a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective This study was performed to reveal the probable ototoxic side effects of methylphenidate use in patients with ADHD. Methods Thirty pediatric patients with ADHD were included in the study. Pure tone audiometry, speech discrimination scores, waves I, III, V absolute latencies and waves IIII, I-V, III-V interpeak latencies at the 80 dB nHL intensity after click stimulus auditory brainstem response (ABR) results were compared before and 3 months after methylphenidate treatment. Results There were no statistically significant difference between pretreatment and posttreatment pure tone and speech audiometry findings and ABR results (p > 0.05 for all parameters). Conclusion Methylphenidate can be regarded as a safe drug regarding ototoxic side effects. Additional studies with a larger sample size and longer follow-up may be needed.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Dysphagia causes changes in the laryngeal and stomatognathic structures; however, the use of vocal exercises is poorly described. Objective To verify whether the therapy consisting of myofunctional exercises associated with vocal exercises is more effective in rehabilitating deglutition in stroke patients. Methods This is a pilot study made up of two distinct groups: a control group, which performed onlymyofunctional exercises, and an experimental group, which performed myofunctional and vocal exercises. The assessment used for oral intake was the functional oral intake scale (FOIS). Results The FOIS levels reveal that the pre-therapymedian of the experimental group was 4, and increased to 7 after therapy, while in the control group the values were 5 and 6 respectively. Thus, the experimental group had a statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-therapy assessments (p = 0.039), which indicates that the combination of myofunctional and vocal exercises was more effective in improving the oral intake levels than the myofunctional exercises alone (p = 0.059). On the other hand, the control group also improved, albeit at a lower rate compared with the experimental group; hence, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups post-therapy (p = 0.126). Conclusion This pilot study showed indications that using vocal exercises in swallowing rehabilitation in stroke patients was able to yield a greater increase in the oral intake levels. Nevertheless, further controlled blind clinical trials with larger samples are required to confirm such evidence, as this study points to the feasibility of conducting this type of research.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction The etiology of Ménière disease (MD), a difficult-to-treat condition with great morbidity, remains controversial in the literature. The possible clinical and diagnostic impact of anatomical variations of the temporal bone among patients with MD has been recently studied. Objective To identify anatomical variations of the temporal bone associated with the diagnosis of MD. Methods Thirty-seven patients were included, although each ear was considered separately (n = 74). A case group (nA = 33) was composed of the affected ears of patients with definiteMDand a control group (nB = 41) was used consisting of the ears of individuals who did not meet the criteria for MD and of the contralateral ears from patients with unilateral disease. Tomographic images from the individuals included in the study were submitted to a blinded and systematic evaluation regarding a broad variety of anatomical variations of the temporal bone. Obtained data were compared statistically between the groups and after stratifying the study sample. Significance level was set at 0.05. Results Among the affected ears, it was observed an increased number of tomographic scans in which the vestibular aqueduct could not be identified (p = 0.01, Fisher exact test). No statistically significant differences were observed when comparing the affected and contralateral ears frompatients with unilateral MD, between affected ears from patients with unilateral and bilateral disease or between contralateral ears of patients with unilateral affection and patients without the disease. Conclusion Some anatomical variations might be more frequent in the affected ears of patients with MD, such as the lower rates of individualization of the vestibular aqueduct.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction The use of the speech-evoked auditory brainstem response (ABR) shows how the brainstem operates up to the subcortex in a more complexmanner than when the click-evoked ABR is used. Objective To study the applicability of the speech-evoked ABR in adults with hearing loss. Methods The sample was composed of a study group of 11 subjects, with ages ranging between 18 and 59 years, and auditory thresholds within normal standards, with loss of up to 65 dB at high frequencies or up to moderately severe symmetric sensorineural hearing loss. The sample underwent a basic audiological assessment, as well as speech-evoked ABR and click-evoked ABR, in which waves I, III and V, and V, A, C, D, E, F were respectively marked. The electrophysiological assessments were performed using the SmartEP device (Intelligent Hearing Systems, Miami, FL, US). Results For the speech-evoked ABR, the reference values were used in the identification and analysis of the study group. Those values found for the study group were: V = 8.56; A = 10.97; C = 21.33; D = 29.51; E = 37.93; F = 46.96; and O = 55.97. In the comparison between groups, the study group presented an increase in latency only in wave C. Conclusion The speech-evoked ABR can be performed in subjects with up to moderately severe hearing loss, and the test proved to be appropriate, because, unlike the click-evoked ABR, the former does not suffer influence of peripheral hearing loss.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) is hearing loss of at least 30 dB in at least 3 contiguous frequencies within at least 72 hours. There are many different theories to explain it, and many differentmodalities are used for its management, such as: systemic steroids (SSs), intratympanic steroid injection (ITSI), hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HOT), antiviral drugs, and vasodilators or vasoactive substances. Objectives This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the combination of the most common treatmentmodalities of ISSNHL and to compare the results if HOTwas not one of the treatment modalities administered. Methods The study was conducted with 22 ISSNHL patients with ages ranging from 34 to 58 years. The patients were divided into 2 groups; group A included 11 patients managed by SSs, ITSI, antiviral therapy, and HOT simultaneously, and group B included 11 patients exposed to the aforementioned modalities, with the exception of HOT. Results After one month, all of the patients in group A showed total improvement in hearing in all frequencies, with pure tone average (PTA) of 18.1 ± 2.2, while in group B, 5/11 (45.5%) patients showed total improvement, and 6 /11 (54.5%) patients showed partial improvement, with a total mean PTA of 28.1 ± 8.7. Conclusion The early administration of HOT in combination with other clinically approved modalities (SSs, ITSI, antiviral therapy) provides better results than the administration of the same modalities, with the exception of HOT, in the treatment of ISSNHL.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Patients presenting with otitis externa are a common thing in otolaryngology units. However, the practice has not been standardized due to a lack of consensus over the management of this condition in secondary care. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelinehas beenpublished targetingthe general practitioners, but it may be relevant in cases of hospital first-time attenders. Objective To conduct an audit of the investigative and prescription practice for hospital first-time attenders in our department against the NICE guideline for otitis externa. Methods The case notes of the patients presenting with otitis externa were reviewed. The data collation included the performance of ear swabs and choice of eardrops. Results An initial audit showed that ear swabs were sent in 14 out of 19 cases, of which 11 grew either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus (organisms that are sensitive to empirical treatment). A re-audit showed higher adherence to NICE recommendations, with ear swabs sent in only 3 out of 25 cases. The initial audit also demonstrated Sofradex (Sanofi-Aventis, Paris, France) as the most popular empirical eardrop. Following our recommendation, the re-audit showed that Betnesol-N (GSK, Brentford, UK) was administered in 24 out of 25 cases. Conclusion We recommend Betnesol-N due to its cost-effectiveness. Ear swabs should be reserved for refractory cases only. Posters and email reminders are effective means of disseminating information within the hospital.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) is themost common congenital anomaly of the neck, and approximately 7% of all the adult population presents it. Ectopic thyroid tissue is found in the thyroglossal duct cyst wall in up to 65% of cases. This thyroid tissue has the potential to develop some type ofmalignancy, themost common of which is the papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. There are just over 270 cases of thyroglossal duct cyst malignancy reported in the literature. Objectives We aimed to study our population of patients in order to identify cases with thyroglossal duct cyst malignancy. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted in the section of otolaryngology/ head and neck surgery at a hospital in Karachi, Pakistan, from January of 2004 to December of 2014 on patients with the diagnosis of thyroglossal duct cyst. Results Fifty-eight patients were diagnosed with TGDC, two of whom also presented with thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma. Both patients revealed papillary thyroid carcinoma on histopathology. Case 1 had an open biopsy before undergoing definitive surgery. Both patients underwent subsequent total thyroidectomy after Sistrunk procedure, and case 2 had selective neck dissection revealing lymph node metastasis. Conclusion Thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma is a rare finding that comes as a surprise to both the patient and the surgeon. We report 2 out of 58 cases diagnosed with thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction There is difference of opinion about the placement of the drain in thyroid surgeries, and, to the best of our knowledge, the efficacy of drainless total thyroidectomy regarding various parameters of thyroid lesions has not been well-established. Objective To report our experience with drainless total thyroidectomy, and to define an appropriate patient population for its performance. Methods This is a retrospective case analysis of the patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for intrathyroidal lesions with or without central neck dissection in a tertiary referral hospital (number = 74). The patients, who had undergone total thyroidectomy without any drain insertion, were analyzed, and the relationships among various parameters of thyroid lesions were noted in relation to seroma and hematoma formation. Results Seroma formation was noted only in 5 out of 74 patents (6.75%). All of the seromas that occurred were observed in patients with thyroid lesions < 4 cm, and 4 out of 5 seromas were observed in patients with a malignant pathology. There was no statistically significant difference in seroma formation between patients younger or older than 50 years of age. The nature of the lesion, whether benign or malignant, did not affect the formation of seroma. Of interest is the fact that none of the 10 patients who had central neck dissection performed as part of their treatment developed seroma. Conclusions Drainless total thyroidectomy is safe across all age groups for patients harboring either benign or malignant thyroid pathologies. However, caution is to be observed in opting for drainless total thyroidectomy in patients with large lesions (> 5 cm)
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction The literature shows that there are anatomical changes on the temporal bone anatomy during the first four years of life in children. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the temporal bone anatomy regarding the cochlear implant surgery in stillbirths between 32 and 40 weeks of gestational age using computed tomography to simulate the trajectory of the drill to the scala timpani avoiding vital structures. Objectives To measure the distances of the simulated trajectory to the facial recess, cochlea, ossicular chain and tympanic membrane, while performing the minimally invasive cochlear implant technique, using the Improvise imaging software (Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, US). Methods An experimental study with 9 stillbirth specimens, with gestational ages ranging between 32 and 40 weeks, undergoing tomographic evaluation with individualization and reconstruction of the labyrinth, facial nerve, ossicular chain, tympanic membrane and cochlea followed by drill path definition to the scala tympani. Improvise was used for the computed tomography (CT) evaluation and for the reconstruction of the structures and trajectory of the drill. Results Range of the distance of the trajectory to the facial nerve: 0.58 to 1.71mm. to the ossicular chain: 0.38 to 1.49 mm; to the tympanic membrane: 0.85 to 1.96 mm; total range of the distance of the trajectory: 5.92 to 12.65 mm. Conclusion The measurements of the relationship between the drill and the anatomical structures of the middle ear and the simulation of the trajectory showed that the middle ear cavity at 32 weeks was big enough for surgical procedures such as cochlear implants. Although cochlear implantation at birth is not an indication yet, this study shows that the technique may be an option in the future.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Since oropharyngeal surgery alone is often insufficient to treat obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), advances have been developed in hypopharyngeal surgery. Objective To assess hyoid suspension surgery as part of amultilevel OSA surgery, also including palatal surgery. Methods The study included patients with OSA symptoms with apnea hypopnea index (AHI) > 15. They were scheduled for hyoid suspension after a nasoendoscopy during Müller maneuver and drug induced sleep endoscopy (DISE). All patients had body mass index (BMI) < 35 kg/m2. Hyoidothyroidopexy combined with tonsillectomy and palatal suspension was performed in all cases. Results The mean AHI dropped significantly (p < 0.0001) from 68.4 ± 25.3 preoperatively to 25.6 ± 9.52 postoperatively. The mean lowest oxygen (O2) saturation level increased significantly from 66.8 ± 11.3 to 83.2 ± 2.86 (p < 0.0001). In addition, the snoring score significantly decreased (p < 0.0001) from a preoperative mean of 3.4 ± 0.54 to 2 ± 0.7 at 6 months postoperatively. In regard to the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), it showed significant improvements (p < 0.0001) as its mean diminished from 13.8 ± 5.4 preoperatively to 5.2 ± 1.6 postoperatively. Conclusion Hyoidothyroidopexy using absorbable suture seems to produce a good outcome in treating OSA. It could be effectively and safely combined with other palatal procedures in the multilevel surgery for OSA.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Many recent studies on teachers warn of the adverse effects that voice problems have on work performance. However, only a few of these studies included university teachers. Objective To compare the vocal symptoms and risk factors betweenmale and female university teachers in a private institution within the city of São Paulo. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, a voice self-evaluation form prepared by the Ministry of Labor in Brazil was administered to 846 university teachers at a private institution in the city of São Paulo. Results The percentage of hoarseness, vocal tract discomfort, neck pain and foreign body sensation was significantly higher in female than in male subjects. A significantly higher percentage of males participated in other professional activities in addition to teaching, reported working in a calm environment compared with working in a moderately or severely tense and stressful environment, and rated themselves as calm, slightly stressed and anxious ormoderately stressed and anxious rather than very stressed and anxious. A significantly higher percentage of females spent most of their time teaching compared with performing other professional activities, and rated themselves as chatty or impulsive. Conclusion Among university teachers, a significantly higher percentage of females than males reported hoarseness, vocal tract discomfort, neck pain and foreign body sensation. Some risk factors related to work organization, workplace environment, voice care and quality of life variables were related to this higher prevalence in females.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Nasal obstruction is a common complaint, and, for some, the middle turbinate resection is still a controversial issue among the surgical options due to the possibility of deleterious effects on olfaction. The University of Pennsylvania smell identification test (UPSIT) is considered the gold standard of smell identification tests, but data about it is still incipient in Brazil. Objective To evaluate if the middle turbinectomy has any repercussion on the sense of olfaction by using the UPSIT as an assessment tool. Methods A prospective study performed between 2013 and 2015 with 27 patients who were treated with middle turbinectomy by the same surgeon and tested with the UPSIT pre- and post-surgery, with a minimum interval of 3 months. Results Twenty-five patients completed the study. The mean age was 27.9 years. There was no statistical correlation betweenmiddle turbinectomy and the UPSIT score, or between gender and the UPSIT score. Conclusion There was no clinical repercussion on olfaction from partial middle turbinectomy.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Nasal septoplasty is considered the treatment of choice for nasal obstruction due to septal deviation. An ongoing discussion among rhinologists is whether it is reasonable to perform objective measurements of nasal patency pre or postoperatively routinely. Objective The primary aim of this study was to identify the short- and long-term functional benefits for patients undergoing septal surgery, as assessed by acoustic rhinometry (AR). The secondary goal was to evaluate the short- and long-term perception of symptom relief and disease-specific quality of life (QoL) outcomes on the part of the patients. Methods This was a prospective observational study in which AR was utilized for the assessment of nasal patency preoperatively and 1, 6 and 36months after septoplasty. Total 40 patients who underwent septoplasty filled out the Nasal Obstruction Septoplasty Effectiveness (NOSE) questionnaire and the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) to assess their subjective improvement in nasal obstruction symptoms and the changes in their QoL. Results There were statistically significant improvements in nasal patency, mean postoperative NOSE and GBI scores postoperatively. However, there was no correlation between the mean NOSE and GBI scores and the AR measurements. Furthermore, the GBI scores tended to decrease as the postoperative period increased. Conclusion The present study confirms that septoplasty significantly increases nasal patency and causes a significant subjective improvement in nasal obstruction symptoms. The absence of a statistically significant correlation among the objective measurements, the symptom scores, and the patients’ low GBI scores indicates that factors other than the anatomical findings may also contribute to the patients’ perception of QoL.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Functional disorders of the craniocervical region affect 77.78% of Brazilian teachers. Among the most common instruments used to assess craniocervical disorders in a detailed and objective way, none had been translated to Brazilian Portuguese and adapted to Brazilian culture. Objectives To translate to Brazilian Portuguese and to culturally adapt the Craniocervical Dysfunction Index (CDI). Method The first phase of the study consisted of the translation, synthesis, backtranslation, and review of the contents by a committee of experts, who developed a trial version and sent all the steps to the original author. The trial version was applied to 50 teachers of an institution. The reliability and internal consistency were evaluated by Cronbach α. For the validation, the Brazilian Portuguese version of the CDI was correlated with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) domains for cervicalgia and evaluated by Spearman ρ. Result Some expressions were adapted to the Brazilian culture. Among the participants who did not report neck pain in the VAS, 84.21% suffered from craniocervical dysfunction acording to the CDI. Among the participants who reported neck pain in the VAS, 100% suffered from craniocervical dysfunction according to the CDI. The CDI showed good internal consistency and satisfactory reliability measured by Cronbrach α (α = 0.717). There was a strong correlation between the CDI and the VAS score (ρ = 0.735). Conclusion No difficulties were encountered in the translation and back-translation of the CDI, and no problems were observed regarding the trial version developed; therefore, the Brazilian Portuguese version of the CDI is a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate the functional alteration of the craniocervical region.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction A pneumatized turbinate, also called concha bullosa, is a normal anatomical variant of the paranasal sinus region. Depending on the site of pneumatization, the concha is classified into extensive, bulbous or lamellar type. The middle turbinate concha bullosa has been implicated as a possible etiological factor in chronic sinusitis. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical variations of the concha bullosa, based on paranasal sinus imaging, and its possible association with sinusitis. Methods This prospective descriptive study was performed at the Department of ENT and Head Neck Surgery over a period of one year, from 2016 to 2017. We studied the computed tomography scans of the nose and paranasal sinuses- in axial, coronal and sagittal planes-of patients who had symptoms of nasal obstruction, or headache and features of chronic sinusitis. Results Out of the 202 scans studied, the prevalence of concha bullosa was 31.7%. The concha was bilateral in 35 (54.7%) patients and unilateral in 29 (45.3%) patients. Out of 99 conchae, 54 were on the right side and 45 were on left side. Ipsilateral sinusitiswas found in 40.4% of the sides in the scans of subjectswith concha. There was no statistically significant association between any type of middle turbinate concha with sinusitis, but sinusitis was more predominant with the extensive type of concha (p > 0.05). Conclusion Multiple air cells, mucocele, pyocele and inflammatory mucosal thickenings in the concha are relatively rare. Detailed knowledge of anatomic variations of the concha bullosa is imperative for the radiologists and the operating surgeons.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Supracricoid laryngectomy still has selected indications; there are few studies in the literature, and the case series are limited, a fact that stimulates the development of new studies to further elucidate the structural and functional aspects of the procedure. Objective To assess voice and deglutition parameters according to the number of preserved arytenoids. Methods Eleven patients who underwent subtotal laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy were evaluated by laryngeal nasofibroscopy, videofluoroscopy, and auditory-perceptual, acoustic, and voice pleasantness analyses, after resuming oral feeding. Results Functional abnormalities were detected in two out of the three patients who underwent arytenoidectomy, and in six patients from the remainder of the sample. Almost half of the sample presented silent laryngeal penetration and/or vallecular/ hypopharyngeal stasis on the videofluoroscopy. The mean voice analysis scores indicated moderate vocal deviation, roughness and breathiness; severe strain and loudness deviation; shorter maximum phonation time; the presence of noise; and high third and fourth formant values. The voices were rated as unpleasant. There was no difference in the number and functionality of the remaining arytenoids as prognostic factors for deglutition; however, in the qualitative analysis, favorable voice and deglutition outcomes were more common among patients who did not undergo arytenoidectomy and had normal functional conditions. Conclusion The number and functionality of the preserved arytenoidswere not found to be prognostic factors for favorable deglutition efficiency outcomes. However, the qualitative analysis showed that the preservation of both arytenoids and the absence of functional abnormalities were associated with more satisfactory voice and deglutition patterns.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Acromegaly is a chronic disease caused by growth hormone (GH) excess due to a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma in most cases. There is reasonable data to presume the possible influence of chronic GH and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) hyperproduction on the anatomical structures involved in normal sound perception, and on its conductive and/or sensorineural part. Objectives To review the literature about acromegaly and hearing loss. Data Synthesis A systematic literature search was performed using the MEDLINE database, including hand-searching reference lists from original articles. The search was performed using the terms hearing loss and acromegaly, and only 5 studies were found. Conclusion The results are not consistent, but led to different conclusions. Therefore, more studies with greater numbers of patients with acromegaly are needed.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction A majority of otolaryngologists have not had direct experience with many vaccine-preventable diseases since the creation of national vaccination programs. Despite the elimination of endemic transmission of some of these diseases in the United States, outbreaks can occur anywhere and still pose a threat to public health around the world. Recent outbreaks and changing trends in exemption rates indicate that it is important for physicians to maintain a working knowledge of how these diseases present and of the recommended treatment guidelines. Objectives This review will evaluate the current state of vaccination rates, vaccine exemption rates and disease incidence in the United States and in the world. It will also examine the clinical presentation and treatment recommendations of these diseases. Data Synthesis United States estimated vaccination rates, vaccine exemption rates and vaccine-preventable disease incidences were obtained from data compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. World vaccination rates and disease incidences were obtained from the World Health Organization databases, which compile official figures reported by member states. A PubMed literature review provided information on the current state of vaccination exemptions and outbreaks in the United States. Conclusion Vaccination and vaccine exemption rates continue to put the United States and many areas of the world at risk for outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Clinical guidelines should be reviewed in the event of a local outbreak.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Several studies show correlations between congenital toxoplasmosis and hearing loss, with a broad diversity of levels of hearing loss and specifications of hearing disorders. Objective To describe the studies found in the literature regarding hearing disorders in congenital toxoplasmosis. Data Synthesis A literature review was conducted on the Lilacs, SciELO, PubMed and Scopus databases by combining the following keywords: congenital toxoplasmosis and hearing. Based on this search strategy, 152 papers were found, the majority published on the Scopus and PubMed databases from1958 to 2015. After theapplication of the inclusion criteria, 8 articles published between 1980 and 2015 were included in the present study. Conclusion This review showed a moderate evidence of the association between hearing disorders and congenital toxoplasmosis, which is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss. However, there are gaps in the description of the specific characteristics of the type and level of hearing loss, or of other possible disorders involved in the auditory processing.