Abstract in English:Radical prostatectomy continues to play a central role in the management of localized prostate cancer. The majority of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer will undergo radical prostatectomy. A decrease in the morbidity of this surgical procedure has been accomplished through an improved understanding of pelvic anatomy and a greater understanding of the natural history of prostate cancer. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been applied to radical prostatectomy (laparoscopic prostatectomy) in order to further decrease the morbidity of this operation. What remains to be determined is whether this approach confers the same long term surgical outcomes as the open approach. One method which offers known long term outcomes coupled with decreased morbidity is the radical perineal prostatectomy. The purpose of this paper is to review the criteria for patient selection as well as outcomes of the radical perineal prostatectomy.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence of prostate carcinoma in a sample of volunteers known to have a large proportion of Bantu African ancestors, and the performance of total PSA (tPSA), PSA density (PSAD) and free-to-total PSA ratio (f/tPSA) on the diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 473 volunteers (range: 40 - 79 years) were screened for prostate carcinoma. Those with tPSA >2 ng/ml and/or abnormal digital rectal examination were submitted to a transrectal ultrasound-directed biopsy (10 cores). The volunteers were classified as White, Mulatto or Black according to physical characteristics and to ancestors race reference. The following variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) were analyzed in the blood of 120 volunteers without cancer and in 27 patients with prostate cancer: D4S43, PAH, F13A1, APOB and vW-1. RESULTS: The biopsies performed in 121 volunteers revealed cancer in 27 (5.7% of 473). The proportions of cancer in White, Mulatto and Black were respectively: 0.6% (1/148), 6.7% (6/90) and 8.5% (20/235) (p = 0.006). The VNTRs analysis revealed heterogeneity in White, Mulatto and Black anthropologic phenotypes with the following admixture of Caucasian, African and Amerindian gene lineages: 67.5 ± 8%, 20.8 ± 8%, 11.7 ± 7%; 54.8 ± 9%, 36.3 ± 5%, 8.9 ± 7%; and, 45.3 ± 3%, 45.9 ± 4%, 8.8 ± 7%. Such a mixture was 50.5 ± 9%, 49 ± 8% and 0.5 ± 4% in volunteers bearing cancer, and 59.1 ± 7%, 31.7 ± 8% and 9.2 ± 5% in those without cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of tPSA at cut-off levels of 2, 2.5 and 4 ng/ml for volunteers with tPSA <= 10 ng/ml were respectively: 100% and 6,6%, 100% and 36,6%, 69,2% and 62,2%. PSAD at a cut-off level of 0.08 or 0.10, and f/tPSA at a cut-off level of 20% were able to increase significantly tPSA specificity without loss on sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: The tumor prevalence was higher in Non-White than in White phenotype. The association of tPSA at a cut-off level of 2.5 ng/ml with a PSAD of 0.08 or a f/tPSA of 20% for biopsy indication deserves further investigations as an alternative to tPSA cut-off level of 4 ng/ml.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of prostate cancer and to assess potential associations between race and prostate adenocarcinoma according to age in patients followed in an outpatient service of general urology in an university hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of men aged from 40 to 79 years, followed during the period from 1999 to 2001. Patients were classified according to race in White, Mulatto and Black. Those with abnormal digital rectal examination and/or serum level of prostate specific antigen (PSA) > 4.0 ng/ml, underwent a transrectal prostate biopsy. RESULTS: 580 patients with mean age of 60.7 ± 10.0 years were studied, with 116 Whites (20.0%), 276 Mulattos (47.6%) and 188 Blacks (32.4%). There was no significant difference regarding the mean age (p = 0.62), serum level of PSA (p = 0.65) and prevalence of prostate adenocarcinoma between Whites, Mulattos and Blacks (p = 0.36). While studying the association between race classified in 2 groups (Whites versus Mulattos and Blacks) and prostate adenocarcinoma according to age, no association was found when the total group was assessed, neither among those with age above 60 years old. In the group between 40 and 60 years, even though without statistical significance, the estimate of prevalence ratio was 2.2 (CI 95%: 0.52 to 9.0; p = 0.38). CONCLUSION: Prostate adenocarcinoma was found in 16.6% of the patients aged between 40 and 79 years. We did not find a racial influence in our population.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To compare, prospectively, 4 different schemes of antibiotic prophylaxis previously to transrectal prostate biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 257 patients were randomized in 4 groups: Group I: single dose of ciprofloxacin 2 hours before the procedure; Group II: ciprofloxacin 3 days; Group III: chloramphenicol 3 days; and Group IV: norfloxacin 3 days. The complication rate was assessed in a blind way on the third and on the thirtieth days through a questionnaire. Groups were compared by the qui-square method and, in small samples, by the Fisher method, with statistical significance of 95%. RESULTS: Complications index throughout the sample differed between the 4 groups of patients under study, being 3.1% for group I, 2.1% for group II, 18.3% for group III and 10.5% for group IV. Schemes employing ciprofloxacin were statistically superior to those that used norfloxacin or chloramphenicol (p < 0.05). There was no difference between a single dose and 3 days of ciprofloxacin (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Schemes using ciprofloxacin presented better results in prophylaxis previously to prostate biopsy. We recommend using a single dose of ciprofloxacin due to its posologic ease and low cost, associated with a therapeutic response equivalent to 3-day regimens.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: Sildenafil citrate is a type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor, which has demonstrated excellent results in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The effect of sildenafil citrate in the cavernous arteries of patients with erectile dysfunction has not been established yet. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of sildenafil citrate in the cavernous arteries of patients with erectile dysfunction, following an intracavernous injection of alprostadil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 29 male patients, with mean age of 53.8 years (32 to 75 years), were prospectively evaluated. The mean time with complaint of erectile dysfunction was 50.5 months (6 to 168 months). Each patient was his own control. Patients underwent a measurement of peak systolic velocity before and after use of sildenafil citrate associated with 5 micrograms of alprostadil, through ultrasonic velocitometry Knoll/MIDUS® system. In the interval between measurements, approximately 15 days, patients used 3 tablets of sildenafil at home with their partners. RESULTS: Using only 5 mcg of alprostadil, average peak systolic velocity was 23.9 cm/s, and when associated to 50 mg of sildenafil it was 24.8 cm/s. Despite the increase in the flow rate caused by sildenafil, the difference was not statistically significant, Zcalculated = - 0.695 NS (Wilcoxon test). Twenty one of the 29 patients (72.4%) showed global improvement in sexual performance with the use of sildenafil citrate at home. There was not a statistically significant correlation between the global response to sildenafil citrate and the increase in the peak systolic velocity. CONCLUSION: We concluded that, even though the use of 50 mg of sildenafil citrate associated with 5 mcg of alprostadil provides an increase in the peak systolic velocity of the cavernous arteries, there was no statistic difference in relation to alprostadil alone. There was no correlation between the global response to sildenafil and the increase in the peak systolic velocity
Abstract in English:Chronic penile strangulation is exceedingly rare with only 5 cases previously reported. We report an additional case of progressive penile lymphedema due to chronic intermittent strangulation caused by a rubber band applied to the penile base for 6 years. A 49-year-old man presented incapacity to exteriorize the glans penis. For erotic purposes, he had been using a rubber-enlarging band placed in the penile base for 6 years. With chronic use, he noticed that his penis swelled. Physical examination revealed lymphedema of the penis, phimosis and a stricture in the penile base. The patient was submitted to circumcision and the lymphedema remained stable 10 months postoperatively. Chronic penile incarceration usually causes penile lymphedema and urinary disturbance. Treatment consists of removal of foreign devices and surgical treatment of lymphedema.
Abstract in English:Testicular neoplasia is rare, especially when it is bilateral, and even more when it is synchronic, with its incidence being only 0.17% of germinative tumors of testicles. We present here the case of a male, 32-year old patient, without children. Patient underwent a bilateral radical orchiectomy, following previous sperm harvest, in a sperm bank. Surgery was performed in 2 stages, with a 12-day interval, with implantation of a silicone testicular prosthesis. The result of anatomicopathological examination revealed bilateral classical seminoma, pT2 on the right side andT1 on the left. He was submitted to bilateral complementary radiotherapy, with 2,500 cGy on each side. Patient had a good outcome from a medical and oncologic perspective, but a follow-up with psychotherapy was needed.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: The Schroeder-Essed plication procedure is a standard technique for the correction of penile curvature. In a retrospective analysis we compared functional results and quality of life (LQ) of the original technique with inverted sutures as described by Schroeder-Essed and our slight modification consisting of horizontal incisions into the tunica albuginea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with congenital penis deviation were treated for penile deviation by the original Schroeder-Essed plication with inverted sutures (11 patients) and by the described modification (15 patients). In case of modified technique, horizontal and parallel incisions 4 mm to 6 mm apart and about 8 mm - 10 mm long were made through the tunica albuginea. The outer edges of the incisions were then approximated with permanent inverted sutures (Gore-Tex® 3-0). Mean age was 21.6 years in the first group and 23.2 years in the second group. Average follow-up was 28 months and 13 months, respectively. The preoperative penile deviation angle was > 25º in all patients without difference between the 2 groups. RESULTS: All patients in both groups reported an improvement in their quality of life and full ability to engage in sexual intercourse. Nine patients (88%) in the first group and 14 patients (93%) in the second group were satisfied with the cosmetic result. In contrast, 10 patients (91%) of the first and 13 patients (87%) of the second group complained of penile shorting. Recurrence of deviation was only noticed in 2 males in the first group (18%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that this simple modification of the Schroeder-Essed plication offers good functional and cosmetic results. Most patients were satisfied with the penile angle correction results.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To describe the original cystoprostatectomy technique which allows the preservation of sexual and urinary function in the majority of treated patients. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: The described technique presents some details that distinguish it from classic cystectomy: 1) a more efficient control of prostate venous and arterial tributaries; 2) preservation of prostatic capsule and enucleation of prostatic parenchyma, which is removed in block together with the bladder, without violating the vesical neck; 3) no manipulation of the distal urethral sphincteric complex; 4) preservation of seminal vesicles and maintenance of cavernous neurovascular bundles; 5) wide anastomosis between the ileal neobladder and the prostatic capsule. COMMENTS: The proposed maneuvers allow the performance of radical cystectomy with integral preservation of distal urethral sphincter and of cavernous neurovascular bundles, without jeopardizing the oncological principles.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the results from the first 5 years of experience with laparoscopy for diagnosis and treatment of nonpalpable testes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of 51 patients submitted to laparoscopic testicular exploration, during a 5-year period, were retrospectively analyzed. Patients' mean age was 65.7 months (median = 48) on the first procedure. The youngest patient was 10 months and the oldest was 14 years old on the first surgery. Twenty-four (47%) patients presented nonpalpable testes bilaterally, 7 (14%) only at the right side and 20 (39%) at the left, totaling 75 testicular units assessed. Patients who had their testes palpated after anesthetic induction were excluded from the study, and in all other cases, surgical management was based on the testicular position and viability. During the post-operative follow-up, surgical success was classified as palpable testis in scrotal sac, with adequate consistency and volume. RESULTS: Nine (12%) testes were not localized, but their vessels and deferent duct were atrophic. Two (3%) testes were intra-abdominal and atrophic, and 2 (3%) gonads, in the same patient, had a dysmorphic aspect. Nineteen (25%) testicular units were located close to the internal inguinal ring (peeping testes) and, in 22 (29%) units, the spermatic vessels and deferent duct penetrated the internal inguinal ring. Eight (10%) testes were located at a distance of less than 2 cm from the internal inguinal ring and 13 (17%) at a distance greater than 2 cm. The 2 intra-abdominal atrophic testes were removed. Inguinotomy was performed in a total of 41 (54%) cases, reaching a surgical success of 89%. Laparoscopic orchiopexy in one stage, without vascular ligation, was performed in 9 (12%) testes, which presented a distance of less than 2 cm from the internal inguinal ring, also with a surgical success index of 89%. Orchiopexy in 2 stages, with ligation of the spermatic vessels, was performed in 13 (17%) testicular units located at a distance greater than 2 cm from the internal inguinal ring, reaching 77% of good results. CONCLUSION: Videolaparoscopy is a safe and effective method for diagnosis and treatment of nonpalpable testis.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: SAFYREä is a readjustable and minimally invasive sling for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). It is as a pubovaginal sling placed in the medial third of the urethra. The initial experience is described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five patients (mean age = 59 years) underwent a SAFYREä implant to treat SUI. Physical examination and urodynamic study were performed before surgery. All patients presented symptoms of SUI and 20% also reported mild urgency. Approximately 60% of this group had a previously failed anti-incontinence procedure. Urethral hypermobility was diagnosed in 40% of the patients and intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD) in 60% of the cases. RESULTS: The average follow up period was 10 months. The mean operative time was 20 minutes. Dystopia repair was performed whenever necessary, during the same procedure. The average hospital stay was 24 hours. In 11% of the implants, bladder perforation occurred. During the postoperative period, 9 patients (20%) developed transient urgency symptoms. During the initial follow up period, 90% were found to be continent, 3% reported an improvement and 7% were unchanged. CONCLUSION: SAFYREä is a safe and quick procedure that allows postoperative readjustment. This technique may be an attractive alternative in the management of SUI, should the good result obtained so far prove to be long lasting.