Abstract in English:PURPOSE: We describe the critical steps of the laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) technique and discuss how they impact upon the pertinent issues regarding prostate cancer surgery: blood loss, potency and continence. RESULTS: A major advantage of LRP is the reduced operative blood loss. The precise placement of the dorsal vein complex stitch associated with the tamponading effect of the CO2 pneumoperitoneum significantly decrease venous bleeding, which is the main source of blood loss during radical prostatectomy. At the Cleveland Clinic, the average blood loss of our first 100 patients was 322.5 ml, resulting in low transfusion rates. The continuous venous bleeding narrowed pelvic surgical field and poor visibility can adversely impact on nerve preservation during open radical prostatectomy. Laparoscopy, with its enhanced and magnified vision in a relatively bloodless field allows for excellent identification and handling of the neurovascular bundles. During open retropubic radical prostatectomy, the pubic bone may impair visibility and access to the urethral stump, and the surgeon must tie the knots relying on tactile sensation alone. Consequently, open prostatectomy is associated with a prolonged catheterization period of 2 - 3 weeks. Comparatively, during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy all sutures are meticulously placed and each is tied under complete visual control, resulting in a precise mucosa-to-mucosa approximation. CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic approach may represent a reliable less invasive alternative to the conventional open approach. Despite the encouraging preliminary anatomical and functional outcomes, prospective randomized comparative trials are required to critically evaluate the role of laparoscopy for this sophisticated and delicate operation.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To assess the importance of quantifying the adenocarcinoma in prostate biopsies when determining the tumor's final stage in patients who undergo radical prostatectomy. To identify the best methodology for obtaining such data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prostate biopsies from 132 patients were examined, with determination of Gleason histological grade and tumor volume in number of involved fragments, tumor extent of the fragment mostly affected by the tumor and the total percentage of tumor in the specimen. Theses parameters were statistically correlated with the neoplasia's final stage following the evaluation of radical prostatectomy specimens. RESULTS: An average of 12 and a median of 14 biopsy fragments were evaluated per patient. In the univariate analysis the Gleason histological grade, the largest tumor extent in one fragment and the total percentage of tumor in the specimen were correlated with tumor stage of the surgical specimen. In the multivariate analysis, the Gleason histological grade and the total percentage of tumor were strongly correlated with the neoplasia's final stage. The risk of the tumor not being confined was 3 for Gleason 7 tumors and 10.6 for Gleason 8 tumors or above. In cases where the tumor involved more than 60% of the specimen, the risk of non-confined disease was 4.4 times. Among 19 patients with unfavorable histological parameters, Gleason > 7 and extension greater than 60% the tumor final stage was pT3 in 95%. CONCLUSION: When associated to the Gleason histological grade, tumor quantification in prostate biopsies is an important factor for determining organ-confined disease, and among the methods, total percentage of tumor is the most informative one. Such data should be included in the pathological report and must be incorporated in future nomograms.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To establish if previous surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia (transurethral resection of the prostate or open prostatectomy), age, and preservation of prostatic apex can influence postoperative urinary continence in patients submitted to radical cystectomy and orthotopic ileal neobladder. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed 62 patients with bladder cancer who were treated with radical cystectomy and orthotopic ileal neobladder between 1987 and 1998 and had been followed for at least 24 months. The average age and median follow up were 61 years and 53 months, respectively. Postoperative urinary continence was correlated with 3 factors: patient age, preservation of prostatic apex during surgical excision and prior prostatic surgery for benign disease. Patients were defined as incontinent when they had to use more than 1 protective pad at the daytime. RESULTS: The overall incidence of urinary incontinence was 12.9% (8 out of 62 patients). The only statistically significant factor that impacted upon urinary continence was previous prostatic surgery, with respectively 33% versus 7% rate of incontinence for patients previously operated on and for those without previous operation (p = 0.023 odds ratio = 6.5, 95% confidence interval). Preservation of prostatic apex did not reach difference, 12% versus 13%, for those with and without preservation, and age also did not influence the postoperative continence rate. CONCLUSIONS: Prior prostatic surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia probably can increases the risk for postcystectomy incontinence and preservation of prostate apex did not affect the continence rate. This issue deserves to be considered by the surgeon and must be discussed previously with the patients when planning an orthotopic bladder replacement.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: Renal scintigraphy has been used for many years in the evaluation of renal transplants and can help in the diagnosis of graft complications, leading to prompt clinical management and preventing further deterioration of renal function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall accuracy of renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-DTPA in the diagnosis of acute renal graft complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-six scintigraphic studies performed in 55 patients (ages ranging from 6 to 65 years), were reviewed. Scintigraphy results were compared to biopsies performed within 5 days of imaging. 99mTc-DTPA study was performed within a mean time of 19 days after kidney transplants. Dynamic images were performed in the anterior position of the abdomen and pelvis every 2 seconds for 80 seconds (flow phase) and every 15 seconds for 30 minutes (functional phase), after an intravenous injection of 370 MBq (10 mCi) of 99mTc-DTPA. RESULTS: The scintigraphic results were concordant with the biopsies in 86% of the cases studied. The sensitivities of renal scintigraphy for detection of acute tubular necrosis (ATN), acute rejection (AR) and cortical necrosis (CN) were 98%, 87% and 100%, respectively. Specificities and accuracies for detection of ATN, AR and CN were 89%, 86% and 100%, and 95%, 87% and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-DTPA showed a good overall accuracy in the detection of acute renal graft complications. It can be used as a reliable tool in the routine evaluation of these patients
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: We report a case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma that presented involution following therapy with dendritic cells. CASE REPORT: Male, 51-year old patient underwent left radical nephrectomy in September 1999 due to renal cell carcinoma, evolved with recurrence of the neoplasia in January 2002, confirmed by resection of the lesion. A vaccine therapy based on dendritic cells was then performed during 5 months (4 applications). After this period, there was occurrence of new lesions, whose resection revealed areas of necrosis and inflammatory infiltrate. DISCUSSION: The outcome of renal cell carcinoma is influenced by prognostic factors that confer more aggressive tumor characteristics. However, in cases of recurrence, the systemic therapy with dendritic cells-based vaccine can be associated with a better outcome with regression of disease.
Abstract in English:Port site metastasis after adrenal surgery is a rare entity. We describe the case of a 70-year-old man with a solitary adrenal metastasis from malignant melanoma, which was laparoscopically removed. Twelve months later, he presented a recurrence near one of the laparoscopic port sites. This lesion was surgically removed and after a 18-month follow-up, the patient presents no evidence of disease.
Abstract in English:A case of primary chondrosarcoma of the testis is reported. A 40-year-old man presented a painless swelling of the right testis that he has been observing for 3 years. Gross examination of the resected specimen showed an encapsulated, gray to tan colored, roughly rounded tumor. Histologically, the tumor revealed a well-differentiated chondrosarcoma.
Abstract in English:Post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence is an uncommon complication of adenomectomies, occurring in approximately 1% of cases and being more frequent following radical prostatectomies. There is a significant implication in the quality of life for these patients. The surgical techniques employed for its treatment are the implantation of an artificial sphincter, peri-urethral injections and suburethral slings. Considering the low efficacy of peri-urethral injections and the high cost of artificial sphincters, we present in this work a technical modification of the suburethral sling, whose preliminary results are satisfactory. The fundamental modification in this technique is due to the replacement of the synthetic material usually employed for making the sling for autologous tissue, constituted by an aponeurotic strip taken from the rectus muscle of abdomen. This modification aims to minimize risks of urethral erosion that, despite it was not described in this population due to the use of synthetic materials, is a possibility when facing the tension that is used over the bulbar urethra. In addition to such aspects the autologous aponeurosis does not have a cost except for a short prolongation of the surgical act.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To compare the characteristics of prenatally and postnatally diagnosed ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the records of 74 children who underwent pyeloplasty or nephrectomy for UPJO between 1995 and 2000. The patients were divided into 2 groups: prenatally and postnatally diagnosed UPJO. In each group, we compared age at surgery, gender, affected side, anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the renal pelvis, surgical findings, and renal function as determined by creatinine clearance. RESULTS: Of the 74 children, 44 (59.4%) had a prenatal diagnosis of UPJO and 30 (40.6%) had a postnatal diagnosis despite the fact that all had had a fetal ultrasonography. Median age at the time of surgery was 6.3 years (4 months to 16 years) for children with postnatal UPJO and 3.6 months (1 month to 4 years) for the prenatal group. Forty-three percent of the children in the postnatal group and 25% in the prenatal group were females. Clinical manifestations in children with postnatal UPJO included abdominal pain in 13 (43%) patients, pyelonephritis in 7 (23%), urinary tract infection in 5 (16.6%), and occasional findings upon ultrasound in 5 (16.6%). Excretory urography suggested obstruction in most children. The surgical findings included ureteral kinks due to adhesions in 93.3% of postnatally diagnosed UPJO cases and in 27.3% of prenatal cases (p < 0.01). A reduction in mean creatinine clearance of hydronephrotic kidneys was observed for both groups when compared to reference values for the respective ages, but this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Postnatally diagnosed UPJO may be considered, at least in part, an entity different from prenatally detected obstruction due to its peculiar characteristics, i.e., postnatal UPJO more frequently affects females, manifests later in life with urinary infection or abdominal pain, and is frequently associated with ureteral kinking.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To assess the value of intravenous urography (IVU) in detecting and grading the renal scar, comparing its results with those of scintigraphy with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 43 children investigated by DMSA and IVU, who had vesicoureteral reflux diagnosed and classified through voiding cystourethrography. RESULTS: Among the kidneys with reflux, there was agreement between the results of DMSA and IVU concerning the presence and the absence of scars in 82.4% of the cases. Based on the results obtained, IVU would have a sensitivity of 66.6%, specificity of 94.4%; accuracy of 82.5%; positive predictive value (PPV) of 90% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 79%, when compared with DMSA results. Our data also confirm the close relation between the reflux grade and the presence of renal scar, since 75% of the kidneys with grade IV and V reflux presented scars. In relation to the grading of nephropathy, in 78% of patients the classification of the scar by both methods was identical. The highest disagreement was verified in the group with segmental scar on DMSA, where 41.6% of the kidneys were classified as normal on IVU. CONCLUSION: The data obtained confirm that the scintigraphy with DMSA is essential in the investigation of patients with renal scar, and cannot be replaced by IVU, due to its low sensitivity and lower ability of satisfactory grading.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to evaluate the use of pubovaginal sling for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence in patients with intrinsic sphincteric deficiency and patients with urethral hypermobility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-two patients aging 22 to 73 years-old (mean = 49.6) with a median parity of 4.1 (range 0 - 14) who underwent pubovaginal autologous fascial sling procedures for stress urinary incontinence from August/1999 to August/2002 were prospectively analyzed. Objective pre and postoperative urodynamic evaluation was performed in all cases. The patients were divided into 2 groups: thirty-nine patients (62.9%) with urethral hypermobility (Valsalva leak point pressure equal or superior to 60 cm of H2O) and twenty-three patients (37.1%) with intrinsic sphincteric insufficiency (Valsalva leak point pressure below 60 cm of H2O). RESULTS: The average follow-up period was 24.8 months, ranging from 3 to 38 months. Three patients (4.8%) had detrusor overactivity before the operation, and 36 patients (58.1%) had voiding dysfunction before surgery. The postoperative objective cure rate was 88.7% for stress urinary incontinence. The study also showed that 32.2% of the patients had voiding dysfunction and 11.3% had detrusor overactivity. The mean hospital stay was 3.1 days (range 2 - 4). No difference in the above parameters was noticed between patients with intrinsic sphincteric deficiency and those with urethral hypermobility. CONCLUSION: Construction of a pubovaginal sling is an effective technique for the relief of severe stress urinary incontinence, for both patients with urethral hipermobility and with intrinsic sphincteric deficiency, having a cure rate of 88.7%. The high frequency of postoperative voiding urgency was not related to the detrusor overactivity as evaluated by urodynamic studies.