Abstract in English:Endoluminal ultrasonography (ELUS) is a noninvasive diagnostic technique used in urology to image tubular structures of the urinary tract. Through advancements in technology, modern ELUS is able to create three-dimensional images, which provide valuable clinical information for the diagnosis and treatment of urologic disorders. The efficiency and accuracy of this technology is confirmed through validation studies using human and animal models. Although a relatively new method, the clinical application of this technique holds great promise in the field of endourology. The technology, advantages, limitations, validation studies, clinical applications, and future of ELUS are explored through this comprehensive review of current urologic literature.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: We investigate the use of non-contrast helical computerized tomography (NCHCT) in the measurement of differential renal parenchymal volume as a surrogate for differential creatinine clearance (CrCl) for unilateral chronically obstructed kidney. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with unilateral chronically obstructed kidneys with normal contralateral kidneys were enrolled. Ultrasonography (USG) of the kidneys was first done with the cortical thickness of the site with the most renal substance in the upper pole, mid-kidney, and lower pole of both kidneys were measured, and the mean cortical thickness of each kidney was calculated. NCHCT was subsequently performed for each patient. The CT images were individually reviewed with the area of renal parenchyma measured for each kidney. Then the volume of the slices was summated to give the renal parenchymal volume of both the obstructed and normal kidneys. Finally, a percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) was inserted to the obstructed kidney, and CrCl of both the obstructed kidney (PCN urine) and the normal side (voided urine) were measured two 2 after the relief of obstruction. RESULTS: From March 1999 to February 2001, thirty patients were enrolled into the study. Ninety percent of them had ureteral calculi. The differential CrCl of the obstructed kidney (%CrCl) was defined as the percentage of CrCl of the obstructed kidney as of the total CrCl, measured 2 weeks after relief of obstruction. The differential renal parenchymal volume of the obstructed kidney (%CTvol) was the percentage of renal parenchymal volume as of the total parenchymal volume. The differential USG cortical thickness of the obstructed kidney (%USGcort) was the percentage of mean cortical thickness as of the total mean cortical thickness. The Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) between %CTvol and %CrCl and that between %USGcort and %CrCl were 0.756 and 0.543 respectively. The regression line was %CrCl = (1.00) x %CTvol - 14.27. The %CTvol overestimated the differential creatinine clearance by about 14%, but the correlation is good. CONCLUSION: The differential renal parenchymal volume measured by NCHCT provided a reasonable prediction of differential creatinine clearance in chronically obstructed kidneys.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: The risks of identifying prostate cancer (PCa) in patients with serum total PSA (tPSA) between 4 and 10 ng/dl are between 25 and 35%. There are no data in Brazil showing the incidence of disease when all variables for PSA assessment are considered altogether, specifically tPSA, free fraction, PSA velocity and PSA stratified by age. The objective in this work was to define the incidence of disease in a population of men with abnormal values of PSA variables and normal digital rectal examination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1998 and 2003, 273 prostate biopsies were performed by the same radiologist and analyzed by the same pathologist. All patients had a normal digital rectal examination and biopsy had been indicated due to tPSA above 4 ng/dl or free-to-total PSA ratio (F/T PSA) below 15% or PSA velocity higher than 25% per year or a PSA level regarded as high for the age range. The relationship between these parameters and the positivity for prostate caner was determined. RESULTS: Patients' mean age was 63.8 years, and PCa was identified in 135 cases (49.5%). The incidence of PCa, related to unitary variations in tPSA, ranged from the limits of 33 to 80%, respectively, in tPSA < 3 and PSA between 15.1 to 20. When the other PSA parameters were assessed (free PSA, PSA according to age, rise velocity) PCa was detected in more than 25.3% of cases. CONCLUSION: When patients with normal digital rectal examination are selected for prostate biopsy due to tPSA levels above 4 or F/T PSA ratio lower than 15% or PSA velocity higher than 25% per year or high PSA for the age range, the incidence of PCa is quite higher than that observed in a population selected exclusively with basis on total PSA value.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To assess the benefit of the periprostatic administration of lidocaine previously to ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April to October 2002, forty patients underwent ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy due to increased PSA or abnormal digital rectal examination. A randomized double-blind study was performed, where the patients received an injection of lidocaine 2% or saline solution, in a total of 10 ml periprostatic. Immediately following the biopsy, the pain associated to the procedure was assessed, using a visual analogical scale from 0 to 10. The mean number of fragments collected per patient in the biopsies was 11.3. The statistical analysis used for assessment of pain was the Student's t, with p < 0.05 being significant. RESULTS: The groups were homogeneous concerning the anthropometrical data. In relation to pain, those patients in the groups that underwent biopsy with the use of lidocaine presented a maximum score of 6, while in the group that underwent biopsy with the use of saline solution, 4 patients presented score 7 ou 8. The mean score and standard deviation with lidocaine were 2.55 ± 2.34 (CI 95% = 1.53 to 3.57) and with saline solution were 3.75 ± 2.52 (CI 95% = 2.66 ± 4.84) with no statistical significant difference between the groups. CONCLUSION: The lidocaine injection did not show statistical difference when compared with saline solution in the periprostatic blockade during echo-guided prostate biopsy.
Abstract in English:The juxtaglomerular cell tumor is a cause of secondary hypertension in adults. A 35-year-old female patient suffering from hypertension and low serum potassium had a 3 x 3 cm solid mass at the lower pole of left kidney diagnosed by abdominal sonography. Partial nephrectomy was performed and the postoperatory was uneventful. Normalization of blood pressure was observed within the first month.
Abstract in English:Low-flow priapism can result in impotence if treatment is delayed, yet patients with recurrent priapism often suffer delay before therapy. We describe management of recurrent priapism using self-administered injections of intracavernosal metaraminol (Aramine™, Merck), a long-acting vasoconstricting amine that is considered safer than epinephrine. The patient injects as often as once daily using 5-10 mg of drug. Our patient reports rapid detumescence and has not required emergency room visits since starting injections. He denies complications. Treatment of priapism using metaraminol has been suggested in the hospital setting; however, this is the first report of successful home self-administration of the drug.
Abstract in English:Female, 57 year-old patient, reported having undergone surgery for correction of urinary incontinence due to sphincteric insufficiency with the implantation of a synthetic pubovaginal sling 14 months earlier. Though she did not present urine loss any longer, approximately 60 days following the surgical procedure she started to report dysuria, pollakiuria and dyspareunia. Attempts of a conservative solution were ineffective. The appearance of a vaginal infra-urethral granuloma and the exteriorization of the synthetic material led to its removal.
Abstract in English:The development of infiltrative bladder carcinoma in patients previously treated with radical prostatectomy due to prostate adenocarcinoma represents a challenging perspective. Radical cystectomy remains the best option for invasive bladder cancer, however, there are few reports about the best approach to such individuals. Nevertheless, despite possible technical difficulties found during surgery, the orthotopic urinary shunt is a reasonable option in selected cases.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: We present here a long-term observation of 2 children with a rare syndrome with a non-neurogenic neurogenic bladder dysfunction (Hinman's syndrome), and we investigated the safety and efficacy of long-term use of terazosine in association with prophylactic antibiotics, timed voiding and a bowel regimen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two children, 7 years-old (22 kg) and 11 years-old (36 kg) presented in 1997 to our pediatric urology clinic with symptoms of urgency, frequency, urge incontinence and nocturnal enuresis. Both children were placed in a regimen of terazosine (starting with 0.5 mg increasing until 2 mg). RESULTS: There were no significant side effects throughout the entire treatment. The first 7-year old boy however developed some dizziness when the dose of terazosine was increased to 2 mg (after 4 weeks of administrating 1 mg), and this disappeared immediately when the dosage was reduced back to 1 mg daily. The urgency symptoms improved in both boys after 3 weeks of 1 mg terazosine. The secondary enuresis in the 11 year-old boy resolved after 2 months of 2 mg terazosine. CONCLUSION: It is possible to say that the alpha-blocker medication, terazosine can be administered safely to children with a non-neurogenic bladder dysfunction, also known as the Hinman's syndrome. These results have shown that dysfunctional voiding, postvoiding residual and upper tract involvement can disappear over time when long term terazosine is given in combination with timed voiding, prophylactic antibiotic therapy and treatment of the associated constipation. Our observations also suggest a permanent effect after discontinuing the medication.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the total symptom score, irritative and obstructive domains of IPSS questions regarding quality of life and the urodynamic diagnosis in 400 men with LUTS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred consecutive male patients were prospectively enrolled after being submitted to full urodynamic evaluation and IPSS. Obstructed and non-obstructed patients were compared regarding the symptoms score and quality of life. Results were assessed through Wilcox, ANOVA and Student-t tests. RESULTS: 80.2% were diagnosed as urodynamically obstructed of which 42.4% presented detrusor instability in the filling phase. In obstructed patients there were no statistical difference concerning obstructive or irritative questions from IPSS (p = 0.50). It was not possible either to predict which patients presented detrusor instability based on the questionnaire (p = 0.65). Out of seventy-nine cases unobstructed (19.8%), 65.4% revealed detrusor instability. These cases could not be distinguished from all obstructed men based on the clinical questions measured by IPSS (p = 0.87). Obstructive and irritative questions did not present different indexes than obstructed cases (p = 0.63). Subjective quality of life index did not discriminate obstruction nor it could predict detrusor instability in both groups. CONCLUSION: Clinical symptoms and quality of life index measured by the IPSS as well as its obstructive and irritative domains do not have discriminating power to predict the presence of infravesical obstruction in males with LUTS, demanding objective tools to demonstrate obstruction.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of high-energy shock waves (HESW) on organs adjacent to the kidney, in the growing rat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 60 Wistar male rats. Upon completing 30 days of age, a radiopaque marker was placed in the animals' left renal cavity. With 40 days of age, after radiologically confirming the markers' position, the rats were divided into 2 groups: control-group - 30 rats that did not receive shock waves; experimental group- 30 rats exposed to 1000 shock waves of 17.2 KV in intensity. The rats were sacrificed 7, 90 and 180 days after exposure to HESW. The bodily growth was assessed and the analysis of macro- and microscopic morphology of liver, spleen, pancreas, lungs and adrenals. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference in the animals' bodily growth. The microscopic morphologic analysis demonstrated significant alterations in spleen (proliferative changes in the red pulp) and liver (cloudy swelling) of the animals submitted to HESW and sacrificed on the seventh day. These changes completely disappeared in subsequent analyses. CONCLUSION: HESW applied to rat did not inhibit the animals' growth and caused transitory histological lesion in spleen (proliferative changes in the red pulp) and in liver (cloudy swelling of hepatocytes). Such changes were observed only in the group that was exposed to HESW and was sacrificed 7 days following the experiment, presenting spontaneous recovery.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Renal tubular damage can be assessed with the aid of urinary dosing of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG) and it is possible to demonstrate a significant correlation between shock wave and damage to renal parenchyma. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of shock wave reapplication over urinary NAG in canine kidney. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors submitted 10 crossbred dogs to 2 applications of 2000 shock waves in a 24-hour interval in order to assess urinary NAG values after 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours. RESULTS: Twelve hours following the first shockwave application there was an increase in NAG of 6.47 ± 5.44 u/g creatinine (p < 0.05). Twelve hours and 24 h following the second application there was no increase in the urinary enzyme, - 2.56 ± - 7.36 u/g creatinine and 2.89 ± - 7.27 u/g creatinine, respectively (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Shock wave reapplication with a 24-hour interval did not cause any increase in urinary NAG.