International braz j urol, Volume: 31, Issue: 6, Published: 2005
  • Editor's comment

  • Right renal vein elongation with the inferior vena cava for cadaveric kidney transplants: an old neglected surgical approach Clinical Urology

    Baptista-Silva, Jose C.; Medina-Pestana, Jose O.; Verissimo, Marcos J.M.; Castro, Marcos J.; Demuner, Maris S.; Signorelli, Marcio F.

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Short right renal vein is a frequent and well-known technical inconvenience that is commonly observed during transplantation of the right kidney. We present our experience with the elongation of short cadaveric right renal veins using the contiguous vena cava during cadaveric renal transplants. METHODS: We performed 34 kidney transplantations with a short right renal vein requiring elongation using the inferior vena cava, to make the venous anastomosis technically feasible. The elongated right renal vein was anastomosed end to side to the external iliac vein in 24 patients, to the common iliac vein in 8 patients and to the inferior vena cava in 2 patients. The right renal artery with an aortic patch was implanted end to side in 33 patients, and end to end without aortic patch to the internal iliac artery in one patient. RESULTS: In all cases, the vascular anastomoses were easily performed in the recipient and no thrombosis was observed. CONCLUSION: Elongation of a short right renal vein with the inferior vena cava is a feasible mean to overcome technical problems that may compromise the results of cadaveric renal transplantation.
  • Hand-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy as a minimally invasive option in the treatment of large renal specimens Clinical Urology

    Tobias-Machado, M.; Tavares, Alessandro; Forseto Jr, Pedro H.; Zambon, Joao P.; Juliano, Roberto V.; Wroclawski, Eric R.

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: We describe our experience with hand-assisted laparoscopy (HAL) as an option for the treatment of large renal specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2000 and August 2004, 13 patients candidate to nephrectomies due to benign renal conditions with kidneys larger than 20 cm were included in a prospective protocol. Unilateral nephrectomy was performed in cases of hydronephrosis (6 patients) or giant pyonephrosis (4 patients). Bilateral nephrectomy was performed in 3 patients with adult polycystic kidney disease (APKD) with low back pain refractory to clinical treatment previous to kidney transplant. The technique included the introduction of 2 to 3 10 mm ports, manual incision to allow enough space for the surgeon's wrist without a commercial device to keep the pneumoperitoneum. The kidney was empty, preferably extracorporeally, enough to be removed through manual incision. We have assessed operative times, transfusions, complications, conversions, hospital stay and convalescence. RESULTS: The patients mean age (9 women and 4 men) was 58 years. Mean operating time was 120 ± 10 min (hydronephrosis), 160 ± 28 min (pyonephrosis) and 190 ± 13 min (bilateral surgery for APKD). There was a need for a conversion in 1 case and another patient needed a transfusion due to a lesion in the renal vein; 2 patients had minor complications. CONCLUSION: HAL surgery is a minimally invasive alternative in the treatment of large renal specimens, with or without significant inflammation.
  • Relationship of age to outcome and clinicopathologic findings in men submitted to radical prostatectomy Clinical Urology

    Billis, Athanase; Magna, Luis A.; Lira, Mariana M.; Moreira, Luciana R.; Okamura, Helio; Paz, Alexandre R.; Perina, Rita C.; Triglia, Renata M.; Ferreira, Ubirajara

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: It is controversial whether age is associated with higher grade and worse outcome. Some studies have not found age to be related to outcome nor younger age to be associated with better response to therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 27 patients aged 55 years or younger and 173 patients 56 years or older submitted to radical prostatectomy. The variables studied were preoperative PSA, time to PSA progression following radical prostatectomy and pathologic findings in surgical specimens: Gleason score, Gleason predominant grade, positive surgical margins, tumor extent, extraprostatic extension (pT3a), and seminal vesicle invasion (pT3b). RESULTS: Comparing patients aged 55 years or younger and 56 years or older, there was no statistically significant difference for all variables studied: preoperative PSA (p = 0.4417), Gleason score (p = 0.3934), Gleason predominant grade (p = 0.2653), tumor extent (p = 0.1190), positive surgical margins (p = 0.8335), extraprostatic extension (p = 0.3447) and seminal vesicle invasion (p > 0.9999). During the study period, 44 patients (22%) developed PSA progression. No difference was found in the time to biochemical progression between men aged 55 years or younger and 56 years or older. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that age alone do not influence the biological aggressiveness of prostate cancer.
  • Recovery of spermatogenesis after microsurgical subinguinal varicocele repair in azoospermic men based on testicular histology Clinical Urology

    Esteves, Sandro C.; Glina, Sidney

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: Analyze whether testicular histologic patterns from a group of azoospermic men with varicocele is predictive of treatment outcome after subinguinal microsurgical varicocele repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen azoospermic men underwent bilateral open single testis biopsy and microsurgical subinguinal repair of clinical varicoceles. RESULTS: Histopathology of testicular biopsies revealed hypospermatogenesis (HYPO) in 6 men, maturation arrest (MA) in 5, and Sertoli cell-only (SCO) in 6. Overall, presence of spermatozoa in the ejaculates was achieved in 47% (8/17) of men after varicocele repair, but only 35% (6/17) of them had motile sperm in their ejaculates. Only men with testicular histology revealing HYPO (5/6) or maturation arrest (3/5) had improvement after surgery. Median (25% - 75% percentile) postoperative motile sperm count for both groups were 0.9 X 106/mL (0.1-1.8 X 106/mL) and 0.7 X 106/mL (0.1-1.1), respectively (p = 0.87). The mean time for appearance of spermatozoa in the ejaculates was 5 months (3 to 9 months). One (HYPO) of 8 (12.5%) men who improved after surgery contributed to an unassisted pregnancy. Postoperative testicular biopsies obtained from patients who had no improvement after surgery revealed that testicular histology diagnosis remained unchanged. Successful testicular sperm retrieval for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was achieved in 4 of 9 (44.4%) individuals who did not improve after surgery, including 1 man with testicular histology exhibiting SCO. CONCLUSION: Microsurgical varicocele repair in nonobstructive azoospermic men with clinical varicoceles can result in sperm appearance in the ejaculate when hypospermatogenesis or maturation arrest is found on testicular histology diagnosis.
  • Orthotopic ureterocele masquerading as a bladder tumor in a woman with pelvic pain Case Report

    Thiel, David D.; Petrou, Steven P.; Broderick, Gregory A.

    Abstract in English:

    Single system orthotopic ureteroceles often present in adulthood are associated with characteristic radiographic findings. We present the case of a 54 year old woman with 8 months of urgency/frequency and pelvic pain that has the cystoscopic appearance of a bladder tumor. Cystoscopic images, radiographs and intraoperative photos demonstrate the work-up, evaluation, and treatment of this unique single system orthotopic ureterocele containing a calculus. This patient demonstrates the need for cystoscopy accompanied by upper tract imaging in patients with new onset pelvic pain, urgency/frequency, and frequent urinary tract infections.
  • Recurrent vesicourethal stenosis after radical prostatectomy: how to treat it? Case Report

    Barreto, Françualdo; Dall'oglio, Marcos; Srougi, Miguel

    Abstract in English:

    Vesicourethral anastomotic stricture and urinary incontinence are severe complications of radical prostatectomy because they cause great impact in the quality of life. Three patients that presented these complications after prostate radical surgery were assessed retrospectively. To treat the stenosis of the vesicourethral anastomosis an urolume was placed and later on, an artificial sphincter AMS 800 was implanted to treat the resulting urinary incontinence.
  • Idiopathic chronic hematocele of the vaginal sac Case Report

    Alvarez-Alvarez, Carlos; Farina-Perez, Luis A.; Barros, Celso R.

    Abstract in English:

    We report a 39-year-old male who presented non-traumatic testicular swelling and pain. Physical examination and sonography presented a suspicion of testicular tumor and both surgical exploration and inguinal orchiectomy were performed. Hematocele may both clinically and sonographically resemble a testicular tumor. The diagnostic study of choice is magnetic resonance, establishing the diagnosis and differentiating it from neoplasms.
  • Kidney transplantation in children: a 50-case experience Pediatric Urology

    Zerati Filho, Miguel; Furtado, Paulo S.; Barroso Jr, Ubirajara; Pugas, Cassio M.; D'avila, Cleverson; Souza, Geovanne F.

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article was to report our experience with kidney transplantation in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From June 1980 to December 2003, 690 kidney transplants were performed in our institution, among which 50 were in patients with less than 18 years old. Technical aspects as well as clinical and surgical evolution were reviewed in this study. RESULTS: Patient's mean age was 12 years (2-17 years). Twenty-nine patients were male and 21 female. Live related donors were responsible for 75% of the cases (38 patients) and 25% (12 patients) came from cadaver donors. The main complications were ureteral fistula in 6 patients (12%), arterial stenosis in 2 (4%), wall infection and dehiscence in 1 case (2%). The overall rate of surgical complication was 20%. No case of hyperacute rejection was reported. During the follow-up 20 grafts were lost due to chronic rejection and 2 patients died. No loss of graft due to surgical complications was reported. The graft survival rate was 71% in 1 year, 64% in 3 years and 57% in 5-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Kidney transplantation in children is a viable treatment option for terminal kidney disease presenting success and surgical complication rate similar to kidney transplantation in adults.
  • Stereological and morphometric analysis of collagen and seminiferous tubules in testes of patients with cryptorchidism submitted or not to treatment with human chorionic gonadotrophin Pediatric Urology

    Favorito, Luciano A.; Hidalgo Jr, Archimedes; Pazos, Helena M. F.; Costa, Waldemar S.; Sampaio, Francisco J. B.

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: Quantify the distribution of collagen and analyze the seminiferous tubules diameter in the testis of patients with cryptorchidism, to verify if the previous use of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) affects these structures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples of parenchymal tissue of cryptorchid testis obtained during peroperative biopsies were collected from 26 patients. Sixteen samples were embedded in paraffin and stained with picrosirius red to evidence fibers of collagen system. The quantification of these fibers was determined by stereological methods, using a test system M-42. To obtain seminiferous tubules diameter we used 10 of the 26 samples. These samples were embedded in Epon and the analyses were carried out in semi-thin sections, stained with toluidin blue. The selected results of each group were statistically analyzed and compared by the student's t and Tukey-Kramer's tests. RESULTS: The testicular interstitium and lamina propria of patients treated with hCG showed statistically significant less collagen system fibers, when compared to the testes of patients nontreated (0.30% versus 0.39%, p = 0.0079). The seminiferous tubules diameters were not statistically significant different between the testes of patients treated and nontreated with hCG (67.5 versus 59.35 µm, p = 0.0609). CONCLUSIONS: hCG use in the cryptorchidism could delay, at least temporarily, a progressive growth of fibers of collagen system. We did not find statistically significant difference in the seminiferous tubular diameters between treated and nontreated patients.
  • Assessment of urodynamic bladder behavior on filling with solutions representing physiological extremes of urinary osmolarity Urological Neurology

    Truzzi, Jose C.; Bruschini, Homero; Srougi, Miguel; Ortiz, Valdemar

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: Verify if there is any difference in sensitive and motor bladder response in the presence of solutions with different osmolarities, simulating physiological extremes of urinary osmolarity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients (24 men and 9 women) with mean age of 46.4 years (8 to 87 years) took part in this study. They were all subjected to 2 consecutive urodynamic examinations. In each exam, the vesical filling was accomplished by using a hyperosmolar (1000 mOsm/L) or hypo-osmolar (100 mOsm/L) sodium chloride solution in similar speed. The sequence in which each solution was instilled was determined by a double blind draw. The urodynamic results obtained from the infusion of both solutions were compared, regardless the sequence of administration. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (45.4%) showed detrusor hyperactivity, 12 of whom with neurological antecedents. The mean age of those with detrusor hyperactivity was 45.8 years, against 46.9 for those without hyperactivity. The infusion of the hyperosmolar/hypo-osmolar solution generated the following results, when comparing patients without vs. with detrusor hyperactivity: initial sensation of vesical filling (mL): 167.5 / 159.2 vs. 134.9 / 157.3 (p > 0.05); volume of occurrence of the first involuntary bladder contraction (mL): 163.9 / 151.9 (p > 0.05); detrusor micturition pressure (cm H2O): 24.0 / 24.4 vs. 13.8 / 27.5 (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The vesical filling with solutions simulating extreme urinary osmolarities, accomplished with similar speed and without previous identification, did not likewise alter the sensitive and motor urodynamic behavior in the current study.
  • Structural alterations of the bladder induced by detrusor instability: experimental study in rabbits Investigative Urology

    Amaro, Joao L.; Balasteghin, Karina T.; Padovani, Carlos R.; Montenegro, Renata

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathological and immunohistochemical alterations induced by detrusor instability in the bladder of rabbits submitted to partial bladder outlet obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty male Norfolk rabbits were divided into 2 groups, a clinical control and a group with detrusor instability. Urine culture, cystometric study, histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis were performed in all animals prior to surgery (M1) and 4 weeks after-surgery (M2). RESULTS: Partial obstruction (G2) resulted in a 2.5 fold increment (p < 0.05) in bladder weight when compared to control (G1). Four weeks after surgery, 93% of animals in G2 developed cystitis. Partial obstruction resulted in detrusor instability at M2 and bladder capacity was significantly increased (p < 0.05) from M1 to M2. The incidence of mild to moderate mucosal and adventitious fibrosis at M2 was higher in G2 (p < 0.05) when compared to G1. Inflammatory reaction at M2 was statistically higher (p < 0.05) in G2. There was no difference in muscular hypertrophy between M1 and M2 in G1. However, 67% of G2 bladders showed a moderate to intense muscular hypertrophy at M2. Hyperplasia of the epithelium was also increased in G2 when M1 and M2 were compared (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Detrusor instability induced by partial bladder outlet obstruction caused significant histopathological and immunohistochemical alterations in the bladder of rabbits.
  • Re: testicular histopathological diagnosis as a predictive factor for retrieving spermatozoa for icsi in non-obstructive azoospermic patients Letter To The Editor

    Glina, S; Soares, JB; Antunes Jr, N; Galuppo, AG; Paz, LB; Wonchockier, R
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