Abstract in English:We performed an up-to-date review of the surgical techniques suggested for the treatment of anterior urethral strictures. References for this review were identified by searching PubMed and MEDLINE using the search terms "urethral stricture" or "urethroplasty" from 1995 to 2006. Descriptive statistics of the articles were provided. Meta-analyses or other multivariate designs were not employed. Out of 327 articles, 50 (15%) were determined to be germane to this review. Eight abstracts were referenced as the authors of this review attended the meetings where the abstract results were presented, thus it was possible to collect additional information on such abstracts. Urethrotomy continues to be the most commonly used technique, but it does have a high failure rate and many patients progress to surgical repair. Buccal mucosa has become the most popular substitute material in urethroplasty; however, the skin appears to have a longer follow-up. Free grafts have been making a comeback, with fewer surgeons using genital flaps. Short bulbar strictures are amenable using primary anastomosis, with a high success rate. Longer strictures are repaired using ventral or dorsal graft urethroplasty, with the same success rate. New tools such as fibrin glue or engineered material will become a standard in future treatment. In reconstructive urethral surgery, the superiority of one approach over another is not yet clearly defined. The surgeon must be competent in the use of various techniques to deal with any condition of the urethra presented at the time of surgery.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy is well tolerated by patients but the lack of an effective marker to predict pain prevents us from determining pre-procedurally which patient group needs local anesthesia for biopsy and probe pain. Thus in this study, we investigated predictor factors for prostate biopsy and probe insertion pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 71 patients who were undergoing prostate biopsy without anesthesia were included in the study retrospectively. Pain had been assessed with visual analogue scale (VAS 0-10). Digital rectal examination (DRE) pain was analyzed for biopsy and probe insertion pain. RESULTS: DRE pain was related to both probe pain and biopsy pain. CONCLUSION: Although level of pain during DRE determines patients in need of local anesthesia, since the number of patients with moderate-severe pain is rather big, it seems efficient in determining the patients in need of additional anesthesia due to probe pain.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Preoperative determination of prostate cancer (PCa) tumor volume (TV) is still a big challenge. We have assessed variables obtained in prostatic biopsy aiming at determining which is the best method to predict the TV in radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biopsy findings of 162 men with PCa submitted to radical prostatectomy were revised. Preoperative characteristics, such as PSA, the percentage of positive fragments (PPF), the total percentage of cancer in the biopsy (TPC), the maximum percentage of cancer in a fragment (MPC), the presence of perineural invasion (PNI) and the Gleason score were correlated with postoperative surgical findings through an univariate analysis of a linear regression model. RESULTS: The TV correlated significantly to the PPF, TPC, MPC, PSA and to the presence of PNI (p < 0.001). However, the Pearson correlation analysis test showed an R2 of only 24%, 12%, 17% and 9% for the PPF, TPC, MPC, and PSA respectively. The combination of the PPF with the PSA and the PNI analysis showed to be a better model to predict the TV (R2 of 32.3%). The TV could be determined through the formula: Volume = 1.108 + 0.203 x PSA + 0.066 x PPF + 2.193 x PNI. CONCLUSIONS: The PPF seems to be better than the TPC and the MPC to predict the TV in the surgical specimen. Due to the weak correlation between those variables and the TV, the PSA and the presence of PNI should be used together.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To report our experience with cystectomy and ileal neobladder for women with interstitial cystitis (IC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five female patients treated during 2000-2005 with the mean age of 45.9 ± 4.4 years were included in this study. All of them had experience suprapubic pain with irritative voiding symptoms and were diagnosed as having IC based on NIDDK criteria for at least 2 years. Conservative treatments had failed to relieve their symptoms; and therefore all of them agreed to undergo a bladder removal. For cystectomy, the urethra was cut 0.5 cm below the bladder neck, proximal to the pubourethral ligament, leaving the endopelvic fascia intact. An ileal segment of 65 cm was used to create the neobladder with the Studer's technique. RESULTS: All patients presented good treatment outcome with regard to both diurnal and nocturnal urinary control without any pain. Quality of life using the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement of both physical health and mental health. Spontaneous voiding with minimal residual urine was found in 33 cases (94.3%), and the remaining 2 cases (5.7%) had spontaneous voiding with residual urine and were placed on clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). Twelve out of 30 cases with sexually active ability had a mild degree of dyspareunia but without disturbance to sexual life. CONCLUSION: Bladder substitution by ileal neobladder for women who suffer from IC can be a satisfactory option after failure of conservative treatment. Resection of the urethra distal to the bladder neck can preserve continence and allow spontaneous voiding in almost all patients.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of Bixa Orellana (BO) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) presenting moderate lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a prospective double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study. One thousand four hundred and seventy eight patients presenting moderate LUTS associated to BPH were interviewed, from whom we selected 136 to fulfill the criteria of inclusion and exclusion. Assignation was performed at random in blocks of four to receive B0 at a dose of 250 mg 3 times a day or placebo (Pbo) for 12 months, 68 patients were assigned to each group. From the patients in the study we obtained data of demographic, epidemiologic, symptom score, uroflowmetry and post void residual urine variables. RESULTS: Basically both groups were compared clinically, demographically and biochemically. Throughout the study variations of symptom score, mean delta symptom score during each visit and the final average delta were similar for both groups (BO - 0.79 ± 1.87 and Pbo - 1.07 ± 1.49) (p = 0.33). Similarly variations of Qmax mean, Qmax average delta and final average delta were similar (BO 0.44 ± 1.07 and Pbo 0.47 ± 1.32) (p = 0.88). Variations of post void residual urine mean, post void residual urine average delta in each visit and the final average delta were similar for both groups (BO 4.24 ± 11.69 and Pbo 9.01 ± 18.66) (p = 0.07). No differences were found in the answers of clinically significant improvement assessed with relative risk and risk differences, even though the proportion of adverse effects was similar for both groups. CONCLUSION: Patients with BPH that present moderate LUTS did not show any benefit receiving BO when compared to placebo.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To assess patient satisfaction and functional results at long term follow-up after surgical correction for Peyronie's disease (PD) and congenital penile curvature (CPC) with the technique of tunical plication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and two men operated for PD (n = 76) or CPC (n = 26) in four different departments of urology in public hospitals agreed to answer a six-question telephone questionnaire about treatment satisfaction. Tunica albuginea plication procedures represented the standard surgical approach. Subjects under investigation were correction of the deformity, feeling of bumps under the skin, pain during erection, penile sensory changes, development of erectile dysfunction (ED) and postoperative ability for complete vaginal intromission. Subjective response rates were compared using the chi square test on the basis of the etiology of the disease (CPC or PD). RESULTS: Significant differences (p < 0.05) between patients with CPC and PD were noticed in the prevalence of postoperative penile deformity, sensory changes, ED and ability to complete vaginal intromission, PD patients always showing a more pessimistic view. No significant differences (p = ns) were detected in terms of unpleasant nodes under the penile skin or pain during erection. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term outcome after surgical correction for PD and CPC with the technique of tunical plication can be poor. Probably patient expectations are above the real performance of surgical techniques. Preoperative information should be more exhaustive.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To assess the affected skin area and the reconstructive techniques used in 80 patients affected by Fournier's gangrene. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty patients ranging in age from 19 to 85 years (mean = 51) affected by Fournier's gangrene were studied. When admitted to the emergency room the patients were submitted to clinical and laboratory examinations to analyze the gravity of the case. All patients were submitted to an extensive debridement of the lesion, urinary derivation by cystostomy and colostomy whenever necessary. RESULTS: Only 13 patients (16.25%) died. From the 67 remaining patients, in 44 (65.6%) debridement was restricted to the scrotum, in 10 (14.9%) there has been scrotum and penile lesions and in 13 (19.3%) there has been a debridement of the scrotum and the perineal region. In 11 cases (16.4%) there was no need for reconstructive surgery with wound closing by second intention, in 16 cases (23.8%) reconstructive surgery was performed with mobilization of local skin, in 19 (28.3%) we have used skin grafts, 20 patients (29.8%) needed reconstructive surgery with the use of skin flaps and in 1 case (1.4%) there has been the use of skin flaps and grafts simultaneously. CONCLUSIONS: Fournier's gangrene is a serious pathology and should be treated aggressively with an extensive debridement of the area with necrosis. The use of precocious reconstructive surgery of the genitals present good results and tends to greatly reduce the length of hospital stay and improve the psychological conditions of these patients.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To analyze how scrotal neoplasias have been managed during the past decade and to question possible factors or professions associated to its presence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated every case reported from 1995 to 2005 at our hospital. We described the clinical scenario, complementary exams, treatments and outcomes. We also tried to verify if there was any risk, predisposing factors or professions that would explain the cancer origin. RESULTS: Six cases were reviewed. Out of these, three patients were truck drivers. Five of them showed restricted lesions without inguinal lymph nodes enlargement. Histologically, six patients presented squamous carcinoma, with two of them having the verrucous type. The median age of patients was 52 years old (31 to 89). The five patients who are still alive had their lesions completely removed with safety margin and primary closure. CONCLUSIONS: We have noticed that the scrotal carcinoma behavior is similar to that of the penis, where removal of the lesion and study of the regional lymph nodes help to increase the patient survival rate. The outstanding fact was that three out of six patients were truck drivers, raising the hypothesis that such profession, maybe due to the contact or attrition with the diesel exhaust expelled by the engine or to sexual promiscuity, would imply in a larger risk of developing this rare neoplasia.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study is to describe the case of a patient presenting advanced epidermoid carcinoma of the penis associated to myiasis. A 41-year-old patient presenting with a necrotic lesion of the distal third of the penis infested with myiasis was attended in the emergency room of our hospital and was submitted to an urgent penectomy. This is the first case of penile cancer associated to myiasis described in the literature. This case reinforces the need for educative campaigns to reduce the incidence of this disease in developing countries.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: Nowadays, buccal mucosa grafts are the most successful method to reconstruct bulbar urethral strictures. Dorsal placement of the graft has been recently proposed, allowing the graft to be spread fixed on the tunica albuginea of the corporal bodies overlying the stricture. The dorsal graft is ingenious and represents a useful addition to the surgical armamentarium, since it offers a better chance for graft take than does the spongiosum when the urethra is diseased and poorly vascularized. We developed an additional reconstructive option using tunica vaginalis grafts, placed dorsally, for the treatment of anterior urethral strictures. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: A total of 11 patients with anterior urethral strictures were treated with a tunica vaginalis graft urethroplasty. The surgical technique was done as described by Barbagli. The urethra was dissected from the corpora cavernosa and rotated 180 degrees. The dorsal urethral surface was exposed and fully opened. Both the distal and proximal lumina were calibrated. The tunica vaginalis graft was sutured, splayed and quilted over the corpora cavernosa using 6-0 PDS running stitches. The left side of the urethral mucosa was sutured to the graft using 6-0 PDS sutures. A 18F silicone Foley catheter was inserted at this point. The urethra was rotated back to its original position and sutured laterally to the right side of the graft. At the end of the procedure, the graft was completely covered by the urethra. With a follow-up ranging from 7 weeks to 5 months, all patients were voiding well (uroflowmetry > 14 mL per second). CONCLUSION: This initial experience in 11 patients indicates that tunica vaginalis dorsal graft urethroplasty may be considered within the reconstructive armamentarium of genitourinary surgeons.
Abstract in English:Bladder rupture is rare during infancy and most of reported cases had urethral obstruction or neurogenic bladder. We report two cases of infantile bladder rupture during voiding cystourethrography (VCUG). This report reinforces the criteria for proper VCUG imaging procedure. Consideration of expected bladder volume for body weight, and close monitoring of bladder pressure and injection speed could prevent such complications.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: We present our experience in a series of 17 consecutive pediatric patients submitted to retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal biopsy (LRB) was performed in 5 boys and 12 girls. Mean age was 8.1 years and age range from 2 to 12. Two or three trocars were used to expose the inferior pole of the kidney, remove enough cortical parenchymal specimen and fulgurate the biopsy site. Assessment included surgical time, estimated blood loss, hospitalization period, analgesia requirements, complications and number of glomeruli present in the specimen. RESULTS: LRB was successfully performed in all 15 patients (88%). In two cases, LRB was not possible to be performed. One patient was converted to a transperitoneal laparoscopy due to tear in the peritoneum. The other patient had had previous abdominal surgery and, during retroperitoneal balloon dilation, the peritoneum was opened and the open biopsy was performed. A third patient had postoperatively a perirenal hematoma, which was solved spontaneously. Complication rate was 17.6% (3/17 cases). Mean operative time was 65 minutes, while mean estimated blood loss was 52 mL, mean hospital stay was 2.2 days and mean analgesic requirement was 100 mg of tramadol. The mean number of glomeruli present in the specimen was 60. CONCLUSION: Retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal biopsy in children is a simple, safe. Bleeding is still the most common complication. However, direct vision usually allows a safe control of this drawback. In our institution, laparoscopic approach is the chosen procedure in pediatric patients older than one - year - old.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Identify the influence of ovarian hormone deprivation in expression genes on the lower urinary tract of rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study deals with gene screening on lower urinary tract of rats. Fifty isogenic rats divided in two groups of twenty-five animals have their lower urinary tract surgically removed: group I, ovariectomized rats 30 days prior to surgery; group II, non-ovariectomized rats. Total RNA was isolated from bladder and urethra, and differential expression of genes was analyzed quantitative, qualitative and comparatively by array technology and RT-PCR. RESULTS: A total of 76 candidate genes were identified as differentially expressed between the groups, 26 being lower expressed in group II, and 50 in group I. Among them, differential expression validation was confirmed by RT-PCR for three lower expressed genes in group I: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Beta-2 Microglobulin (B2M) and Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I (COX I). CONCLUSION: Ovarian hormone deprivation influences the expression genes on lower urinary tract. We demonstrated that a 30-day period of castration down regulate the expression of VEGF, B2M and COX I in adult rats which are involved in activities of angiogenesis, immune responses and cellular metabolism respectively.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Tribulus alatus extracts on free serum testosterone in male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Free serum testosterone level was measured in male rats treated with alcoholic extracts of the aerial part without fruits, fruits of Tribulus alatus and their fractions. RESULTS: All tested extracts showed significant increase in the level of free serum testosterone when compared to that of corresponding control, p < 0.05. Statistical comparison of all groups revealed that the maximum level was found in groups treated with chloroformic and ethanolic fractions of fruits extract. CONCLUSION: Tribulus alatus extract appears to possess aphrodisiac activity due to its androgen increasing property.