Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To review the current modalities of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search for keywords: renal cell carcinoma, radical nephrectomy, nephron sparing surgery, minimally invasive surgery, and cryoablation was performed for the years 2000 through 2008. The most relevant publications were examined. RESULTS: New epidemiologic data and current treatment of renal cancer were covered. Concerning the treatment of clinically localized disease, the literature supports the standardization of partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic approaches as therapeutic options with better functional results and oncologic success comparable to standard radical resection. Promising initial results are now available for minimally invasive therapies, such as cryotherapy and radiofrequency ablation. Active surveillance has been reported with acceptable results, including for those who are poor surgical candidates. CONCLUSIONS: This review covers current advances in radical and conservative treatments of localized kidney cancer. The current status of nephron-sparing surgery, ablative therapies, and active surveillance based on natural history has resulted in great progress in the management of localized renal cell carcinoma.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Significant racial and ethnic differences in the epidemiology of bladder cancer (BC) exist. Studies have shown African Americans to have lower incidence of bladder cancer than Caucasians, but higher incidence of invasive BC. Hispanics are the largest minority group in the United States. However, no reported studies on bladder cancer among Hispanics are available to date. As our center is in a unique position to study BC in Hispanic patients we were prompted to assess presentation and outcome of patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) for BC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 1992 and May 2006, 448 RC were performed. All relevant data were collected and entered into a database. Patients were categorized by ethnicity as Hispanic and non-Hispanic White. African-American and other minority groups were excluded because of the small number. Comparative analysis of Hispanic and non-Hispanic White patients was performed. RESULTS: 67 (17%) patients were Hispanic. Mean follow-up period was 41 (SD ± 40) months. Clinical and pathological data between these two groups were compared. Pre-cystectomy T stage was not significantly different between both groups. However, after RC incidence of ≤ T1 disease in Hispanics was lower (22%) than Caucasians (37%). This difference, statistically significant (P = 0.024) indicates that Hispanics who undergo RC present with higher stage disease. Kaplan-Meier log rank test indicated a difference in disease free survival and disease specific survival between the two groups but however it did not reach statistical significance (Log Rank P = 0.082, P = 0.063). No significant difference in overall survival was observed (P = 0.465). CONCLUSIONS: Hispanic patients managed with RC for bladder carcinoma present with higher stage disease.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary tract infection (AUTI) among pregnant women. We also determined the antibacterial susceptibility of the isolates to various antibiotics and associated risk factors in AUTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One thousand five hundred and five consecutive pregnant women were included in the study. Mid-stream urine specimen for complete examination of urine was obtained. RESULTS: Of 1505 pregnant women, 134 (8.9%) had bacteriuria. The mean age of the all the pregnant women included in the study was 28.40 years with a standard deviation of 6.16. Age ranged from 15 to 45 years of age. The urine culture of the asymptomatic pregnant women (1505 cases) showed growth in only 134 cases (8.9%). Escherichia coli was the commonest organism 79 (58.96%) followed by CN Staphylococcus 22 (16.8%) and S aureus 18 (13.43%). Escherichia coli, which comprised 58.96% (79) of the isolates, were 88.62%, 87.35%, and 83.55% sensitive to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and cefotizoxime respectively. Similarly, E. coli were 89%, 70%, and 20% resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, and nitrofurantoin respectively (OR 1.57 95% CI 1.01, 2.44). After analyzing, four variables, hemoglobin levels seem to be independently associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (OR = 9.41 (1.65-50.38). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women was 8.9%. The predominant organisms were Escherichia coli 79 (58.96%), followed by CN Staphylococcus 22 (16.8%). Most strains of Escherichia coli showed that they were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline and gentamicin.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in the symptomatic management of chronic prostatitis pain/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. DESIGN: A pretest, posttest randomized double blind design was used in data collection. PARTICIPANT: Twenty-four patients diagnosed with chronic prostatitis- category IIIA and IIIB of the National Institute of Health Chronic Pain (NIH-CP) were referred for physiotherapy from the Urology department. Intervention: Pre treatment pain level was assessed using the NIH-CP (pain domain) index. The TENS group received TENS treatment, 5 times per week for a period of 4 weeks (mean treatment frequency, intensity, pulse width and duration of 60Hz, 100µS, 25mA and 20 minutes respectively). The Analgesic group received no TENS treatment but continued analgesics; the Control group received no TENS and Analgesic but placebo. All subjects were placed on antibiotics throughout the treatment period. Outcome measures: Post-treatment pain level was also assessed using NIH-CP pain index. RESULT: Findings of the study revealed significant effect of TENS on chronic prostatitis pain at p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: TENS is an effective means of non-invasive symptomatic management of chronic prostatitis pain.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: The optimal management of patients with clinical stage I non-seminomatous germ cell testicular cancer (NSGCT I) was considered controversial until the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group determined unambiguous treatment strategies. In order to assess the long-term outcome we evaluated the data of patients with NSGCT I. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospective evaluation, we included 52 patients with a mean age of 26 years (range 15-58) who were treated with different modalities at our department between 1989 and 2003. Mean follow-up was 5.9 years (range 2-14 years). After orchiectomy, 39 patients were treated with chemotherapy, 7 patients underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and 6 men were managed using a surveillance strategy. Survival, recurrence rate and time of recurrence were evaluated. The histological staging and treatment modality was related to the relapse. RESULTS: Tumor specific overall mortality was 3.8%. The mortality and relapse rate of the surveillance strategy, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and chemotherapy was 16.7% / 50%, 14.3% / 14.3% and 0% / 2.5% respectively. All relapsed patients in the surveillance group as well as in the RPLND group had at least one risk factor for developing metastatic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Following the European consensus on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer in patients with NSGCT Stage I any treatment decision must be individually related to the patient according to prognostic factors and care capacity of the treating centre. In case of doubt, adjuvant chemotherapy should be the treatment of choice, as it provides the lowest risk of relapse or tumor related death.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: In the case of clinically negative inguinal regions in penile cancer, the treatments proposed might vary from careful observation to radical dissection for all patients. We evaluated the effectiveness of the sentinel lymph node biopsy using lymphoscintigraphy in patients with penile cancer and at least one negative inguinal region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 18 patients, biopsy of the sentinel lymph node from the 32 negative inguinal regions and modified radical lymphadenectomy in these regions regardless of the biopsy results was performed. Clinical staging, pathological results of the sentinel and the other lymph nodes removed during lymphadenectomy, tumor behavior, local and inguinal recurrence and specific disease mortality were accessed. RESULTS: The mean age of the study sample was 57.7 years (44 - 81 years) and the sentinel lymph node presented 0% false negative 66% sensitivity, and 79.3% specificity when compared with the modified inguinal lymphadenectomy as the gold standard treatment. CONCLUSION: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a feasible method of assessing the presence of regional metastasis in patients with penile cancer and clinically negative inguinal regions. However, the optimal lymphoscintigraphy technique is still in evolution and requires further optimization at high volume centers.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 33 year old female presented with right loin pain and obstruction on intravenous urography with the classical "fish-hook" appearance. She was counseled on the various methods of repair and elected to have a robot assisted repair. The following steps are performed during a pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. The patient is placed in a modified flank position, pneumoperitoneum created and ports inserted. The colon is mobilized to expose the retroperitoneal structures: inferior vena cava, right gonadal vein, right ureter, and duodenum. The renal pelvis and ureter are mobilized and the renal pelvis transected. The ureter is transposed anterior to the inferior vena cava and a pyelopyelostomy is performed over a JJ stent. RESULTS: This patient was discharged on postoperative day 3. The catheter and drain tube were removed on day 1. Her JJ stent was removed at 6 weeks postoperatively. The postoperative intravenous urography at 3 months confirmed normal drainage of contrast medium. CONCLUSION: Pure robotic retrocaval ureter is a feasible procedure; however, there does not appear to be any great advantage over pure laparoscopy, apart from the ergonomic ease for the surgeon as well the simpler intracorporeal suturing.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: Although laparoscopy is considered the mainstay for most renal procedures in adults, its role in the pediatric population is still controversial, especially for smaller children. We reviewed our experience in pediatric renal laparoscopic surgery in three pediatric age groups in an attempt to identify if age has an impact on feasibility and surgical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From November 1995 to May 2006, 144 pediatric laparoscopic renal procedures were performed at our institution. The charts of these patients were reviewed for demographic data, urologic pathology and surgical procedure, as well as perioperative complications and post-operative outcomes. The findings were stratified into 3 groups, according to patient age (A: < 1 year, B: 1 to 5 years and C: 6-18 years). RESULTS: Median age of the patients was 4.2 years (42 days - 18 years). We performed 54 nephrectomies, 33 nephroureterectomies, 19 upper pole nephrectomies, 11 radical nephrectomies, 22 pyeloplasties and 4 miscellaneous procedures. The 3 age groups were comparable in terms of the procedures performed. Conversion rates were 0%, 1.4% and 1.9% for groups A, B and C, respectively (p = 0.72). Incidence of perioperative complications was 5%, 8.2% and 7.8% for age groups A to C, respectively (p = 0.88). CONCLUSIONS: Most renal procedures can be performed safely by laparoscopy in the pediatric population, with excellent aesthetic and functional outcomes. The morbidity related to the procedure was minimal irrespective of the age group.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: Compare parents' reports of youth problems (PRYP) with adolescent problems self-reports (APSR) pre/post behavioral treatment of nocturnal enuresis (NE) based on the use of a urine alarm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adolescents (N = 19) with mono-symptomatic (primary or secondary) nocturnal enuresis group treatment for 40 weeks. Discharge criterion was established as 8 weeks with consecutive dry nights. PRYP and APSR were scored by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR). RESULTS: Pre-treatment data: 1) Higher number of clinical cases based on parent report than on self-report for Internalizing Problems (IP) (13/19 vs. 4/19), Externalizing Problems (EP) (7/19 vs. 5/19) and Total Problem (TP) (11/19 vs. 5/19); 2) Mean PRYP scores for IP (60.8) and TP (61) were within the deviant range (T score ≥ 60); while mean PRYP scores for EP (57.4) and mean APSR scores (IP = 52.4, EP = 49.5, TP = 52.4) were within the normal range. Difference between PRYP' and APSR' scores was significant. Post treatment data: 1) Discharge for majority of the participants (16/19); 2) Reduction in the number of clinical cases on parental evaluation: 9/19 adolescents remained within clinical range for IP, 2/19 for EP, and 7/19 for TP. 3) All post-treatment mean scores were within the normal range; the difference between pre and post evaluation scores was significant for PRYP. CONCLUSIONS: The behavioral treatment based on the use of urine alarm is effective for adolescents with mono-symptomatic (primary and secondary) nocturnal enuresis. The study favors the hypothesis that enuresis is a cause, not a consequence, of other behavioral problems.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: Evaluate the benefits of electromotive drug administration (EMDA) as an alternative technique in patients with chronic overactive bladder in terms of improvement of symptoms, quality of life, and sexuality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 72 patients with therapy-refractory overactive bladder according to the ICS (International Continence Society) definition, were treated by EMDA. The regimen consisted of three treatment cycles, each with 3 instillations at 2-week intervals. The solution instilled consisted of 100 mL 4% lidocaine, 100 mL distilled water, 40 mg dexamethasone, and 2 mL epinephrine. Peri-interventionally, a urine test and close circulatory monitoring were performed. All women underwent urodynamic testing and cystoscopy and kept a voiding diary. A comprehensive history was obtained, a quality of life questionnaire administered, and a gynecologic examination performed before initiation of therapy. The women underwent follow-up at 12 months after the end of therapy. RESULTS: The patients had a mean age of 63 (± 11.2) years. Bladder capacity improved significantly by 109 mL (± 55 mL) in 51 (71%) patients (p = 0.021). The number of micturitions/day decreased significantly to 7 (± 2) (p = 0.013). Quality of life was improved in 54 patients (75%); p = 0.024) and sexuality in 39 (54%); p = 0.020). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that EMDA can improve both quality of life and sexuality in patients with therapy-refractory chronic overactive bladder.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine if women with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) and urodynamic detrusor overactivity (DO) have less improvement in urinary symptoms after pubovaginal sling surgery (PVS), compared to MUI without DO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women with preoperative MUI symptoms prior to PVS were identified through retrospective review. DO was defined as a symptomatic 5 cm H20 detrusor pressure or greater rise during urodynamics. MUI patients with and without DO before PVS were divided into Groups A and B, respectively. All patients had returned a completed Urogenital Distress Inventory 6 (UDI-6) questionnaire and a 3-day diary of pad usage before surgery and at each postoperative visit. Study endpoints included change in total UDI-6 score, and change in number of pad use/day after PVS. RESULTS: 73 patients were identified, 31 in Group A and 42 in Group B. Mean follow-up after PVS was 15 and 16 months, respectively (p = 0.59). Preoperative total UDI-6 scores were 11.8 and 12.7 (p = 0.30) for Group A and B. Mean changes in total UDI-6 after PVS were - 8.0 and - 10.2 (p = 0.030), respectively. After PVS, both groups reported similar mean reduction in pad/day usage from preoperative baseline (-2.57 vs. --2.49, p = 0.83). There were no differences between the groups when comparing demographic, urodynamic, or operative data. CONCLUSION: MUI patients had improved continence and quality of life after PVS. However, MUI patients with DO had less improvement in UDI-6 scores after PVS, despite a similar reduction to pad use/day.