Abstract in English:Objective: To assess the evidence-based literature supporting the use of traditional Chinese medicine Kampo herbal and Acupuncture in stone disease management. Materials and Methods: Four of the most commonly used herbal components of Kampo medicine in the treatment of stone disease are described according to their in vitro and in vivo effects. We also reviewed the role of Acupuncture in urologic clinical setting as well as its proposed mechanisms of action and results. Medline database was assessed using isolated and conjugated key words (Chinese Medicine, Kampo, Chinese Herbal, Calculi, Stone Disease, Kidney, Acupuncture, Herbal Medicine). Articles were reviewed and summarized. Results: Herbal medicine has been proven to be free from side-effects and therefore suitable for long term use therapy. Its antilithic beneficial effects include increased urinary volume, increased magnesium excretion (Takusya), inhibitory activity on calcium oxalate aggregation (Takusya, Wulingsan and Desmodyum styracyfolium), inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation and hydroxyapatite internalization (Wulingsan). In contrast, acupuncture, has shown to be effective as a pre-treatment anxiolytic and analgesic during colic pain and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment, reducing the need for complementary sedative drugs. Conclusion: Chinese traditional medicine is promising as regards its role in stone prevention. An effort must be made in order to standardize study protocols to better assess acupuncture results since each procedure differs in regards to selected acupoints, electrostimulation technique and adjunct anesthetics. Similarly, standardization of Kampo formulations and acceptable clinical endpoints (imaging vs. symptomatic events) is needed.
Abstract in English:Purpose: The management of penile cancer has evolved as less invasive techniques are applied in the treatment of the primary tumor and inguinal lymph nodes. Materials and Methods: Herein we review the literature focusing on advances in the preservation of the phallus as well as less morbid procedures to evaluate and treat the groins. Results: Promising imaging modalities for staging are discussed. New techniques are described and tables provided for penile preservation. We also review the contemporary morbidity of modified surgical forms for evaluation of the inguinal nodes. Conclusions: Advances in surgical technique have made phallic preservation possible in a greater number of primary penile cancers. The groins can be evaluated for metastasis with greater accuracy through new radiologic means as well as with less morbid modified surgical techniques.
Abstract in English:Introduction: Nephron-sparing surgery for large renal masses is not considered a safe procedure because of high complication rate. We present our experience using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex®) and Hem-O-Lok® (Weck® Clip) as hemostatic agents during open partial nephrectomy (OPN) to perform nephron-sparing surgery for large renal masses. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients underwent OPN for suspicious renal cell carcinomas. Thirty-four patients with tumors < 2.5 cm in size underwent OPN with Gore-Tex® alone (group 1). Clinical data from a computerized database were reviewed and compared to a contemporary group of 26 patients with tumors ≥ 2.5 cm in size who underwent OPN with Gore-Tex® and Hem-O-Lok® (group 2). Results: The mean patient age was 53 years (range, 35-85 years), and the mean duration of follow-up was 41.8 months (range, 6-56 months). The mean cold ischemic times were 24.0 minutes (range, 12-37 minutes) and 35.3 minutes (range, 18-65 minutes) respectively in group 1 and 2. The tumor sizes in groups 1 and 2 were 1.7 ± 0.4 cm and 4.74 ± 2.75 cm, respectively. No major complications, such as urine leakage or delayed bleeding, were noted in either group. Conclusions: Nephron-sparing surgery using Gore-Tex® alone or a Gore-Tex® and Hem-O-Lok® combination was safe without high-priced hemostatic agents because the tensile strength was sufficient to maintain firmness in the repaired parenchyma. In addition, the procedure is easy to perform and takes less time to complete. Furthermore, major complications, recurrence, and impaired renal function did not occur with this procedure.
Abstract in English:Objective: The incidence of solid renal masses has increased sharply in recent years due to widespread use of abdominal imaging studies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of benign lesions in solid renal masses according to tumor size. Materials and Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 305 patients with 328 renal solid masses treated by surgery. Based on a report by one pathologist, the specimen tumor size and the histology of each lesion were tabulated. The frequency of renal cell carcinoma and benign renal lesions was evaluated and a correlation between tumor size and pathological features of the masses was observed. Results: The frequency of malignant lesions in the 328 renal masses was 83.2%. When lesions were stratified into groups with diameters ≤ 3 cm or > 3 cm, the incidence of benign histology was 22.9% and 13.3%, respectively (p = 0.026). The odds ratios for finding a benign lesion in masses ≤ 3 cm was 1.93 (IC 95%, 1.07 - 3.46) compared to masses > 3 cm. Conclusion: The incidence of benign lesions is significantly higher in renal masses smaller than 3 cm in diameter, which should be taken in account when the treatment of renal solid masses is planned.
Abstract in English:Purpose: Several studies have documented high incidence of urinary lithiasis after jejunoileal by-pass. Roux-en-y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) is currently the most common bariatric procedure. Because of its difficult for absorption, RYGB has a potential risk to increase the incidence of lithiasis. This study was conducted in order to test the hypothesis that RYGB increases the incidence urolithiasis after 50% of excessive weight loss. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study to evaluate 58 patients who underwent RYGB at the Obesity Service at Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, between 2000 and 2005, with minimum follow-up of 10 and maximum of 72 months, after the procedure. Results: Forty-five (77.6%) patients had ≥ 50% loss of weight excess. There was no difference between the frequency of urolithiasis before and after the procedure, and nephrolithiasis was observed after surgery in only one patient, however this had been detected before the procedure. Conclusion: In the period studied, RYGB does not seem to affect the incidence of urolithiasis after weight reduction. This may be due to its smaller malabsorptive component as compared with jejunoileal “by-pass”, thereby possibly not significantly influencing the oxalate metabolism.
Abstract in English:Purpose: To describe an entirely laparoscopic technique for excising a recurrence of local renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Materials and Methods: The patient is placed in a full flank position. A 10-mm trocar is inserted using Hasson's technique with three additional ports in the upper abdomen. After lysis of adhesions, the psoas muscle, ureteral and gonadal vein remnants, inferior vena cava or aorta, and renal vessel stumps are dissected and isolated. The specimen, including the mass, the adrenal gland, and the ipsilateral pararenal and paracaval or para-aortic tissue within Gerota's fascia remnants, are excised en bloc and removed inside an Endocatch-II bag. Results: To date we have used this technique for excising RCC recurrences in three patients. Pathologic examination showed clear cell type RCC Fuhrman grade 2 in the specimens of two patients and chromophobe type in one. No patient have had further recurrence after 50, 38 and 12 months of follow-up. Conclusions: An entirely laparoscopic surgical approach for excising local RCC recurrence has not, to our knowledge, been previously described. This method can be effectively applied while adhering to oncologic principles, with minimal blood loss and low morbidity.
Abstract in English:Introduction: Posterior urethral strictures after prostatic radiotherapy or surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) refractory to minimal invasive procedures (dilation and/or endoscopic urethrotomy) are challenging to treat. Published reports of alternative curative management are extremely rare. This is a preliminary report on the treatment of these difficult strictures by urethroplasty. Materials and Methods: Seven cases were treated: 4 cases occurred after open prostatectomy or transurethral resection of the prostate for BPH, one case after external beam irradiation and 2 after brachytherapy. The 4 cases after BPH-related surgery were in fact complete obstructions at the bladder neck and the membranous urethra with the prostatic urethra still partially patent. Anastomotic repair by perineal route was done in all cases with bladder neck incision in the BPH-cases and prostatic apex resection in the radiotherapy cases. Results: Mean follow-up was 31 months (range: 12-72 months). The operation was successful, with preserved continence, in 3 of the 4 BPH-cases and in 2 of the 3 radiotherapy cases. An endoscopic incision was able to treat a short re-stricture in the BPH-patient and a longer stricture at the bulbar urethra could be managed with a perineostomy in the radiotherapy-patient. Conclusion: Posterior non-traumatic strictures refractory to minimal invasive procedures (dilation/endoscopic urethrotomy) can be treated by urethroplasty using an anastomotic repair with a bladder neck incision if necessary.
Abstract in English:Objective: To describe our experience with blunt injuries to the bulbar urethra and their late sequelae to identify factors that may affect patient outcome. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 53 male patients who presented, between January 2001 and December 2005, with blunt traumatic injury to the bulbar urethra. The definitive diagnosis of urethral rupture was made by retrograde urethrography, where urethral rupture was classified into partial or complete. The minimum follow-up period was 3 years. The initial management was either suprapubic cystostomy or endoscopic urethral realignment over a urethral catheter using a cystoscope to pass a guide-wire over which the catheter was inserted. Stricture formation was managed by visual internal urethrotomy (VIU) for passable strictures and urethroplasty (stricture excision and re-anastomosis) for impassable strictures or recurrence after VIU. The follow-up period was three years. The results were analyzed by SPSS software (chi-square and Student's-t-test). Results: Stricture formation occurred in 19 of 22 patients (86%) with complete urethral rupture and in 10 of 31 (32%) with partial rupture (p < 0.001). Strictures occurred in 11 of 31 (35%) patients treated initially with suprapubic cystostomy and in 18 of 22 (82%) treated with primary urethral realignment (p < 0.001). The success rate after VIU was 15% (4 of 26 patients) and after urethroplasty it was 96% (24 of 25 patients) (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Suprapubic cystostomy is better than urethral realignment and catheterization as primary management after straddle injury to the bulbar urethra. Stricture excision and re-anastomosis is better than VIU as delayed management for strictures that develop after straddle injury to the bulbar urethra.
Abstract in English:Purpose: To review our clinical experience with urinary continent catheterizable reservoir in children under five years of age. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 patients (16 males, 7 females) with a median age of 3.64 years were evaluated. Among these, 6 (26.08%) had a posterior urethral valve, 9 (39.13%) myelomeningocele, 4 (17.39%) bladder exstrophy, 2 (8.69%) genitourinary rabdomyosarcoma, 1 (4.34%) had spinal tumor and 1 (4.34%) an ano-rectal anomaly. Results: Perioperative complications were observed in four patients consisting of one febrile urinary tract infection, one partial operative wound dehiscence, one partial stomal dehiscence and one vesico-cutaneous fistula after a secondary exstrophy repair. The overall long-term complications rate was 40.90% and consisted of two stomal stenoses (9.09%), one neobladder mucosal extrusion (4.54%), three neobladder calculi (13.63%) and persistence of urinary incontinence in three patients (13.63%). The overall surgical revision was 36.36% and final continence rate was 95.45% with mean follow-up of 39.95 months Conclusion: Continent urinary diversion is technically feasible even in small children, with acceptable rates of complications.
Abstract in English:Purpose: We evaluated the effectiveness of combining behavioral therapy, pharmacologic therapy and endoscopic hydrodistension for treating painful bladder syndrome / interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC). Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients with PBS/IC were prospectively enrolled in a pilot multimodal behavioral, pharmacologic and endoscopic treatment protocol. Behavioral modification included diet recommendations, fluid restriction to 64 oz. /day, progressive timed voiding and Kegel exercises. Oral pharmacologic therapy consisted of daily doses of macrodantin 100 mg, hydroxyzine 10-20 mg and urised 4 tablets. Patients underwent endoscopic bladder hydrodistention under anesthesia at least 2 weeks after protocol enrollment. Behavioral and pharmacological treatments were continued after the hydrodistention. O'Leary-Sant questionnaire scores were recorded before starting the protocol, after pharmacologic/behavioral therapy, 2 months post-hydrodistension, and at scheduled follow-up. Results: Eighteen patients (72%) completed the pilot multimodal treatment protocol and were followed for a mean of 10.2 months. All patients were female with a median age of 36.3 years and had mean bladder capacity under anesthesia of 836 milliliters. Mean O'Leary-Sant symptom index scores for baseline symptoms, after behavioral/pharmacologic treatment, post-hydrodistension and during follow up were 12.5, 8.6, 7.0, and 6.7 (p < 0.05). Mean O'Leary-Sant problem index scores for baseline, after behavioral/pharmacologic treatment, post-hydrodistention and during follow up were 12.7, 8.9, 6.7, and 7.7 (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our pilot multimodal protocol of behavioral modification, pharmacologic therapy and endoscopic hydrodistention demonstrated a significant progressive improvement in PBS/IC quality of life scores, compared to a pre-treatment baseline. These results should be validated in a larger, placebo controlled trial.
Abstract in English:Purpose: Rhythmic or random rectal contractions independent of bladder activity are frequently observed during cystometry and usually attributed either to a neurological disease, or to ageing. The aim of our study was to search for an association of rhythmic rectal contractions (RRCs) with a specific lower urinary tract symptom or/and an urodynamic diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The population consisted of 534 consecutive women with lower urinary tract symptoms and without specific gastro-intestinal disease referred for urodynamics; 382 (non-ND) had no history of neurological disease and 152 (ND) a history of neurological disease. Cystometries were performed according to ICS recommendations. Rectal pressure was measured using a punctured balloon filled with 2 mL of saline. RRCs were defined as rhythmic changes in the rectal pressure of at least 3 cm H2O independent of the total vesical pressure. Results: RRCs were observed in 69 patients, with no difference in neurological status or age (non-ND: 12.3% and 65.5y; ND: 14.5% and 62.7y). Patients with RRCs were significantly older than the negative population (p = 0.0002). RRCs had a low frequency: 1 - 4/min; their amplitude was ≤ 15 cm H2O in 67 patients. RRCs were associated with urgency (35 patients) whatever the neurological status and with detrusor overactivity only in the neurological patients. Conclusions: RRCs cannot be considered as artefactual events during cystometry in women, occur in the older population, are frequently associated with urgency but not with detrusor overactivity or neurological disease. Occurrence of RRCs should prompt the physician to look at the possible causes of urgency (colonic or bladder).