International braz j urol, Volume: 37, Issue: 5, Published: 2011
  • Editor's comment

  • Sperm retrieval techniques for assisted reproduction Review Article

    Esteves, Sandro C.; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Agarwal, Ashok

    Abstract in English:

    Different surgical methods such as PESA, MESA, TESA, TESE and micro-TESE have been developed to retrieve spermatozoa from either the epididymis or the testis according to the type of azoospermia, i.e., obstructive or non-obstructive. Laboratory techniques are used to remove contaminants, cellular debris, and red blood cells following collection of the epididymal fluid or testicular tissue. Surgically-retrieved spermatozoa may be used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and/or cryopreservation. In this article, we review the surgical procedures for retrieving spermatozoa from both the epididymis and the testicle and provide technical details of the commonly used methods. A critical analysis of the advantages and limitations of the current surgical methods to retrieve sperm from males with obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia is presented along with an overview of the laboratory techniques routinely used to process surgically-retrieved sperm. Lastly, we summarize the results from the current literature of sperm retrieval, as well as the clinical outcome of ICSI in the clinical scenario of obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia.
  • Significant heterogeneity in terms of diagnosis and treatment of renal cell carcinoma at a private and public hospital in Brazil Clinical Urology

    Dall'Oglio, Marcos F.; Coelho, Rafael; Lopes, Roberto; Antunes, Alberto A.; Crippa, Alexandre; Camara, Cesar; Leite, Katia R. M.; Srougi, Miguel

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: A great number of small renal lesions have now been detected. Nowadays, partial nephrectomy has more frequently been adopted for surgical treatment of earlier stage disease. Previous studies have associated patient, institutional, and health care system factors with surgery type. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnosis and treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) according to hospital type, public versus private, in our country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 183 patients with RCC who underwent radical nephrectomy or nephron-sparing surgery between 2003 and 2007 in two hospitals, one private and one public. Patient demographic, clinical, surgery, and pathologic characteristics were analyzed. RESULTS: The radical nephrectomy rate was higher at the public hospital than at the private hospital (75% vs. 57%, p = 0.008). Overall, patients at the public hospital presented larger tumors than did the patients who were cared for privately. Furthermore, small renal masses were significantly more prevalent in private care (57.8% vs. 28.3%). Patients at the public hospital showed a higher incidence of capsular invasion (p = 0.008), perirenal fat invasion (p < 0.01), lymph node involvement (p < 0.001), and a lower incidence of initial tumors. pT1 tumors were reported in 41% of patients at the public hospital and in 72% at the private hospital (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients with RCC cared for at our public referral hospital showed a more advanced stage than RCC treated at the private institution.
  • Age-related testosterone decline in a Brazilian cohort of healthy military men Clinical Urology

    Nardozza Júnior, Archimedes; Szelbracikowski, Sérgio dos Santos; Nardi, Aguinaldo Cesar; Almeida, José Carlos de

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Androgen decline in the aging man has become a topic of increasing clinical relevance worldwide, as the reduction in testosterone levels has been reported to be accompanied by loss of muscle mass, accumulation of central adiposity, impaired mobility and increase risk of bone fractures. Although well-established in studies conducted in developed countries, progressive decline in serum testosterone levels with age has been poorly investigated in Brazil. AIM: To determine the pattern of blood testosterone concentrations decline with age in a cohort of Brazilian healthy military men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data on serum testosterone measurements of healthy individuals that had undergone a routine check-up at the Military Biology Institute. Blood samples were obtained early in the morning, and total testosterone concentration was determined using a commercial chemoluminescent immunoassay. Mean values were analyzed in five age groups: < 40, 41 to 50, 51 to 60, 61 to 70, and > 70 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Mean total testosterone levels. RESULTS: 1,623 subjects were included in the analysis; mean age was 57 years (24 to 87), and mean testosterone level was 575.5 ng/dL (25.0 to 1308.0 ng/dL). The evaluation of age-related changes in total testosterone levels revealed a progressive reduction in serum levels of this hormone with increasing age. Testosterone levels below 300 ng/dL were reported in 321 participants, a prevalence of nearly 20% in the study population. CONCLUSION: In agreement with other findings, a reduction of total testosterone levels with age was reported for healthy Brazilian men.
  • Prostatic carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation diagnosed in needle biopsies, a morphologic study of 7 cases among 465 sequential biopsies in a tertiary cancer center Clinical Urology

    Lima, MVA; Nogueira, C; Oliveira, JAA; Muniz Neto, FJ; Franco, M; Tavora, F

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: Neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) of the prostate are rare, with only a few series hitherto reported. The objective of this study was to assess in a single institution the clinical and morphologic characteristics of neuroendocrine carcinomas diagnosed in needle core biopsies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The current study analyses seven cases diagnosed in needle biopsies at a large tertiary regional cancer center from Northeastern Brazil. Two pathologists reviewed specimens retrospectively, and demographic and morphologic characteristics were compared to 458 acinar tumors diagnosed in the same period. RESULTS: There were five small cell carcinomas and two low-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas (carcinoid). NEC were associated with an acinar component in 5/7 cases and the Gleason score of the acinar component was always > 6. The number of cores involved in prostates with NEC was greater (65% compared to 24% of acinar tumors, p < 0.05). The mean PSA at diagnosis was 417.7 (range 5.7-1593, SD 218.3), compared to 100.5 (p = 0.1) of acinar tumors (range 0.3-8545, SD 22.7). Prostates harboring NEC were bigger (p < 0.001, mean volume 240 mL vs. 53 mL of acinar tumors). Treatment of NEC included palliative surgery, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy. CONCLUSIONS: NEC of the prostate is rare and often associated with a high-grade acinar component. Prostates with NEC tend to be larger and involve a greater number of cores than acinar tumors. PSA at diagnosis does not seem to predict the presence of NE tumors in needle biopsy.
  • Bladder exstrophy: reconstructed female patients achieving normal pregnancy and delivering normal babies Clinical Urology

    Giron, Amílcar Martins; Passerotti, Carlo Camargo; Nguyen, Hiep; Cruz, José Arnaldo Shiomi da; Srougi, Miguel

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: Bladder exstrophy (BE) is an anterior midline defect that causes a series of genitourinary and muscular malformations, which demands surgical intervention for correction. Women with BE are fertile and able to have children without this disease. The purpose of this study is to assess the sexual function and quality of life of women treated for BE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients in our institution treated for BE from 1987 to 2007 were recruited to answer a questionnaire about their quality of life and pregnancies. RESULTS: Fourteen women were submitted to surgical treatment for BE and had 22 pregnancies during the studied period. From those, 17 pregnancies (77.2%) resulted in healthy babies, while four patients (18.1%) had a spontaneous abortion due to genital prolapse, and there was one case (4.7%) of death due to a pneumopathy one week after delivery. There was also one case (5.8%) of premature birth without greater repercussions. During pregnancy, three patients (21.4%) had urinary tract infections and one patient (7.14%) presented urinary retention. After delivery, three patients (21.4%) presented temporary urinary incontinence; one patient (7.14%) had a vesicocutaneous fistula and seven patients (50%) had genital prolapsed. All patients confirmed to have achieved urinary continence, a regular sexual life and normal pregnancies. All patients got married and pregnant older than the general population. CONCLUSIONS: BE is a severe condition that demands medical and family assistance. Nevertheless, it is possible for the bearers of this condition to have a satisfactory and productive lifestyle.
  • Alkaline citrate reduces stone recurrence and regrowth after shockwave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy Clinical Urology

    Lojanapiwat, B; Tanthanuch, M; Pripathanont, C; Ratchanon, S; Srinualnad, S; Taweemonkongsap, T; Kanyok, S; Lammongkolkul, S

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the preventive effects of alkaline citrate on stone recurrence as well as stone growth post-ESWL or PCNL in patients with calcium-containing stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 76 patients with calcium calculi who were stone-free or had residual stones less than 4 mm following ESWL and PCNL were enrolled. All patients were independently randomized into two groups. The treated group (N = 39) was given 81 mEq per day of oral potassium-sodium citrate (27 mEq three times a day), and the untreated group (N = 37) serving as controls. Blood, twenty-four hour urine analysis, and plain KUB were measured and compared at the baseline and after 12 months. RESULTS: At baseline, hypocitraturia was found in 20 of 39 patients (46.05%) of Group I and 15 of 37 patients (40.5%) of Group II. At 12 months, hypocitraturia was found in 3 of 39 (7.69%) and 14 of 37 (37.83%) of Group I and Group II, respectively (p = 0.007). At the 12 month follow-up, of the stone-free group, 92.3% of the treated group and 57.7% of the control group were still stone free. Of the residual stone group, 30.8% and 9.1 % of treated and control group were stone-free, respectively. The increased stone size found in 7.7% and 54.5% of treated and control groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: Sodium-potassium citrate provides positive effects on stone-forming activities in calcium stone patients suffering from urolithiasis following treatment with ESWL and PCNL procedures at the 12-month follow-up.
  • Inflammation and endothelial activation in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer Clinical Urology

    Pace, Gianna; Massimo, Caterina Di; Amicis, Daniela De; Vicentini, Carlo; Ciancarelli, M. Giuliana Tozzi

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: Emerging insights underline a link among chronic inflammation and endothelial activation with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). We aim to investigate whether specific plasma markers of inflammation and endothelial activation allow to discriminate BPH and PCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients affected by BPH, 15 by PCa and 15 controls, were enrolled. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), CD40 ligand (CD40L), endothelial-selectin (E-selectin), platelet-selectin (P-selectin), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were measured. RESULTS: In systemic blood samples, IL-6 has been found increased in patients affected by BPH (4.25 ± 0. pg/mL) and PCa (5.08 ± 0.24) respect to controls (2.62 ± 0.34; p < 0.05). CD40L was higher in BPH (4.25 ± 0.65 ng/mL; p < 0.05) than in control (2.31 ± 0.20) and PCa group (2.60 ± 0.56). E-selectin, P-selectin and VCAM-1 did not show any significant difference. Higher levels of ICAM-1 were detected in patients with PCa (573.04 ± 52.23) and BPH (564.40 ± 74.67) than in the controls (215.30 ± 11.53 ng/mL; p < 0.05). In local blood samples, IL-6 has been found significantly increased in PCa in comparison with patients with BPH; there was no difference in CD40L, E-selectin, P-selectin, VCAM-1 ed ICAM-1. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in inflammation and endothelial activation markers may be not considered to be of value in discriminating BPH and PCa.
  • The one-stop clinic as the standard of out-patient care in a hospital urology department Clinical Urology

    Páez, Alvaro; Redondo, Enrique; Sáenz, Javier; Marín, Mercedes; Juárez, Nuria; Durán, Manuel

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of a 'one-stop' clinic in terms of proportion of discharges or inclusion in surgical waiting lists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients were referred from primary care facilities (population 220.646) and from different departments in the hospital. Eight senior urologists, two registered nurses and two nurse attendants participated in the experience. Prior to the start of the project, referral protocols had been agreed with the primary care physicians involved. Compliance with the protocols was periodically tested. Eventually 5537 first visits (January-December 2009) where evaluable. RESULTS: Overall, the 'one-stop' format proved feasible in 74.2% of the patients (4108/5537). Patients, who successfully used the 'one-stop' format, were significantly younger than those who required additional consultations (43 vs 50 years old, respectively, Student's t test < 0.001). For obvious reasons the 'one-stop' format was universally possible in male sterilization and penile phimosis patients. Similarly, the 'one-stop' policy was applied in most consultations due to male sexual dysfunction (75%) and urinary tract infection (73%). Other health problems, such as haematuria (62%) and renal colic (46%), required more than one visit so that care of the patient reverted to the traditional, outpatient care model. CONCLUSION: A 'one-stop' philosophy is feasible for a number of procedures in a urological outpatient clinic. The costs to implement such an approach would be limited to managerial expenditure.
  • Vasectomy occlusion technique combining thermal cautery and fascial interposition Clinical Urology

    Labrecque, Michel

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Recent research on vasectomy shows that combining cautery and fascial interposition (FI) achieves the most effective occlusion of the vas and minimizes the risk of failure. We present a technique that combines cautery and FI and is suitable for low-resource settings. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: The surgical technique consists of 1) exposing the vas with the no-scalpel approach; 2) cauterizing the epithelium of lumen of the vas using a portable battery-powered cautery device; 3) performing FI by grasping internal spermatic fascia and applying a free tie with suture material on the fascia to cover the prostatic stump of the vas and separate the two ends of the cut vas; and 4) excising a small 0.5 to 1 cm of the testicular stump. COMMENTS: To maximize vasectomy effectiveness, vasectomy providers should consider learning thermal cautery and FI to occlude vas deferens.
  • Percutaneous intervention of large bladder calculi in neuropathic voiding dysfunction Neurourology

    Hubsher, Chad P.; Costa, Joseph

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: To report our results and rationale for treating large bladder calculi in patients with neuropathic voiding dysfunction (NVD) using percutaneous cystolithalopaxy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients with a previously diagnosed NVD presenting with a large stone burden were identified from our department database and a retrospective review of case notes and imaging was performed. RESULTS: Percutaneous access to remove bladder stones (range 8x7 to 3x2 cm) had a mean surgery length of 150 min and blood loss of 23 mL. Six of the seven patients treated percutaneously were discharged on the day of surgery and suffered no complications, while one patient experienced poor suprapubic tube drainage and required overnight admission with discharge the following day. Transurethral removal of stone burden (range 4x4 to 4x3 cm) had a mean surgery length of 111 min and blood loss of 8 mL. Each of these three patients were under our care for less than 23 hours, and one patient required a second attempt to remove 1x0.5 cm of stone fragments. There was no statistical difference between mean operative times and estimated blood loss, p = 0.5064 and p = 0.0944 respectively, for the two treatment methods. CONCLUSION: In this small series, percutaneous cystolithalopaxy was a safe, effective, and often preferred minimally invasive option for removal of large calculi in patients with NVD. We suggest possible guidelines for best endoscopic approach in this population, although a larger and prospectively randomized series will be ideal for definitive conclusions.
  • Botulinum toxin A for the treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity in multiple sclerosis patients Neurourology

    Deffontaines-Rufin, S.; Weil, M.; Verollet, D.; Peyrat, L.; Amarenco, G.

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: Neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) is common in patients who suffer from multiple sclerosis (MS). When the usual pharmacological treatment fails, botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injections can be proposed. The safety and efficacy of this treatment are already well known, but only a few studies focus on its use in patients with MS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one patients with MS underwent their first BTX-A injection for refractory NDO. They had clinical and urodynamic cystometry assessment before and three months after injection. The patients were divided in three groups according to treatment efficacy: full success (total urinary continence, no overactive detrusor), improvement, or total failure (urge incontinence and overactive detrusor). RESULTS: 77% of the patients had clinical improvement or full success of the treatment with a reduction of their urgency and incontinence. Significant urodynamic improvement after treatment was shown on different parameters: volume at first involuntary bladder contraction (p = 0.0000001), maximum cystometric capacity (p = 0.0035), maximum detrusor pressure (p = 0.0000001). 46% of the patients were in the "full success" group. 31% of the patients had a partial improvement. 23% of the patients had no efficacy of the treatment. Duration of MS was a predictive factor of treatment failure (p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Despite that a full success was obtained in 46% of the cases, BTX-A injection therapy failed to treat refractory NDO in 23% of patients suffering from MS. Duration of the disease was a predictive factor for an inefficient treatment. The injection therapy should be considered as soon as oral anticholinergic drugs fail to reduce NDO.
  • Comparative study between trimetazidine and ice slush hypothermia in protection against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in a porcine model Basic And Translational Urology

    Abreu, Leonardo de Albuquerque dos Santos; Kawano, Paulo Roberto; Yamamoto, Hamilto; Damião, Ronaldo; Fugita, Oscar Eduardo Hidetoshi

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to compare the effects of renal ice slush hypothermia and the use of trimetazidine in the protection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen farm pigs were submitted to left kidney ischemia and right nephrectomy during the same procedure. Animals were divided into three groups. Group 1 was submitted to warm ischemia; Group 2 was submitted to cold ischemia with ice slush; and Group 3 received trimetazidine 20 mg one day and 4 hours before surgery. Ischemia time was 120 minutes in all three groups. Serum creatinine (SCr) and plasma iohexol clearance (CLioh) were measured before surgery and on postoperative days (PODs) 1,3,7, and 14. Semi-quantitative analyses of histological alterations were performed by a pathologist. A p value of < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: All groups showed elevation of serum creatinine in the first week. Serum creatinine was higher in Group 3 in the first and third postoperative days (Mean Cr: 5.5 and 8.1 respectively). Group 2 showed a lower increase in creatinine and a lower decrease in iohexol clearance than the others. Renal function stabilized in the fourteenth POD in all three groups. Analyses of histological alterations did not reach statistical significance between groups. CONCLUSION: Trimetazidine did not show protection against renal I/R injury in comparison to warm ischemia or hypothermia in a porcine model submitted to 120 minutes of renal ischemia.
  • Urethral skip metastasis from cancer penis or a second malignancy?a dilemma! Radiology Page

    Kathpalia, Rohit; Goe, Apul; Singh, Bhupendra Pal
  • Ureteral avulsion during contemporary ureteroscopic stone management: "the scabbard avulsion" Urological Survey

    Ordon, M; Schuler, TD; Honey, RJ
  • The clinical research office of the endourological society percutaneous nephrolithotomy global study: staghorn versus nonstaghorn stones Urological Survey

    Desai, M; De Lisa, A; Turna, B; Rioja, J; Walfridsson, H; D'Addessi, A; Wong, C
  • Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery in urology: worldwide multi-institutional analysis of 1076 cases Endourology & Laparoscopy

    Kaouk, JH; Autorino, R; Kim, FJ; Han, DH; Lee, SW; Yinghao, S; Cadeddu, JA; Derweesh, IH; Richstone, L; Cindolo, L; Branco, A; Greco, F; Allaf, M; Sotelo, R; Liatsikos, E; Stolzenburg, JU; Rane, A; White, WM; Han, WK; Haber, GP; White, MA; Molina, WR; Jeong, BC; Lee, JY; Linhui, W; Best, S; Stroup, SP; Rais-Bahrami, S; Schips, L; Fornara, P; Pierorazio, P; Giedelman, C; Lee, JW; Stein, RJ; Rha, KH
  • Contemporary trends in nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma in the United States: results from a population based cohort Endourology & Laparoscopy

    Kim, SP; Shah, ND; Weight, CJ; Thompson, RH; Moriarty, JP; Shippee, ND; Costello, BA; Boorjian, SA; Leibovich, BC
  • Distal ureteral calculi: US follow-up Imaging

    Moesbergen, TC; de Ryke, RJ; Dunbar, S; Wells, JE; Anderson, NG
  • Evaluation of upper urinary tract tumors with portal venous phase MDCT: a case-control study Imaging

    Kupershmidt, M; Margolis, M; Jang, HJ; Massey, C; Metser, U
  • Gleason score 7 prostate cancer on needle biopsy: relation of primary pattern 3 or 4 to pathological stage and progression after radical prostatectomy Pathology

    Amin, A; Partin, A; Epstein, JI
  • Should intervening benign tissue be included in the measurement of discontinuous foci of cancer on prostate needle biopsy?correlation with radical prostatectomy findings Pathology

    Karram, S; Trock, BJ; Netto, GJ; Epstein, JI
  • Changes in uroflowmetry maximum flow rates after urethral reconstructive surgery as a means to predict for stricture recurrence Reconstructive Urology

    Erickson, BA; Breyer, BN; McAninch, JW
  • Central role of Boari bladder flap and downward nephropexy in upper ureteral reconstruction Reconstructive Urology

    Mauck, RJ; Hudak, SJ; Terlecki, RP; Morey, AF
  • The EORTC tables overestimate the risk of recurrence and progression in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin: external validation of the EORTC risk tables Urological Oncology

    Fernandez-Gomez, J; Madero, R; Solsona, E; Unda, M; Martinez-Piñeiro, L; Ojea, A; Portillo, J; Montesinos, M; Gonzalez, M; Pertusa, C; Rodriguez-Molina, J; Camacho, JE; Rabadan, M; Astobieta, A; Isorna, S; Muntañola, P; Gimeno, A; Blas, M; Martinez-Piñeiro, JA
  • Compliance with guidelines for patients with bladder cancer: variation in the delivery of care Urological Oncology

    Chamie, K; Saigal, CS; Lai, J; Hanley, JM; Setodji, CM; Konety, BR; Litwin, MS
  • Detection and clinical outcome of urinary bladder cancer with 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence cystoscopy: a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Urological Oncology

    Stenzl, A; Penkoff, H; Dajc-Sommerer, E; Zumbraegel, A; Hoeltl, L; Scholz, M; Riedl, C; Bugelnig, J; Hobisch, A; Burger, M; Mikuz, G; Pichlmeier, U
  • Anterior colporrhaphy versus transvaginal mesh for pelvic-organ prolapse Neurology & Female Urology

    Altman, D; Väyrynen, T; Engh, ME; Axelsen, S; Falconer, C
  • Solifenacin may improve sleep quality in patients with overactive bladder and sleep disturbance Neurology & Female Urology

    Takao, T; Tsujimura, A; Yamamoto, K; Fukuhara, S; Nakayama, J; Matsuoka, Y; Miyagawa, Y; Nonomura, N
  • Low risk prostate cancer in men > 70 years old: to treat or not to treat Geriatric Urology

    Rice, KR; Colombo, ML; Wingate, J; Chen, Y; Cullen, J; McLeod, DG; Brassell, SA
  • Diminished efficacy of bacille Calmette-Guérin among elderly patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer Geriatric Urology

    Margel, D; Alkhateeb, SS; Finelli, A; Fleshner, N
  • Improved survival with lymph node sampling in Wilms tumor Pediatric Urology

    Zhuge, Y; Cheung, MC; Yang, R; Koniaris, LG; Neville, HL; Sola, JE
  • Are stone protocol computed tomography scans mandatory for children with suspected urinary calculi? Pediatric Urology

    Johnson, EK; Faerber, GJ; Roberts, WW; Wolf, JS Jr; Park, JM; Bloom, DA; Wan, J
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