Abstract in English:The role of radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of urinary bladder cancer has undergone several modifications along the last decades. In the beginning, definitive RT was used as treatment in an attempt to preserve the urinary bladder; however, the results were poor compared to those of radical surgery. Recently, many protocols have been developed supporting the use of multi-modality therapy, and the concept of organ preservation began to be reconsidered. Although phase III randomized clinical studies comparing radical cystectomy with bladder preservation therapies do not exist, the conservative treatment may present low toxicity and high indexes of complete response for selected patients. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the subject in order to situate RT in the current treatment of urinary bladder cancer.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological features and patterns of initial care for prostate cancer at public and private institutions in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,082 physicians affiliated to the Sao Paulo Section of the Brazilian Society of Urology were invited to participate in this cross-sectional, web-based survey. Between September 2004 and September 2005, participating urologists entered data on demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer in their practice. Data on patients attended at public institutions were analyzed and compared with those patients attended at private practice. RESULTS: One hundred and ten society members contributed with data from 1915 patients, 1026 (53.6%) of whom from public institutions. When compared with patients attended at private institutions, those attended at public institutions were older and more likely to be black, had higher serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels, had a higher probability of being diagnosed with metastatic disease, but were less likely to undergo prostatectomy (all P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, age, biopsy Gleason score, and being attended at a public institution were independently associated with metastatic disease upon diagnosis. The significant predictors of nonsurgical treatment were age, black race, and higher serum levels of PSA. CONCLUSIONS: A statewide registry provides valuable information regarding patient demographics, clinical features, and patterns of care. The results of this study suggest that significant disparities exist for patients with prostate cancer attended at different health-care systems. The relative contribution of biological versus socioeconomic features remains uncertain.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Extracellular matrix homeostasis is strictly maintained by a coordinated balance between the expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their regulators. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether MMP-2 and its specific regulators, TIMP-2, MT1-MMP and IL-8, are expressed in a reproducible, specific pattern and if the profiles are related to prognosis and clinical outcome of prostate cancer (PCa). MATERIALS AND METHODS: MMP-2, TIMP-2, MT1-MMP and IL-8 expression levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in freshly frozen malignant and benign tissue specimens collected from 79 patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent radical prostatectomies. The control group consisted of 11 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The expression profile of the MMP-2 and its regulators were compared using Gleason scores, pathological stage, pre-operative PSA levels and the final outcome of the PCa. RESULTS: The analysis of 79 specimens of PCa revealed that MMP-2, TIMP-2, MT1-MMP and IL-8 were underexpressed at 60.0%, 72.2%, 62.0% and 65.8%, respectively, in malignant prostatic tissue in relation to BPH samples. Considering the prognostic parameters, we demonstrated that high Gleason score tumors (> 7) overexpressed MMP-2 (p = 0.048) and TIMP-2 (p = 0.021), compared to low Gleason score tumors (< 7). CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated that MMP-2 and its regulators are underexpressed in PCa. Alternatively, overexpression of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 was related to higher Gleason score tumors. We postulate that alterations in metalloproteinase expression may be important in the control of tissue homeostasis related to prostate carcinogenesis and tumor behavior.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: The amount of extraprostatic extension and positive surgical margin correlates in most studies with biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy. We studied the influence of focal and diffuse extraprostatic extension and positive surgical margins on biochemical progression using a simple method for quantification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 360 prostates were step-sectioned and totally processed from 175 patients with stage T1c and 185 patients with clinical stage T2 submitted to radical retropubic prostatectomy. Extraprostatic extension was stratified into 2 groups: present up to 1 quadrant and/or section from the bladder neck or apex (Group 1, focal) and in more than 1 quadrant or section (Group 2, diffuse); and, positive surgical margin present up to 2 quadrants and/or sections (Group 1, focal) and in more than 2 quadrants or sections (Group 2, diffuse). The Kaplan-Meier product-limit analysis was used for the time to biochemical recurrence, and an univariate and multivariate Cox stepwise logistic regression model to identify significant predictors. RESULTS: Extraprostatic extension was found in 129/360 (35.8%) patients, 39/129 (30.2%) in Group 1 and 90/129 (69.8%) in Group 2. In univariate analysis but not in multivariate analysis, patients showing diffuse extraprostatic extension (Group 2) had a significant higher risk to develop biochemical recurrence in a shorter time. Positive surgical margin was present in 160/360 (44.4%) patients, 81/160 (50.6%) patients in Group 1 and 79/160 (49.4%) patients in Group 2. Patients with diffuse positive surgical margins (Group 2) had a significant higher risk in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Diffuse positive surgical margin was the strongest predictor on both analyses and an independent predictor on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Diffuse extraprostatic extension in univariate analysis and positive surgical margins on both univariate and multivariate analyses are significant predictors of shorter time to biochemical progression following radical prostatectomy.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: We evaluated the role of several prognostic factors in predicting death and/or progressive disease in patients with renal cell carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2004 and 2010, 227 consecutive patients with renal cell carcinoma underwent radical nephrectomy at our Institute. All histological specimens were examined by the same pathologist. We considered certain histological parameters, including histological subtype, conventional Fuhrman grade, presence of sarcomatoid features, adrenal gland infiltration, invasion of the perinephric fat, vascular embolization, collecting system invasion, presence or absence of tumour necrosis (0%, 1% to 49%, or 50% or greater) and regional lymph node metastasis. RESULTS: Variables significantly associated with death and/or progressive disease on univariate analysis were histological subtype (p = 0.006), Fuhrman grade (p < 0.0001), tumor necrosis (p = 0.009), perinephric fat invasion (p = 0.002), vascular embolization (p = 0.0002), presence of lymph node involvement (p < 0.002), tumor size (p = 0.0006), TNM stage (p < 0.00001) and presence of metastasis (p < 0.00001). In the multivariable model histological subtype, tumor necrosis, lymph node involvement and presence of metastasis were independent risk factors for disease-free survival (p = 0.011, 0.042, 0.025 and p < 0.0001, respectively). CONCLUSION: Histological subtype, tumor necrosis, lymph node involvement and presence of metastasis proved to be independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival. Therefore, the presence and rate of tumor necrosis should always be informed by the pathologist and lymphadenectomy should be performed in all patients.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: Patients with coagulopathy are at increased risk of peri-operative hemorrhage. The aim of the present study was to compare ureteroscopy (URS) in these high risk patients to those with normal bleeding profile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with coagulopathies (Group I) undergoing 17 URS were included in the study [3 for biopsy of ureteral lesions and 9 for Holmium Laser Lithotripsy (HLL)]. A patient had Child B (MELD 11) cirrhosis, 6 patients were on warfarin, 3 patients on ASA, 1 patient on ASA and clopidogrel, and the last patient was on heparin. URS in Group I was performed without correction of coagulopathy. Group II consisted of 32 patients with normal bleeding profile who underwent 34 URS concurrently. RESULTS: Group I included 4 ureteral biopsies in 3 patients with suspicious ureteral lesions and 13 URS for HLL in 9 patients with nephrolithiasis. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of patient age, sex, percent of renal stones, median operative and fluoroscopy times. When compared with Group II, Group I had significantly larger median stone size (9.2 vs. 14.0 mm, p = 0.01) and significantly lower stone-free rate after first URS (94.1% vs. 69.2%, p = 0.04). However, after second URS, stone-free rates were comparable in both groups (92.3% vs. 100%, p = 0.9). Two (16.7%) patients with coagulopathy were readmitted due to gross hematuria. There were no post-operative complications in Group II. CONCLUSIONS: Although URS in selected patients with coagulopathies is safe, it is associated with significantly lower stone-free rates and higher readmissions due to gross hematuria.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: Kidney stone is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. Calcium oxalate (CaOx) has been shown to be the main component of the majority of stones formed in the urinary system of the patients with urolithiasis. The present study evaluates the antilithiatic properties of Terminalia chebula commonly called as "harad" which is often used in ayurveda to treat various urinary diseases including kidney stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antilithiatic activity of Terminalia chebula was investigated on nucleation and growth of the calcium oxalate crystals. The protective potency of the plant extract was also tested on oxalate induced cell injury of both NRK-52E and MDCK renal epithelial cells. RESULTS: The percentage inhibition of CaOx nucleation was found 95.84% at 25µg/mL of Terminalia chebula aqueous extract which remained almost constant with the increasing concentration of the plant extract; however, plant extract inhibited CaOx crystal growth in a dose dependent pattern. When MDCK and NRK-52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 48 hours, the aqueous extract prevented the injury in a dose-dependent manner. On treatment with the different concentrations of the plant extract, the cell viability increased and lactate dehydrogenase release decreased in a concentration dependent manner. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that Terminalia chebula is a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis as it not only has a potential to inhibit nucleation and the growth of the CaOx crystals but also has a cytoprotective role.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Lymphocele formation following renal transplantation is a frequent complication and may affect as many as 49% of patients. Operative treatment of symptomatic post transplant lymphocele (PTL) consists of wide drainage of the fluid collection into the abdominal cavity by excising its wall, connecting the lymphocele cavity to the intraperitoneal space. Laparoscopic fenestration seems to be the best treatment as it combines satisfying success rates with a minimally invasive approach. The aim of the study was to review a single center experience on the laparoscopic treatment of symptomatic PTL and detail relevant aspects of the surgical technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data of 25 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgical treatment for a symptomatic lymphocele following kidney transplantation were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data and surgical results were assessed. Detailed surgical technique is provided. RESULTS: Between 1996 and 2008, 991 patients received a kidney transplant at our institution. Twenty-five patients (2.52%) developed a symptomatic lymphocele and laparoscopic drainage was performed. The indications for surgical drainage were graft dysfunction (84%), local symptoms (16%) or both (32%). The mean time until surgical therapy was 14.2 ± 6 weeks. Mean hospital stay was 1.5 ± 0.2 days. Postoperative complications occurred in only 2 patients (8%) (one ureteral injury and one incisional hernia) and required reoperation. After a mean follow-up of 36.2 ± 4 months, only 1 patient had a symptomatic recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic fenestration is an effective surgical technique to treat symptomatic lymphocele following kidney transplantation with low recurrence rate and long standing results.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: The hypothesis of association between testicular torsion and hyperactive cremasteric reflex, worsened by cold weather, has not been proved. Thirteen studies in the literature evaluated this issue, with inconclusive results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the seasonality of testicular torsion in a large subset of patients surgically treated in Brazil, and additionally to estimate the incidence of testicular torsion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brazilian Public Health System Database was assessed from 1992-2010 to evaluate hospital admissions associated with treatment of testicular torsion. Average monthly temperature between 1992-2010 was calculated for each region. RESULTS: We identified 21,289 hospital admissions for treatment of testicular torsion. There was a higher number of testicular torsions during colder months (p = 0.002). To estimate the incidence of testicular torsion, we have related our findings to data from the last Brazilian census (2010). In 2010, testicular torsion occurred in 1.4:100,000 men in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS:Testicular torsion occurred at an annual incidence of approximately 1.4:100,000 men in Brazil in 2010. Seasonal variations do occur, with a significant increase of events during winter. Our findings support the theory of etiological role of cold weather to the occurrence of testicular torsion. Strategies to prevent these events can be based on these findings.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: Cyclosporine (CyA) nephrotoxicity is partly due to some oxidative stress. Ubiquinol, the reduced form of coenzyme Q10 (rCoQ10), has recently gained attention for its anti-oxidative potential. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of rCoQ10 on a CyA nephrotoxic rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (five animals each). Group 1 received a medium only. Group 2 received 30 mg/kg/day of CyA only. Group 3 received both the same dose of CyA and 600 mg/kg/day of rCoQ10. CyA and rCoQ10 were both given orally for four weeks. Systolic blood pressure (BP), daily urinary albumin secretion (u-Alb), serum creatinine (s-Cr) level, and super-oxide anion (SO) level in the renal tissue were measured and compared among those three groups. Immunohistochemistry using an antibody for the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) was also examined. RESULTS: BPs, u-Albs, s-Crs, and SO levels of groups 1, 2, and 3 were 114 ± 3, 132 ± 4, and 129 ± 5 mmHg, 2.6 ± 0.5, 42.1 ± 7.2, and 22.8 ± 3.4 micro-g/day, 1.1 ± 0.2, 1.7 ± 0.2, and 1.3 ± 0.2 mg/dl, and 224 ± 84, 1251 ± 138, and 512 ± 109 RLU/g kidney respectively. U-Albs, s-Crs, and SO levels were significantly ameliorated by rCoQ10. Micro-vacuolar changes and TGF-beta positive deposits in the proximal renal tubular cells of CyA group rats disappeared in those of CyA and rCoQ10 group rats. CONCLUSION: RCoQ10, an antioxidants, may have potential for preventing CyA nephrotoxicity.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: Duplex system is one of the most common anomalies of upper urinary tract. Anatomical and clinical presentation determine its treatment. Usually, the upper moiety has a poor function and requires resection, but when it is not significantly impaired, preservation is recommended. Laparoscopic reconstruction with upper pole preservation is presented as an alternative treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four female patients with duplex system, one presenting with recurrent urinary tract infection and the others with urinary incontinence associated to infrasphincteric ectopic ureter, were treated. Surgical procedure envolved a laparoscopic ureteropyeloanastomosis of the upper pole ureter to the pelvis of the lower moiety, with prior insertion of a double J stent. RESULTS: Surgical time varied from 120 to 150 minutes, with minimal blood loss in all cases. Follow-up varied from 15 to 30 months, with resolution of the clinical symptoms and preservation of the upper moiety function. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic ureteropyeloanatomosis is a feasible and safe minimally invasive option in the treatment of duplex system.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: Peyronie's disease is an acquired connective tissue disorder of the penile tunica albuginea with fibrosis and inflammation. The disease produces palpable plaques, penile curvature and pain during erections. Usually it results in impairment of the quality of life. Our objective is to review the long-term results of the albugineal grafting harvested from the penile crura for the treatment of severe penile curvature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients with Peyronie's disease were submitted to a grafting with tunica albuginea from the penile crura for the correction of penile curvature. The results were evaluated after 6 months of the procedure. Variables studied were overall satisfaction with the procedure, correction of the penile curvature, erectile capacity, penile shortening and the presence of surgical complications. RESULTS: Mean follow-up after surgery was 41 months. Complete correction of the curvature was achieved in 30 patients (90%). The mean preoperative curvature was 91.8 degrees and median plaque length was 2 cm (ranged from 1 to 5 cm). Three patients (9%) experienced recurrence of the penile curvature and required a new procedure. In 30 men (90%) the procedure fulfilled their expectations and in 31 patients (93.9%) their opinions were that sexual partners were satisfied with the penile correction. Penile shortening or augmentation was referred in 6 (18.1%) and 1 (3%) patient, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our series demonstrated that grafting the albugineal defect after incision of the tunica albuginea with tunica from the crus for the correction of penile curvature is safe and results in satisfactory straight erections duringa long-term follow-up.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work is to study the resistive index (RI) of prostatic blood flow by transrectal power Doppler sonography in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) to determine its correlation with other parameters of BPH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-two male patients aged 52-86 years with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to BPH were included in the study. Patients with prostate cancer, neurogenic bladder, or with other pathology (e.g. prostatitis, bladder stone) were excluded from the study. All patients were evaluated by full history including Internatinoal Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), general and local examination (DRE), neurologic examination, uroflowmetry, laboratory investigations including urine analysis, routine laboratory tests and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). Transrectal ultrasonography was used to calculate the total prostatic volume. Transrectal Power Doppler Ultrasound (PUD) was used to identify the capsular and urethral arteries of the prostate and to measures the RI value. RESULTS: The mean prostate volume was 75.1 ± 44.7 g. The mean RI of the right and left capsular arteries were 0.76 ± 0.06 and 0.76 ± 0.07, respectively. The mean RI of the urethral arteries was 0.76 ± 0.08. There was a high significative correlation between the increase of the RI of the right and left capsular and urethral arteries and the degree of obstruction (P value < 0.001), severity of symptoms (P value < 0.001) and also the prostatic volume (P value < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Resistive index of the prostatic blood flow can be applied as an easy and non-invasive tool to evaluate the lower urinary tract obstruction due to BPH.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The mini sling concept for stress urinary incontinence is an anatomical approach that involves placing a midurethral low-tension tape anchored to the obturator internus muscles bilaterally. They overcome the blind passage of long needles and all the related complications. There are many different devices available and because these are outpatient procedures, primary fixation plays an important role in the outcome. The objective is to evaluate the primary fixation of the various devices of attachment of the commercially available mini-slings through biomechanical tests. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 45 Wistar rats were divided in 3 groups of 15 rats each. They underwent 5 subcutaneous implantation of different mini slings and one polipropilene mesh (control), as follows: TVT-Secur® (Gynecare, USA), Type 1 polypropylene mesh (control); Ophira Mini Sling System® (Promedon, Argentina), Tissue Fixation System® (TFS PTY, Australia), Zipper Sling® and "T device" (Prosurg, USA). The abdominal wall was removed on bloc at different times after implant for biomechanical evaluation, which consisted in application of unidirectional force to the extremity of the fixation system or mesh, until it was completely removed from the tissue using a tension meter (Nexygen 3.0 Universal Testing Machine - LLOYD Instruments). The force was measured in Newtons (N). RESULTS: There was significant difference in the resistance to extraction among the different fixation systems. At 7 days the Ophira Mini Sling System® presented the best fixation and "T dispositive" the worst. CONCLUSION: Ophira mini sling System® presented the best primary fixation at 7º, 14º and 30º days. The impact of this feature in the clinical setting needs to be verified.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The increase of the intensity of urinary symptoms in late pregnancy and postpartum has been well documented by several authors, but their causes remain uncertain, partly because of its probable multifactor origin. There are also controversies whether the etiology of lower urinary tract symptoms during pregnancy is the same as postpartum and whether the method of delivery could influence the risk of onset of urinary symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the urinary symptoms triggered during pregnancy and its evolution in the late puerperium, correlating them with the delivery method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted, which included 75 primigravidae women, classified according to method of delivery as: (VD) vaginal delivery with right mediolateral episiotomy (n = 28); (CS) elective caesarean section (n = 26); and (EC) emergency caesarean section (n = 21). Urinary symptoms were assessed in the last trimester of pregnancy and at 45 days (± 10) of puerperium with validated versions for Portuguese language of the following questionnaires: International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF) and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Overactive Bladder (ICIQ-OAB). RESULTS: It was observed that frequency, urgency, nocturia and urge incontinence, triggered during pregnancy, decreased significantly in the postpartum period, regardless of the delivery method (p = 0.0001). However, symptoms related to urinary loss due to stress persisted after vaginal delivery (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Urgency, frequency and nocturia triggered during pregnancy tend to disappear in the late postpartum period, regardless of the delivery method, but the symptoms related to urinary loss due to stress tend to persist in late postpartum period after vaginal delivery.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of low levels of testosterone induced by orchiectomy and the effect of alpha-tocopherol supplementation on oxidative stress in the urethral sphincter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats weighing 250-300g were divided into four groups with 10 each: Sham group; Orchiectomy group: bilateral orchiectomy; Orchiectomy-pre-Tocopherol group: bilateral orchiectomy preceded by alpha-tocopherol supplementation for four weeks; Orchiectomy-full-Tocopherol group: bilateral orchiectomy with alpha-tocopherol supplementation for four weeks preceding the procedure and for eight weeks afterwards. At the protocol end, animals were euthanized and had the sphincter analyzed stereologically focusing on collagen and muscle fibers percentage. Oxidative stress levels were determined using 8-epi-PGF2. RESULTS: The 8-epi-PGF2 levels were statistically higher (p < 0.0003) in the Orchiectomy group compared to others groups while Sham and Orchiectomy-full-Tocopherol groups presented statistically similar values (p = 0.52). Collagen volumetric densities were significantly lower in Sham and Orchiectomy-full-Tocopherol groups (p < 0.022). Sham group presented statistically greater muscle fiber percent. CONCLUSION: Castration caused oxidative stress in the urethral sphincter complex, with increased collagen deposition. Alpha-tocopherol had a protective effect and its supplementation for twelve weeks provided the greatest protection.