• Basic Research in Prostate Cancer, Kidney Cancer, Urinary Incontinence, Pediatric Urology and Erectile Dysfunction Editor's Comment

    Favorito, Luciano A.
  • Magnetic Resonance Image in the diagnosis and evaluation of extra-prostatic extension and involvement of seminal vesicles of prostate cancer: a systematic review of literature and meta-analysis Review Article

    Silva, Rogério Cardoso da; Sasse, André Deeke; Matheus, Wagner Eduardo; Ferreira, Ubirajara

    Abstract in English:

    Objective Systematic review of literature and meta-analysis to evaluate the results of magnetic resonance image 1.5T with endorectal coil in the diagnosis and evaluation of extra-prostatic extension and involvement of seminal vesicles of prostate cancer, compared to the histopathological results of the radical prostatectomy specimen. Materials and Methods It was conducted a systematic review of literature and meta-analyses of all studies data published after 2008. In those studies, the patients with prostate cancer with indication to radical prostatectomy were submitted to magnetic resonance image (MRI) at pre-operatory period and the results were compared to those of histopathological studies after the surgery. The selected terms for research included prostate cancer, magnetic resonance, radical prostatectomy, and prostate cancer diagnosis, in the databases EMBASE, LILACS, PUBMED/MEDLINE and Cochrane Library. The data were collected using a specific qualitative instrument and the meta-analysis data were presented in the forest plot graphics, homogeneity test and sROC curves and funnel plot. Results A total of seven studies were included, with a total of 603 patients. Among these studies, six evaluated the value of MRI for the detection of prostate cancer, and the median sensitivity of meta-analysis was 0.6 and specificity 0.58, but with heterogeneity among the studies. Three studies evaluated extra-prostatic extension with a median sensitivity of 0.49, specificity 0.82 and heterogeneity only for sensitivity. Three studies evaluated invasion of seminal vesicles, with median sensitivity of 0.45 and specificity 0.96, with heterogeneity in both analysis. Conclusion Magnetic resonance of 1.5T with endocoil showed low values of sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer. The reviewed studies showed a significant heterogeneity among them. The best observed result was MRI specificity for invasion of seminal vesicles. More studies are necessary to evaluate new techniques and parameters before recommending the routine use of MRI in clinical practice.
  • Radical cystectomy with W-shaped orthotopic ileal neobladder constructed with non-absorbable titanium staples-long term follow-up Original Article

    Kravchick, Sergey; Lobik, Leonid; Paz, Adrian; Stepnov, Eugeny; Ben-Dor, David; Cytron, Shmuel

    Abstract in English:

    Purposes We retrospectively assessed our experience with the W-shaped orthotopic ileal pouch, which was constructed with non –absorbable titanium staples. For these purpose, we discuss the results of bladder capacity, urinary continence and early and long-term postoperative complications. Materials and Methods We included in the study 17 patients who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy followed by construction of an orthotopic W-shaped ileal pouch between October 2000 and November 2009. A 65-70 cm segment of ileum was isolated and prearranged into a W- configuration, leaving two 10 cm intact segments on both sides of the ileal fragment. In our technique we entirely anatomized all adjacent limbs in order to create a sphere-shaped pouch. The ureters were directly anastomized to both intact segments of the ileal division. All our patients underwent pouchscopy 6 months after operation and annually. Results Mean operative time for neobladder reconstruction and ureteral anastomoses was 87 ± 7.67 minutes. In one patient a leak from the ileo-ileal anastomosis was confirmed on the 3rd day after operation. In 2 cases unilateral stricture of the ureteral-neobladder anastomosis was documented. Staple lines were mostly covered with ileal mucosa after 6 months. The mean functional bladder capacity was 340 ± 27.6 mL and 375 ± 43.4 mL at 6 and 12 months, respectively. First-year daytime and nighttime continence was good and acceptable in 90% and 78% of patients, while it increased to 95% during the 2nd year. Conclusions The long term follow-up shows that non-absorbable titanium staples can be safely used for creation of an orthotopic ileal neobladder. However, these data should be further validated in a larger series of patients.
  • Study of testosterone as a predictor of tumor aggressiveness in patients with prostate cancer Original Article

    Cabral, Pedro Henrique Oliveira; Iwamoto, Marcelo Wassano; Fanni, Victor Silvestre Soares; Barros, Luciano da Rocha; Cardoso, Sandro Nassar; Mello, Luiz Figueiredo; Glina, Sidney

    Abstract in English:

    Purpose A growing body of evidence suggests that low testosterone can be an independent predictor of adverse clinicopathological features and worse prognosis in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. However, this association is still incompletely understood and the results are divisive. The aim of this study was to analyze testosterone as a predictor of aggressive disease in subjects with clinically localized PCa. Materials and Methods A cohort was conducted including the patients submitted to radical prostatectomy in our institution during a period of four years. The patients had clinically localized disease and their total testosterone (TT) was routinely measured preoperatively in the morning before surgery. They were stratified in groups with low (< 300 ng/dL) and normal TT (≥ 300 ng/dL). Tumor aggressiveness was inferred based on preoperative PSA levels, pathological Gleason score (lower, equal or greater than 7), TNM stage and surgical margins status. Results After analyzing 164 patients we found a significant association between mean preoperative TT and extraprostatic disease (379 for pT3 vs. 421 ng/for pT2 - p < 0.001, AUC > 0.99). Conversely, men with high Gleason score had similar mean TT compared to those with lower scores. Preoperative low TT (defined as TT < 300 ng/dL) could not be statistically correlated with either preoperative PSA levels, pathological Gleason score, extraprostatic extension, positive surgical margins or seminal vesicles involvement. Conclusions This study indicates that testosterone may be a useful predictive tool once pathological extraprostatic extension was somewhat signaled by lower TT levels preoperatively. However, it does not consolidate a clear association between aggressive tumor biology and hypogonadism.
  • Results of preoperative electrical stimulation of pelvic floor muscles in the continence status following radical retropubic prostatectomy Original Article

    Laurienzo, Carla Elaine; Sacomani, Carlos Alberto Ricetto; Rodrigues, Telma Ribeiro; Zequi, Stênio de Cássio; Guimarães, Gustavo Cardoso; Lopes, Ademar

    Abstract in English:

    Purpose To evaluate preoperative rectal electrical stimulation in the recovery of urinary continence in patients who undergo radical retropubic prostatectomy. Materials and Methods Patients were divided into 3 randomized groups: control, pelvic exercises, and electrical stimulation. A 1 hour pad-test, the ICIQ-SF, and the SF-36 were performed 1, 3, and 6 months after the surgical procedure. Results Of the 58 patients who were initially included in the study, 9 were excluded due to radiotherapy after surgical intervention, an indwelling urethral catheter for more than 30 days, high surgical risk, loss of follow-up, or incomplete participation in the study routines and spontaneous interruption. Forty-nine patients concluded the study (15 in the control group, 17 in the exercise group, and 17 in the electrical stimulation group). We did not observe any significant difference in the pad test (p > 0.05), the 8 domains of the SF-36, or ICIQ-SF score compared with control groups (control, exercise, and electrical stimulation). Conclusion Preoperative rectal electrical stimulation has no impact on continence status in patients who undergo radical retropubic prostatectomy. There is no difference in the three above mentioned groups with regard to urinary leakage and quality of life.
  • Comparison of radiographic and pathologic sizes of renal tumors Original Article

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Linhui; Yang, Qing; Liu, Bing; Sun, Yinghao

    Abstract in English:

    Purpose The determination of the size of a renal tumor is important for staging, prognosis and selection of the appropriate surgical treatment. We investigated the difference of radiographic and pathologic size of renal tumors in a contemporary cohort of patients who underwent nephron sparing surgery and evaluated its clinical implications. Materials and Methods The records of 169 patients who received nephron sparing surgery for renal lesions suspicious for malignancy between January 2006 and December 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Radiographic tumor size, defined as the largest diameter of tumor measured by CT images, and pathologic size, the largest diameter of tumor measured in the surgical specimen, were compared and analyzed. Results Among all subjects, mean radiographic and pathologic tumor size were 3.25 ± 1.78 cm and 3.03 ± 1.91 cm, respectively (P < 0.001), with a discrepancy of just 0.22 cm. When the patients were categorized according to radiographic tumor size in the 1 cm range, the mean radiographic tumor size was significantly greater than pathologic tumor size in the following groups: 2 to 3 cm (P < 0.001), 3 to 4 cm (P < 0.001), and 4 to 5 cm (P = 0.028). When radiographic and pathologic tumor sizes were compared according to the pathologic tumor subtype, a significant difference was observed only among those with clear cell renal carcinoma (P < 0.001). Conclusions Renal tumor size was overestimated by radiography as compared with pathology. The difference was just 0.22 cm with little clinical significance, suggesting that CT provides an accurate method to estimate renal tumor size preoperatively.
  • Minimally Invasive Pyeloplasty in Horseshoe Kidneys with Ureteropelvic Junction obstruction: A case series Original Article

    Faddegon, Stephen; Granberg, Candace; Tan, Yung K; Gargollo, Patricio C.; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A.

    Abstract in English:

    Background and Purpose Horseshoe kidney is an uncommon renal anomaly often associated with ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction. Advanced minimally invasive surgical (MIS) reconstructive techniques including laparoscopic and robotic surgery are now being utilized in this population. However, fewer than 30 cases of MIS UPJ reconstruction in horseshoe kidneys have been reported. We herein report our experience with these techniques in the largest series to date. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of nine patients with UPJ obstruction in horseshoe kidneys who underwent MIS repair at our institution between March 2000 and January 2012. Four underwent laparoscopic, two robotic, and one laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) dismembered pyeloplasty. An additional two pediatric patients underwent robotic Hellstrom repair. Perioperative outcomes and treatment success were evaluated. Results Median patient age was 18 years (range 2.5-62 years). Median operative time was 136 minutes (range 109-230 min.) and there were no perioperative complications. After a median follow-up of 11 months, clinical (symptomatic) success was 100%, while radiographic success based on MAG-3 renogram was 78%. The two failures were defined by prolonged t1/2 drainage, but neither patient has required salvage therapy as they remain asymptomatic with stable differential renal function. Conclusions MIS repair of UPJ obstruction in horseshoe kidneys is feasible and safe. Although excellent short-term clinical success is achieved, radiographic success may be lower than MIS pyeloplasty in heterotopic kidneys, possibly due to inherent differences in anatomy. Larger studies are needed to evaluate MIS pyeloplasty in this population.
  • Emergency double-J stent insertion following uncomplicated Ureteroscopy: risk-factor analysis and recommendations Original Article

    Matani, Yousef S.; Al-Ghazo, Mohammed A.; Al-Azab, Rami S.; Bani-Hani, Osamah; Rabadi, Daher K.

    Abstract in English:

    Purpose Emergency double-J (DJ) stenting following “uncomplicated” ureteroscopic (UURS) stone treatment is both morbid and costly. Our study aims at identifying those patients who are more likely to require such an extra procedure. Handling of this complication will also be highlighted. Materials and Methods 319 cases of UURS cases were selected out of 903 patients, who were admitted for URS stone treatment at King Abdullah University Hospital during the period from May, 2003 to December, 2010. Thirty-eight of them (11.9%) had emergency post-URS DJ stenting within 24 hours of discharge. The medical records of all UURS cases were retrospectively reviewed. Comparison in demographic and stone-related variables was made using 2-paired t-test with P < 0.05. Operative findings of 38 stented patients were outlined. Results Significant risk factors for emergency stenting were noted in males with larger (>1.5 cm) and proximal stones (38 stented vs. 281 unstented). Operative risk factors among the 38 patients were: initial procedure time > 45 minutes (42.1%), ureteral wall edema (21.1%), repeated access for stones > 1.5 cm (21.1%), impacted stone (10.5%) and ignored or missed stones/fragments (4.6%). Conclusions The need for emergency DJ stenting following UURS stone treatment is not uncommon. The routine insertion is impractical and weakly-supported. With risk-factor stratification, selective and individualized DJ stenting policy is recommended.
  • Occupational Hazard: Radiation Exposure for the Urologist – Developing a Reference Standard Original Article

    Cohen, Seth A.; Rangarajan, Sriram S.; Chen, Tony; Palazzi, Kerrin L.; Langford, J. Scott; Sur, Roger L.

    Abstract in English:

    Introduction To date, there is a paucity of literature offering practicing urologists a reference for the amount of radiation exposure received while surgically managing urolithiasis. This study examines the cumulative radiation exposure of an urologist over 9 months. Materials and Methods We present a case series of fluoroscopic exposures of an experienced stone surgeon operating at an academic comprehensive stone center between April and December 2011. Radiation exposure measurements were determined by a thermoluminescent dosimeter worn on the outside of the surgeon's thyroid shield. Estimations of radiation exposure (mrem) per month were charted with fluoroscopy times, using scatter plots to estimate Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Results The total 9-month radiation exposure was 87 mrems for deep dose equivalent (DDE), 293 mrem for lens dose equivalent (LDE), and 282 mrem for shallow dose equivalent (SDE). Total fluoroscopy time was 252.44 minutes for 64 ureteroscopies (URSs), 29 percutaneous nephrolithtomies (PNLs), 20 cystoscopies with ureteral stent placements, 9 shock wave lithotripsies (SWLs), 9 retrograde pyelograms (RPGs), 2 endoureterotomies, and 1 ureteral balloon dilation. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients examining the association between fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure were not significant for DDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), LDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), or SDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2). Conclusions Over a 9-month period, total radiation exposures were well below annual accepted limits (DDE 5000 mrem, LDE 15,000 mrem and SDE 50,000 mrem). Although fluoroscopy time did not correlate with radiation exposure, future prospective studies can account for co-variates such as patient obesity and urologist distance from radiation source.
  • Effects of Serenoa Repens, Selenium and Lycopene (Profluss®) on chronic inflammation associated with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: results of “FLOG” (Flogosis and Profluss in Prostatic and Genital Disease), a multicentre Italian study Original Article

    Morgia, Giuseppe; Cimino, Sebastiano; Favilla, Vincenzo; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Squadrito, Francesco; Mucciardi, Giuseppe; Masieri, Lorenzo; Minutoli, Letteria; Grosso, Giuseppe; Castelli, Tommaso

    Abstract in English:

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of Profluss® on prostatic chronic inflammation (PCI). Materials and Methods We prospectively enrolled 168 subjects affected by LUTS due to bladder outlet obstruction submitted to 12 cores prostatic biopsy for suspected prostate cancer + 2 cores collected for PCI valuation. First group consisted of 108 subjects, with histological diagnosis of PCI associated with BPH and high grade PIN and/or ASAP, randomly assigned to 1:1 ratio to daily Profluss® (group I) for 6 months or to control group (group Ic). Second group consisted of 60 subjects, with histological diagnosis of BPH, randomly assigned to 1:1 ratio to daily Profluss® + α-blockers treatment (group II) for 3 months or to control group (group IIc). After 6 months first group underwent 24 cores prostatic re-biopsy + 2 cores for PCI while after 3 months second group underwent two-cores prostatic for PCI. Specimens were evaluated for changes in inflammation parameters and for density of T-cells (CD3, CD8), B-cells (CD20) and macrophages (CD68). Results At follow-up there were statistical significant reductions of extension and grading of flogosis, mean values of CD20, CD3, CD68 and mean PSA value in group I compared to Ic, while extension and grading of flogosis in group II were inferior to IIc but not statistical significant. A statistically significant reduction in the density of CD20, CD3, CD68, CD8 was demonstrated in group II in respect to control IIc. Conclusions Serenoa repens+Selenium+Lycopene may have an anti-inflammatory activity that could be of interest in the treatment of PCI in BPH and/or PIN/ASAP patients.
  • The histology of prostate tissue following prostatic artery embolization for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia Original Article

    Camara-Lopes, George; Mattedi, Romulo; Antunes, Alberto A.; Carnevale, Francisco C.; Cerri, Giovanni G.; Srougi, Miguel; Alves, Venancio A.; Leite, Katia R. M.

    Abstract in English:

    Objective Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) for the treatment of patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is believed to be a safe procedure with a low risk of adverse side effects. Artery embolization is a viable treatment option in patients who are refractory to the classic noninvasive treatments. Knowledge of the histological characteristics of prostate tissue following the procedure is still limited. In this study, we describe the microscopic aspects of the prostate following PAE for BPH. Materials and Methods Two patients underwent transurethral resections of the prostate (TURP) after PAE. Embolizations were performed under local anesthesia with an initial pelvic angiography to evaluate the iliac vessels and the prostate arteries using a 2.8 French microcatheter. The prostate was embolized with 300-500µm Microspheres (Embosphere®), using complete blood stasis as the end point. The prostate tissues were analyzed histologically to characterize the effects of the embolization. Results The embolic material within the prostate tissue was easily identified as homogeneous, bright eosin-red spheroids filling the vessel lumens. Ischemic necrosis surrounded or not by chronic inflammatory reactions containing macrophages were considered as a result of the artery embolization. Also, some aspects related to the healing process were observed being fibrotic nodules surrounded by glands with squamous metaplasia of the epithelial lining the most important. In the remaining sections, due to the precocious surgical intervention, the classic findings of BPH were still present with the glandular and stromal hyperplasia associated with nonspecific chronic prostatitis. Conclusions This is the first description of prostate histology in BPH patients treated by PAE, a new procedure that is being used increasingly as a therapeutic intervention. The recognition of the changes caused by this new modality of treatment has become a very important differential in a chronic granulomatous reaction of the prostate tissue.
  • Urine screening by Seldi-Tof, followed by biomarker identification, in a Brazilian cohort of patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) Original Article

    Alves, Gilda; Pereira, Denise A.; Sandim, Vanessa; Ornellas, Antonio A.; Escher, Niko; Melle, Christian; Eggeling, d von

    Abstract in English:

    Purpose To screen proteins/peptides in urine of Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) patients by SELDI-TOF (Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization - Time of Flight) in search of possible biomarkers. Material and Methods Sixty-one urines samples from Clear Cell RCC and Papillary RCC were compared to 29 samples of control urine on CM10 chip. Mass analysis was performed in a ProteinChip Reader PCS 4,000 (Ciphergen Biosystems, Fremont, CA) with the software Ciphergen Express 3.0. All chips were read at low and at high laser energy. For statistical analysis the urine samples were clustered according to the histological classification (Clear Cell and Papillary Carcinoma). For identification urine was loaded on a SDS PAGE gel and bands of most interest were excised, trypsinized and identified by MS/MS. Databank searches were performed in Swiss-Prot database using the MASCOT search algorithm and in Profound. Results Proteins that were identified from urine of controls included immunoglobulin light chains, albumin, secreted and transmembrane 1 precursor (protein K12), mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) and vitelline membrane outer layer 1 isoform 1. Identification of immunoglobulins and isoforms of albumin are quite common by proteomics and therefore cannot be considered as possible molecular markers. K12 and MASP-2 play important physiological roles, while vitellite membrane outer layer 1 role is unknown since it was never purified in humans. Conclusions The down expression of Protein K-12 and MASP-2 make them good candidates for RCC urine marker and should be validated in a bigger cohort including the other less common histological RCC subtypes.
  • Structural analysis of testicular appendices in patients with cryptorchidism Original Article

    Tostes, Guilherme D.; Costa, Suelen F.; Carvalho, João P. de; Costa, Waldemar S.; Sampaio, Francisco J.b.; Favorito, Luciano A.

    Abstract in English:

    Objectives Report the incidence and structure of testicular appendices (TAs) in patients with cryptorchidism, comparing their incidence with epididymal anomalies (EA) and patency of the vaginal process (PVP) and analyzes the structure of TAs. Material and Methods We studied 72 testes of patients with cryptorchidism (average of 6 years), and 8 testes from patients with hydroceles (average of 9 years). We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and PVP and prevalence and histology of the TAs. The appendices of 10 patients with cryptorchidism and 8 with hydrocele were dissected and embedded in paraffin and stained with Masson trichrome; Weigert and Picro-Sirius Red with polarization and immunohistochemistry analysis of the collagen type III fibers to observe collagen. The stereological analysis was done with the software Image Pro and Image J, using a grid to determine volumetric densities (Vv). Means were statistically compared using the ANOVA and unpaired T test (p < 0.05). Results Of the 72 testes with cryptorchidism, 20 (27.77%) presented EA, 41 (56.9%) had PVP and 44 (61.1%) had TAs. Of the 44 testes with cryptorchidism and appendices, 30 (68.18%) presented PVP and 11 (25%) presented EA. There was no alteration of the epithelium in the appendices of patients in both groups. Stereological analysis documented the prevalence of ESFs (mean of 1.48%), prevalence of veins (mean of 10.11%) and decrease (p = 0.14) of SMCs in the TAs of patients with cryptorchidism (mean = 4.93%). Collagen III prevailed in the TAs of patients with cryptorchidism. Conclusion The testicular appendices presented significant structural alteration in the patients with cryptorchidism, indicating that TAs present a structural remodeling.
  • Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers Original Article

    Novaes, Hugo F. F.; Leite, Paula C. S.; Almeida, Rafaela A.; Sorte, Ney C. B.; Júnior, Ubirajara Barroso

    Abstract in English:

    Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female). There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.
  • Genes responsible for vaginal extracellular matrix metabolism are modulated by women's reproductive cycle and menopause Original Article

    Shynlova, Oksana; Bortolini, Maria A. T.; Alarab, May

    Abstract in English:

    Objectives To analyze the expression of genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) biogenesis and remodeling in vaginal tissue of women with clinically normal pelvic floor support (defined as controls) according to the phase of menstrual cycle and postmenopausal women with and without pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Materials and Methods This study examined the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs), and the Lysyl oxidase (LOX) family genes in the anterior vaginal wall of Caucasian women by real-time RT-PCR. Initially, mRNA expression was assessed in premenopausal controls in the secretory (group 1, n = 10) vs. proliferative (group 2, n = 8) phase of menstrual cycle. In addition, we compared premenopausal controls in the proliferative phase (group 2) vs. postmenopausal controls (group 3, n = 5). Finally, we analyzed postmenopausal controls (group 3) vs. postmenopausal women with advanced POP (group 4, n = 13). Results According to the phase of menstrual cycle, MMP1 was significantly reduced (p = 0.003), whereas the expression of TIMP1 and LOXL4 was significantly up-regulated during proliferative phase (both p < 0.01) when compared to the secretory phase in premenopausal control women. Regarding menopausal status/ageing, all MMPs were down-regulated, while TIMP3, TIMP4 and LOXL2 were significantly up-regulated in postmenopausal control women when compared to premenopausal controls (p = 0.005, p = 0.01 and p < 0.001, correspondingly). TIMP4 and LOXL2 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in postmenopausal POP patients compared to asymptomatic postmenopausal controls (p < 0.01 for both). Conclusions Our results indicate that ovarian cycle and age-related changes influence the expression of genes encoding proteins responsible for ECM metabolism in human vagina. Moreover, POP is associated with alteration in vaginal ECM components after menopause.
  • Effect of acute administration of sildenafil to rats with detrusor overactivity induced by chronic deficiency of nitric oxide Original Article

    Reges, Ricardo; D'ancona, Carlos; Mônica, Fabíola; Antunes, Edson

    Abstract in English:

    Purpose Recently, the effect of phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE5i) in the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated to benign prostatic hyperplasia have been studied thoroughly. However, it remains unclear how the PDE5i improve LUTS. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of acute administration of the PDE5i sildenafil to improve detrusor overactivity (DO) induced by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), an nitric oxide sinthase (NOS) inhibitor, in rats. Materials and Methods Twenty-seven MALE adult Wistar Rats were divided into the following groups: (1) control, (2) L-NAME, (3) sildenafil alone, and (4) L-NAME + sildenafil. The NOS blocker L-NAME (20 mg/rat/day) was given in the drinking water. Sildenafil (100µg/kg) was administrated intravenously (i.v.) acutely, diluted in cremophor, propylene glycol and water. All animals underwent to anesthetized cystometograms. Results The chronic and systemic administration of L-NAME markedly increased the number of non voiding contractions (2.62 (± 0.89)), and frequency of micturition (1.97 (± 0.78)), as well increased volume threshold (2.83 mL (± 1.64)) compared with control group, the number of non voiding contractions (1.17 (± 0.75)), frequency of micturition (1.08 (± 0.65)) and volume threshold (1.16 mL (± 0.38)), p < 0.001, p = 0.01, and p = 0.04, respectively. Sildenafil infusion decreased the number of micturition cycles significantly from the baseline to end point (-0.93 (± 0.34)) in nitric oxide (NO) deficient animals compared with sildenafil infusion alone (control) in animals with normal NO level (0.13 (± 0.25)), p = 0.03. Conclusion Systemic reduction of nitric oxide causes detrusor overactivity and acute infusion of sildenafil reduces the number of micturition cycles in chronic NO-deficient rats.
  • P2X7 receptor mediates activation of microglial cells in prostate of chemically irritated rats Original Article

    Zhang, Heng; Liu, Limei; Yang, Zhong; Pan, Jinhong; Chen, Zhiwen; Fang, Qiang; Li, Weibin; Li, Longkun; Lu, Gengsheng; Zhou, Zhansong

    Abstract in English:

    Purpose Evidence shows that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is involved in the transmission of multiple chronic pain via P2X7 receptor. This study was to investigate the P2X7 and microglial cells in the chronic prostatitis pain. Materials and Methods Rats were divided into control group and chronic prostatitis group (n = 24 per group). A chronic prostatitis animal model was established by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to the prostate of rats, and the thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) was detected on days 0, 4, 12 and 24 (n = 6 at each time point in each group). Animals were sacrificed and the pathological examination of the prostate, detection of mRNA expression of P2X7 and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA-1) and measurement of content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the dorsal horn of L5-S2 spinal cord were performed on days 0, 4, 12 and 24. In addition, the content of TNF-α and IL-1β in the dorsal horn of L5-S2 spinal cord was measured after intrathecal injection of inhibitors of microglial cells and/or P2X7 for 5 days. Results The chronic prostatitis was confirmed by pathological examination. The expression of P2X7 and IBA-1 and the content of TNF-α and IL-1β in rats with chronic prostatitis were significantly higher than those in the control group. On day 4, the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines became to increase, reaching a maximal level on day 12 and started to reduce on day 24, but remained higher than that in the control group. Following suppression of microglial cells and P2X7 receptor, the secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β was markedly reduced. Conclusion In chronic prostatitis pain, the microglial cells and P2X7 receptor are activated resulting in the increased expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in the L5-S2 spinal cord, which might attribute to the maintenance and intensification of pain in chronic prostatitis.
  • Pseudoneoplastic mimics in an inactive bladder associated with ureteral strictures Radiology Page

    Lang, Erich K; Smith, Matthew; Nguyen, Quan
  • Magnetic resonance imaging to detect vesico-symphyseal fistula following robotic prostatectomy Radiology Page

    Hutchinson, Ryan C.; Thiel, David D.; Bestic, Joseph M.

    Abstract in English:

    Pubic complications following radical prostatectomy are rare. Osteitis pubis typically presents with symptoms related to irritation of the pubic rami including pain with ambulation and adduction of the leg. A 60-year-old male with prostatic adenocarcinoma underwent uneventful robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. The patient noted the onset of severe pubic pain exacerbated by ambulation approximately one month post-surgery. An abdominal/pelvic CT scan was negative for acute pathology. Due to continued discomfort, a multiplanar MRI of the pelvis was performed with and without intravenous contrast material (20 ml Omniscan). The MRI demonstrated irregularity of the bladder base and proximal urethra with a fistulous tract extending anteriorly in direct communication with the pubic symphysis joint space. Vague periarticular marrow edema-like signal and enhancement at the pubic symphysis was thought to represent osteitis pubis. The patient's symptoms resolved after one month of urethral catheter drainage, intravenous antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory therapy.
  • Intravesical and transperitoneal laparoscopy in the management of tumor in the residual ureter Video Section

    Branco, Anibal Wood; Stunitz, Luciano; Nichele, Sandro; Douat, Paulo Henrique; Luiz, Murilo; Nassif, Lucas Tha
  • Surgical Management of a Locally Advanced Symptomatic Recurrence of Penile Sarcoma Secondary to Prostate Brachytherapy Video Section

    Hakky, Tariq S.; Espiritu, Patrick; Rodriguez, Alejandro R.; Gould, Nicholas; Spiess, Philippe E.

    Abstract in English:

    Background The surgical management of patients with symptomatic metastatic or locally advanced recurrences involving the penis remains poorly characterized. The aim of the present abstract and video is to detail our experience in the surgical management of a specific patient with a locally advanced symptomatic recurrence of penile sarcoma secondary to prostate cancer treated with primary brachytherapy. Materials and Methods A 70 year old male patient initially treated for localized prostate cancer with interstitial brachytherapy at an outside facility developed an unfortunate secondary malignancy consisting of a locally advanced penile sarcoma involving as well the prostate and base of the bladder. Despite our best efforts to control his pain, he developed a very symptomatic local recurrence with a secondary penile abscess and purulent periurethral drainage. At this time, it was felt a surgical resection consisting of a total penectomy, urethrectomy, cystoprostatectomy, and ileal conduit urinary diversion would be the best option for local cancer control in this particular patient. Results The patient underwent the surgical resection without any complications as illustrated in this surgical video, with a jejunal intestinal mass identified at the time of surgery which was resected with a primary bowel anastomosis performed. The patient was discharged from hospital uneventfully with his symptomatic local recurrence being successfully managed and the patient no longer requiring oral narcotics for pain control. The pathological report confirmed a locally advanced sarcoma involving the penile, prostate, and bladder which was resected with negative surgical margins and the jejunal mass was confirmed to represent a small bowel sarcoma metastatic site. Conclusion As highlighted in the present video, the treatment of a symptomatic sarcoma local recurrence contiguously involving the penis can be successfully managed provided the patient is informed of the potential morbidity and psychosocial implications imparted by performing a total penectomy and adjacent organ resection.
  • Initial Experience of Transurethral Resection with Pediatric Resectoscope for Incomplete Anterior Urethral Stricture Video Section

    Jang, Won Seok; Jeong, Se Heon; Yu, Ho Song; Hwang, In Sang; Hwang, Eu Chang; Kim, Sun-Ouck; Oh, Kyung Jin; Jung, Seung Il; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Park, Kwangsung; Kang, Taek Won

    Abstract in English:

    Purpose Endoscopic urethrotomy is an alternative method in treatment of urethral stricture. However, it have high recurrence rate because of the remained fibrotic tissue. Removal of the fibrotic tissue can maintain the patency of the urethral lumen after the procedure. We report the therapeutic efficacy of our initial experience using pediatric resectoscope for treating anterior urethral stricture in 16 cases. Materials and Methods From January 2009 to April 2011, transurethral resection with pediatric resectoscope was primarily performed on 16 patients with anterior urethral stricture. Retrograde urethrography, uroflowmetry, postvoid residual volume, IPSS score and QoL score were performed preoperatively. We used 11.5Fr pediatric resectoscope (Wolf) and monopolar electrosurgical generator. The stricture was incised under vision at the 12 o'clock location or the site of maximum scar tissue or narrowing in asymmetric strictures for working space. After incision, transurethral resection with pediatric resectoscope was performed to all scar tissues. Monopolar cutting current was set on 45 watt and coagulation current was set on 30 watt, fulgurate mode. Postoperatively, drainage of the bladder was performed for 7 days using an 18F latex catheter. Patients were followed up by IPSS score, QoL score, uroflowmetry and postvoid residual volume. Results Successful results without recurrence were achieved in 11 of 16patients. Postoperative urethral dilation had been performed average 2.4 times (0∼6 times). When we classified the results by etiology, the number of successful results in strictures with a trauma, iatrogenic, or unknown cause was 5 (7/11), 3 (3/4) and 1 (1/1), respectively. In 5 patients who failed treatment, we repeated transurethral resection with pediatric resectoscope in 1 patient, and periodic urethral dilation in 4 patients. No operative complications occurred in any patients. Conclusions Transurethral resection with pediatric resectoscope is an effective therapeutic method for anterior urethral stricture. More long-term follow-up and large scale studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of this procedure.
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