• Penile Cancer: the importance of Prevention Editor's Comment

    Zequi, Stênio de Cássio
  • Radical nephroureterectomy for pathologic T4 upper tract urothelial cancer: can oncologic outcomes be improved with multimodality therapy? Original Article

    Youssef, Ramy F.; Yair, Lotan; Sagalowsky, Arthur I.; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Wood, Christopher G.; Raman, Jay D.; Cord, Langner; Richard, Zigeuner; Marco, Roscigno; Francesco, Montorsi; Christian, Bolenz; Wassim, Kassouf; Vitaly, Margulis

    Abstract in English:

    Purpose To report the outcomes of patients with pathologic T4 UTUC and investigate the potential impact of peri-operative chemotherapy combined with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) and regional lymph node dissection (LND) on oncologic outcomes. Materials and Methods Patients with pathologic T4 UTUC were identified from the cohort of 1464 patients treated with RNU at 13 academic centers between 1987 and 2007. Oncologic outcomes were stratified according to utilization of perioperative systemic chemotherapy and regional LND as an adjunct to RNU. Results The study included 69 patients, 42 males (61%) with median age 73 (range 43-98). Median follow-up was 17 months (range: 6-88). Lymphovascular invasion was found in 47 (68%) and regional lymph node metastases were found in 31 (45%). Peri-operative chemotherapy was utilized in 29 (42%) patients. Patients treated with peri-operative chemotherapy and RNU with LND demonstrated superior oncologic outcomes compared to those not treated by chemotherapy and/or LND during RNU (3Y-DFS: 35% vs. 10%; P = 0.02 and 3Y-CSS: 28% vs. 14%; P = 0.08). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, administration of peri-operative chemotherapy and utilization of LND during RNU was associated with lower probability of recurrence (HR: 0.4, P = 0.01), and cancer specific mortality (HR: 0.5, P = 0.06). Conclusions Pathological T4 UTUC is associated with poor prognosis. Peri-operative chemotherapy combined with aggressive surgery, including lymph node dissection, may improve oncological outcomes. Our findings support the use of aggressive multimodal treatment in patients with advanced UTUC.
  • Comparison of Radical Cystectomy with Conservative Treatment in Geriatric (≥ 80) Patients with Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer Original Article

    Martini, Thomas; Mayr, Roman; Wehrberger, Clemens; Dechet, Christopher; Lodde, Michele; Palermo, Salvatore; Trenti, Emanuela; Comploj, Evi; Pycha, Armin

    Abstract in English:

    Introduction The aim of this study was to compare overall survival in elderly patients (≥ 80 years) with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) undergoing either radical cystectomy (RC) or conservative treatment. Material and Methods We performed a retrospective, comparative analysis of overall- and cancer-specific survival in octagenarians with MIBC (≥ pT2) submitted to RC or conservative treatment. Uni- and multivariable Cox regression analysis were performed to assess predictors of overall survival. Cumulative hospital stay was also analyzed for all patients. Results The RC-group consisted of 33 patients with a mean age of 82.3 years (IQR 80.4-85.4 years) and the bladder preservation a cohort of 35 patients aged 83.8 years (IQR 81.8-88.2 years). No difference was detectable for overall survival (15.9 months versus 9.5 months; p = 0.18) and cancer-specific survival (23.5 months versus 19.5 months p = 0.71) or 90-day mortality (6.1% versus 14.3%; p = 0.43) between the two groups. Patients who received conservative treatment had a shorter cumulative length of hospital stay (p = 0.001). Age at the time of transurethral resection of the bladder (TUR-B) was an independent predictor of the overall survival (p = 0.004). Conclusions In this retrospective study, no clear survival benefit was observed for patients ≥ 80 years submitted either to radical cystectomy or conservative treatment. There was however a trend favoring radical cystectomy but this did not approach statistical significance. Octagenarians that underwent RC however spent more of their remaining lifetime in the hospital than those treated conservatively.
  • Comparison of Urinary and Serum CA 19-9 as Markers of Early Stage Urothelial Carcinoma Original Article

    Roy, Suparna; Dasgupta, Anindya; Kar, Kaushik

    Abstract in English:

    Objectives Although the glycoprotein group tumor marker CA 19-9 has been detected in both serum and urine of bladder cancer patients, information about their comparative role in screening of low grade transitional cell carcinoma (LGTCC) and high grade transitional cell carcinoma (HGTCC) is rare. Materials and Methods In this study we measured both the urinary and serum levels of CA 19-9 in 35 LGTCC and 20 HGTCC patients by ELISA and determined the cut off value of both urinary and serum CA 19-9 levels by receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) for both patient groups. Odds ratio (OR) for CA 19-9 was analyzed with its range at 95% confidence interval to analyze the role of this tumor marker as a screening parameter for both of these cancer types. Results For urinary CA 19-9 the OR was 20.16 with an interval of 4.91-82.71 whereas for the serum CA 19-9 it was 7.5 with an interval of 2.28-24.62. Conclusions From these data we suggest that urinary CA 19-9 is a better screening parameter with optimum sensitivity and specificity than its serum counterpart for diagnosis of low grade and early stages of transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Furthermore, it can be suggested that urinary CA 19-9 can be used as better prognostic marker for LGTCC than its serum counterpart.
  • Comparison of positive surgical margin rates in high risk prostate cancer: open versus minimally invasive radical prostatectomy Original Article

    Harty, Niall J.; Kozinn, Spencer I.; Canes, David; Sorcini, Andrea; Moinzadeh, Alireza

    Abstract in English:

    Objective We compared positive surgical margin (PSM) rates for patients with high risk prostate cancer (HRCaP) who underwent open radical retropubic (RRP), robotic (RALP), and laparoscopic (LRP) prostatectomy at a single institution. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective review of our prospectively maintained IRB approved database identifying prostate cancer patients who underwent RRP, RALP, or LRP between January 2000 and March 2010. Patients were considered to have HRCaP if they had biopsy or final pathologic Gleason score ≥ 8, or preoperative PSA ≥ 20, or pathologic stage ≥ T3a. A positive surgical margin (PSM) was defined by the presence of tumor at the inked surface of the specimen. Patients who received neoadjuvant hormonal therapy and those who underwent a perineal prostatectomy were excluded from the study. Results Of the 445 patients in this study, surgical technique for prostatectomy included RRP (n = 153), RALP (n = 152), and LRP (n = 140). PSM rate for the three groups were not different: 52.9% RRP, 50% RALP, and 41.4% LRP, (p = 0.13). The PSM rate did not differ when comparing RRP to a combined group of RALP and LRP (p = 0.16). Among patients with a PSM, there was no statistical difference between the three groups in terms of the number of patients with a pathologic stage of T3 or higher (p = 0.83). On univariate analysis, a higher preoperative PSA value was associated with a positive margin (p = 0.04). Conclusion In this HRCaP series, the PSM rate did not differ based on the surgical approach. On univariate analysis, patients with a higher preoperative PSA value were more likely to have a PSM.
  • PGC and PSMA in prostate cancer diagnosis: tissue analysis from biopsy samples Original Article

    Antunes, Alberto A.; Reis, Sabrina T.; Leite, Kátia R.; Real, Danilo M.; Sousa-Canavez, Juliana M.; Camara-Lopes, Luiz H.; Dall'oglio, Marcos F.; Srougi, Miguel

    Abstract in English:

    Purpose The discovery of new diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) has become an important field of research. In this study, we analyzed the diagnostic value of the expression of the pepsinogen C (PGC) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) genes in tissue samples obtained from prostate biopsies. Materials and Methods This study was comprised of 51 consecutive patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies between January 2010 and March 2010. The biopsies were performed with 12 cores, and an additional core was randomly retrieved from the peripheral zone from each patient for study purposes. The expression of the PGC and PSMA genes was analyzed from the cDNA from the samples via the qRT-PCR technology. The expression patterns of patients with PCa were compared with those of patients without a PCa diagnosis. Results PSMA was overexpressed in only 43.4% of PCa cases, and PGC was overexpressed in 72.7% of cases. The median expression of PSMA was 1.5 times (0.1 to 43.9) and the median PGC expression was 8.7 times (0.1 to 50.0) the expression observed in prostatic tissue from TRUS-guided biopsies of normal patients. Analysis of patients with high-risk PCa indicated that PGC was overexpressed in 71.4% of cases (with a median expression of 10.6 times), and PSMA was overexpressed in only 35.7% of cases (with a median expression of 4.5 times). Among patients with low-risk PCa, PGC was also overexpressed in 71.4% of cases (with a median expression of 5.9 times), and PSMA was overexpressed in only 42.8% of cases (with a median expression of 2.5 times). Conclusions PGC gene expression is significantly higher in prostatic tissue in men affected by PCa when compared to normal prostates. Further analyses are necessary to confirm our results.
  • The Effect of Combined Therapy with Tamsulosin Hydrochloride and Meloxicam in Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Symptoms and Impact on Nocturia and Sleep Quality Original Article

    Gorgel, Sacit Nuri; Sefik, Ertugrul; Kose, Osman; Olgunelma, Vural; Sahin, Evren

    Abstract in English:

    Purpose We aimed to compare the effect and feasibility of a combined therapy with tamsulosin hydrochloride plus meloxicam, and tamsulosin hydrochloride alone in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia symptoms and impact on nocturia and sleep quality. Materials and Methods Four hundred male patients were included in this study between 2008 and 2011. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: one received tamsulosin hydrochloride 0.4 mg (Group 1, 200 patients) and the other tamsulosin hydrochloride 0.4 mg plus meloxicam 15 mg (Group 2, 200 patients) prospectively. Patients were evaluated for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) symptoms according to the American Urological Association clinical guidelines and sleep quality according to Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Patients were reevaluated after three months of treatment. The International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS-Quality of Life (IPSS-QoL), maximal urinary flow rates (Qmax), average urinary flow rates (AFR), post void residual urine volumes (PVR), nocturia and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Score (PSQS) were recorded at baseline and after three months. Results Mean age was 63.3 ± 6.6 and 61.4 ± 7.5 years in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.245). There were no statistically significant differences between both groups. Also, baseline prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, creatinine, International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS-Quality of Life (IPSS-QoL), maximal urinary flow rates (Qmax), average urinary flow rates (AFR), post void residual urine volumes (PVR), nocturia and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Score (PSQS) were similar in both groups. In addition, the total IPSS, IPSS-QoL, PVR, nocturia, and PSQS were significantly lower in Group 2 compared with Group 1 after treatment (p < 0.05). Qmax and AFR were higher significantly in Group 2 compared with Group 1 after treatment (p < 0.05). Conclusions Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors in combination with an alpha blocker may decrease benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms and increase sleep quality without serious side effects.
  • Idiopathic and neurogenic detrusor overactivity: do the different patterns have urodynamic characteristics related to gender or neurological condition? Original Article

    Valentini, Françoise A.; Marti, Brigitte G.; Robain, Gilberte

    Abstract in English:

    Objectives To evaluate the urodynamic characteristics of the two patterns (phasic, P and terminal, T) of detrusor overactivity (DO) according to gender and neurological condition. Materials and Methods: Urodynamic characteristics of DO were analysed in a population with proven urodynamic DO (127 women and 76 men, respectively with 48 and 43 neurological diseases (encephalic, incomplete medullar lesion or peripheral)). Phasic DO is characterized by phasic waves with or without leakage while terminal DO is defined by a single non-inhibited contraction resulting in incontinence. Parameters analysed for both patterns of DO (among other parameters) included: volume and amplitude of the first non-inhibited detrusor contraction (NIDC#1), and for phasic DO: duration of pressure rise during NIDC#1 and number of NIDC. Results Phasic DO was observed in younger patients in the whole population whatever the gender (women: 55.9 years vs. 64.7 years, p = 0.0052; men: 57.4 years vs. 67.8 years, p = 0.0038). Volume at NIDC#1 was greater for neurological PDO (significant in women: 185 vs. 125 mL, p = 0.0223). Other parameters were not significantly different whatever the gender. Amplitude of NIDC#1 during PDO was significantly lower than that of NIDC during terminal DO (TDO) in both genders whatever the neurological condition (p < 0.0001). Volume at NIDC#1 in both patterns was dependent on the level of neurological lesion. Conclusion The main difference between the patterns of DO is that PDO occurs in younger individuals. There is no significant difference between urodynamic characteristics of each pattern whatever gender or neurological status. Further studies will provide additional information on the impact of the level of neurological lesion on the pattern of DO.
  • Pain related and overall morbidity with TRUS guided prostate biopsy – a prospective study Original Article

    Ubee, Sarvpreet S.; Marri, Rajendra R.; Srirangam, Shalom J.

    Abstract in English:

    Objective To assess analgesia requirement after trans-rectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy(TRUSBx) for appropriate counselling. Materials and Methods Prospectively, successive patients undergoing TRUSBx between July 2009 and November 2011 were given questionnaires prior to procedure. Standard 12-core TRUSBx under peri-prostatic block (10 mL of 1% lidocaine) and antibiotic prophylaxis (oral ciprofloxacin, intravenous gentamicin and metronidazole suppository) were performed. Pain perception was assessed using a Visual Analogue Score (VAS). Results Mean (range) age of the 405 patients was 67.3 years (48-88). Mean VAS during the procedure was 2.93 and 2.20 on reaching home. Mean maximum VAS for the cohort on day 1 and day 2 were 1.27 and 0.7 respectively. 140 (35%) were independent with some or minimal discomfort. 14 patients required assistance for some of their basic daily needs. 9 patients (2.2%) were hospitalised due to sepsis. 131 patients (32.4%) required additional oral analgesia following TRUSBx on days 0, 1 and 2. These patients were generally younger with a mean age for this group of 63.6 years (46-88). The difference in the mean age between those self-medicating and not was not statistically significant (p > 0.005). This group had mean VAS during the procedure of 4 and when patients reached home was 3.5. Mean maximum VAS on day 1 and 2 was 2.1 and 1.3 respectively. 11 patients required assistance from another adult. Conclusion A third of patients required self-medicated analgesia post-procedure. Age alone cannot be used as a criterion to identify patients who will subsequently require analgesia post-procedure, but a higher VAS during the procedure may be indicative. These patients must be counselled appropriately.
  • The prostate after administration of anabolic androgenic steroids: a morphometrical study in rats Original Article

    Vargas, Rafael Arêas; Oliveira, Leonardo Pires; Frankenfeld, Stephan; Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; Costa, Waldemar Silva; Favorito, Luciano Alves; Sampaio, Francisco José Barcellos

    Abstract in English:

    Purpose Many adverse effects have been associated with abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), including disorders of the urogenital tract. The objective of this study is to analyze the morphological modifications in the prostate ventral lobe of pubertal and adult rats chronically treated with AAS, using morphometric methods. Materials and Methods: We studied 39 male Wistar rats weighing between 400 g and 550 g. The rats were divided into four groups: (a) control rats, with 105 days of age (C105) (n = 7); (b) control rats with 65 days of age (C65) (n = 9), injected only with the vehicle (peanut oil); (c) treated rats, with 105 days of age (T105) (n = 10) and (d) treated rats with 65 days of age (T65) (n = 13). The treated rats were injected with nandrolone decanoate at a dose of 10 mg.Kg-1 body weight. The steroid hormone and the vehicle were administered by intramuscular injection once a week for eight weeks. The rats were killed at 161 days of age (C105 and T105) and 121 days of age (C65 and T65) and the ventral prostate lobe was dissected and processed for histology. The height of the acinar epithelium, the surface densities of the lumen, epithelium and stroma were observed with X400 magnification using an Olympus light microscope coupled to a Sony CCD video camera, and the images transferred to a Sony monitor KX14-CP1. The selected histological areas were then quantified using the M42 test-grid system on the digitized fields. The data were analyzed with the Graphpad software. To compare the quantitative data in both groups (controls and treated) and the outcomes, Student's t-test was used (p < 0.05 was considered significant). Results: The weight (p < 0.001) and volume (p = 0.004) of the prostate ventral lobe showed differences between C65 and T65 groups and between C105 and T105 groups. The epithelium height showed no difference between groups C65 and T65 (p = 0.8509), but the T105 group showed an increase of 32% compared to C105 (p = 0.0089). Concerning the lumen, surface density presented no difference between C65 and T65 (p = 0.9031) and a decrease of 19% for T105 compared to C105 (p = 0.0061). There was no difference in epithelium surface density between C65 and T65 (p = 0.7375), but it was 51% higher (p = 0.0065) in T105 compared with C105. Regarding stroma surface density, there were no differences between C65 and T65 or between C105 and T105. Finally, there was no difference in collagen pattern between C105 and T105, but T65 showed a predominance of collagen fibers compared to C65. Conclusion: The use of anabolic androgenic steroids in rats promotes structural changes in the prostate. We observed structural changes in the weight, volume and epithelium height of the prostate ventral lobe and a predominance of collagen fibers.
  • Cultural Adaptation of the National Institutes of Health – Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) - to Brazilian Spoken Portuguese: NIH-CPSI (Braz) Original Article

    Novotny, Cristiano; Deves, Eduardo; Novotny, Rodrigo; Rodrigues, Igor Kunze; Neves, Fabrício Souza

    Abstract in English:

    Objectives To create a Brazilian version of the National Institutes of Health – Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) using a cross-cultural adaptation process. Materials and Methods The nine items of the NIH-CPSI were translated to Portuguese, by two independent translators, of native Portuguese language origin, and it was obtained a single version, that was retranslated to English by two English native spoken translators, in order to correct any discrepancies. Those versions were compared to the original text, the modifications were applied and it was created a final version in Portuguese. That was pre-tested and applied to 30 patients with pain or perineal or ejaculatory disorder. To each item of the pre-final version it was assigned a score according to the grade of understanding and clarity in order to implement the adequate corrections. The final version in Portuguese was submitted to evaluations including face validation and psychometric proprieties of reproducibility and internal consistency, respectively evaluated by the (p) Pearson correlation coefficient and α Cronbach coefficient. Results All items applied to 30 patients during pre-test phase had a grade higher than 8 of understanding and clarity, and were considered clearly understandable by the patients. However, at face validation evaluation, there was an inconsistency of item three that was redone. The final produced version, called NIH-CPSI (Braz) showed good reproducibility (p = 0.89-0.99) and internal consistency (α Cronbach coefficient = 0.85-0.93). Conclusions NIH-CPSI was adapted to Brazilian spoken Portuguese and its original proprieties were maintained, being a valid instrument for evaluations of symptoms of chronic prostatitis in Brazilian patients.
  • Outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Comparison of elderly and younger patients Original Article

    Nakamon, T.; Kitirattrakarn, P.; Lojanapiwat, B.

    Abstract in English:

    Background and purpose Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in elderly patients is challenging due to the high prevalence of comorbidity and single kidney. We compared the results and complications of patients who were submitted to PCNL according to age (higher than and lower than 65 years old). Materials and Methods A total of 61 patients aged more than 65 years old (group I) and 385 patients aged 65 years old or less (group II) were treated with PCNL. PCNL was performed by a standard technique under fluoroscopic guidance. The operative time, length of hospital stay, success rate, auxiliary treatment and complications of both groups were compared. Results Patients older than 65 years old (group I) had more comorbidities mainly diabetes mellitus, hypertension and higher level of ASA classification (P < 0.001). The success rate was 85.24% and 86.24% of groups I and II, respectively. Four patients (6.56%) of group I and 55 patients (14.29%) of group II needed auxiliary treatment (P = 0.098). Among the complications, only sepsis was significantly higher in group I (6.56% of group I and 1.3% of group II, P = 0.007). The operative time, success rate, hospital stay and complications except sepsis episode did not significantly differ between the two groups. Conclusion Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is effective and safe in elderly patients even though with more comorbidities. Sepsis is the only more frequent common complication following PCNL in elderly.
  • Outcomes of intracorporeal lithotripsy of upper tract stones is not affected by BMI and skin-to-stone distance (SSD) in obese and morbid patients Original Article

    Pompeo, Alexandre; Molina, Wilson R.; Juliano, Cesar; Sehrt, David; Kim, Fernando J.

    Abstract in English:

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine if body mass index (BMI) and stone skin distance (SSD) affect stone free rate (SFR) in obese and morbid obese patients who underwent flexible URS for proximal ureteral or renal stones < 20 mm. Materials and Methods A retrospective chart review was performed of consecutive patients that underwent flexible URS. Inclusion criteria were: proximal ureteral stones and renal stones less than 20 mm in the preoperative computed tomography (CT). SFR were then compared according to SSD and BMI. Results A total of 153 patients were eligible for this analysis, 49 (32.02%) with SSD < 10 cm and 104 (67.97%) with SSD ≥ 10 cm. The mean stone size was 10.5 ± 6.4 mm. The overall SFR in our study was 82.4%. The SFR for the SSD < 10 and ≥ 10 were 79.6% and 83.7% respectively (p = 0.698) and for BMI < 30, ≥ 30 and < 40 and ≥ 40 were 82.9%, 81.7% and 90.9% respectively. Regression analysis showed no affect between BMI or SSD regarding SFR. Conclusion Ureteroscopy should be considered as a first-line of treatment for renal/proximal stones in obese and morbid obese patients. URS may be preferable to SWL in obese patients independently of the SSD, BMI or the location of proximal stones.
  • Establishing the minimal number of virtual reality simulator training sessions necessary to develop basic laparoscopic skills competence: evaluation of the learning curve Original Article

    Duarte, Ricardo Jordão; Cury, José; Oliveira, Luis Carlos Neves; Srougi, Miguel

    Abstract in English:

    Introduction Medical literature is scarce on information to define a basic skills training program for laparoscopic surgery (peg and transferring, cutting, clipping). The aim of this study was to determine the minimal number of simulator sessions of basic laparoscopic tasks necessary to elaborate an optimal virtual reality training curriculum. Materials and Methods Eleven medical students with no previous laparoscopic experience were spontaneously enrolled. They were submitted to simulator training sessions starting at level 1 (Immersion Lap VR, San Jose, CA), including sequentially camera handling, peg and transfer, clipping and cutting. Each student trained twice a week until 10 sessions were completed. The score indexes were registered and analyzed. The total of errors of the evaluation sequences (camera, peg and transfer, clipping and cutting) were computed and thereafter, they were correlated to the total of items evaluated in each step, resulting in a success percent ratio for each student for each set of each completed session. Thereafter, we computed the cumulative success rate in 10 sessions, obtaining an analysis of the learning process. By non-linear regression the learning curve was analyzed. Results By the non-linear regression method the learning curve was analyzed and a r2 = 0.73 (p < 0.001) was obtained, being necessary 4.26 (∼five sessions) to reach the plateau of 80% of the estimated acquired knowledge, being that 100% of the students have reached this level of skills. From the fifth session till the 10th, the gain of knowledge was not significant, although some students reached 96% of the expected improvement. Conclusions This study revealed that after five simulator training sequential sessions the students' learning curve reaches a plateau. The forward sessions in the same difficult level do not promote any improvement in laparoscopic basic surgical skills, and the students should be introduced to a more difficult training tasks level.
  • Sperm analysis of the vas deferens fluid after a long interval of unilateral percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration in vasectomized patients Original Article

    Lorenzini, Fernando; Zanchet, Eduardo; Lorenzini, Mariana

    Abstract in English:

    Objectives Evaluation of the presence of spermatozoa in vas deferens fluid after a long interval of unilateral and homolateral percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) in vasectomized men. When found, the spermatozoa were evaluated including concentration and motility, in order to verify the patency of the epididymal tubules. Materials and Methods Four patients, numbered in a progressive order, from one to four, with 38, 40, 48 and 51 years old and vasectomy interval of 10, 10, 25 and 11 years, respectively, whose wives did not get pregnant using intracytoplasmic sperm injection of sperm obtained by unilateral PESA and decided to try only natural conception, were submitted to intrasurgical sperm analysis of the vas deferens fluid (ISAVDF) during microsurgery for reconstruction of the seminal tract. Results Time interval between PESA and ISAVDF was 13.75 ± 11.12 months (x ± s) varying from 3 to 29 months. Homolateral ISAVDF and PESA showed the presence of spermatozoa. Patients 1, 2 and 4 had a high concentration of 10 x 106, 64 x 106 and 45 x 106 spermatozoa/ mL; the first two had motile sperms and patient 3 had no sperms. Conclusions Three of four patients showed spermatozoa in the vas deferens fluid after a long interval of unilateral and homolateral PESA with high concentration, including motile forms. These findings support the concept that PESA may not result in late epipidymal tubule obstruction in vasectomized patients.
  • Decline of seminal parameters in middle-aged males is associated with lower urinary tract symptoms, prostate enlargement and bladder outlet obstruction Original Article

    Ausmees, Kristo; Korrovits, Paul; Timberg, Gennadi; Punab, Margus; Mändar, Reet

    Abstract in English:

    Purpose We aimed to compare the associations between semen quality, associated reproductive indicators and the main prostate-related parameters in middle-aged men. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study on 422 middle-aged men who underwent the screening for prostate health. Their reproductive function, semen quality and prostate-related pathologies were investigated. Results Significant associations between semen quality and prostate-related parameters could be seen. Total sperm count and sperm density decreased along with the increase of the I-PSS score and total prostate volume. Also, the related lower urinary tract characteristics showed a negative correlation with main semen parameters for all investigated subjects. No significant differences in age, testicular size, and hormonal parameters were found between the subjects with or without lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate enlargement. Conclusions Our study suggests that altered seminal parameters in middle-aged men are associated with LUTS, prostate enlargement and/or bladder outlet obstruction. Although the assessments of prostate and lower urinary tract symptoms may not replace the semen parameters evaluating the male reproductive status, there is a need for further and more detailed investigations about the pathways behind these associations as well as possible related conditions.
  • Giant multicystic cystadenoma of Cowper's gland: a case report Challenging Clinical Cases

    Villeda-Sandoval, Christian I.; Romero-Vélez, Gustavo; Lisker-Cervantes, Andrés; Zavaleta, Mariano Sotomayor de; Trolle-Silva, Alicia; Oca, Daniel Montante Montes de; Castillejos-Molina, Ricardo

    Abstract in English:

    Main findings We report what to our knowledge is the first case of a giant multicystic cystadenoma of the Cowper's glands. An otherwise healthy 41-year-old man presented with acute urinary retention. Physical examination showed a perineal mass. Different imaging techniques demonstrated a multicystic tumor and en bloc excision was performed. Histological evaluation showed that the tumor arised from the bulbourethral glands; immunohistochemistry proved positive staining for high molecular weight cytokeratin. Case hypothesis Cystic tumors in the pelvis can arise from different structures. Malignancy should be ruled out. Surgical excision can be diagnostic and curative. Future implications When evaluating a pelvic cystic tumor, Cowper's glands cystadenoma may be a differential diagnosis and must be considered. Similar to prostate cystadenomas, en bloc excision is the optimal treatment.
  • Lower gastrointestinal bleeding as a result of fistula between the iliac artery and sigmoid colon in patient with advanced testicular cancer Challenging Clinical Cases

    Santos, Vanessa Prado dos; Razuk, Álvaro; Castelli, Valter; Caffaro, Roberto Augusto

    Abstract in English:

    Fistula between arteries and the gastrointestinal tract are a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding, but potentially fatal. The recognition and early treatment can modify the patient prognosis. We report a case of a patient with previous surgery for seminoma of cryptorchidic testicle, with massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding. We performed the diagnosis and surgical treatment of the fistula between left external iliac artery and sigmoid colon. The patient was successfully treated by external iliac artery ligation and left colectomy.
  • Laparoscopic conservative treatment of colo-vesical fistula: a new surgical approach Video Section

    Giovanni, Cochetti; Emanuele, Cottini; Francesco, Barillaro; Emanuele, Lepri; Andrea, Boni; Solajd, Pohja; Ettore, Mearini

    Abstract in English:

    Introduction The standard treatment of colo-vesical fistula is the exeresis of fistula, suture of bladder wall, colic resection with or without temporary colostomy. Usually the approach is open because conversion rates and morbidity are lower than laparoscopy. The aim of video is to show the steps of a new mini-invasive approach of colo-vesical fistula without colic resection. Materials and Methods A 69 years old male underwent laparoscopic conservative treatment of colo-vesical fistula due to endoscopic polipectomy in sigmoid diverticulum. 12 mm trocar for the camera was placed at the umbilicus, two 10 mm trocars were placed along bisiliac line and 5 mm port was placed along left emiclavear line; Trendelenburg position was 20°. The fistulous loop was carefully isolated, clipped with Hem-o-lock® clips and removed. Since diverticular disease appeared slight and no inflammation signs were evident, colon resection was not performed. We sutured and sinked the sigmoid wall; after curettage of the fistula site, the bladder wall was sutured. Fat tissue was placed between sigmoid and bladder wall to reduce the risk of fistula recurrence. Results Operative time, estimated blood loss, catheterization time, time to flatus and hospital stay were respectively 210 minutes, 300 mL, 10 days, 48 h and 8 days. The histological examination showed colonic inflammatory and necrotic tissue. No complications or fistula recurrence occurred at 54 months follow-up. Conclusions The laparoscopic conservative treatment of colo-vesical fistula is a safe and feasible technique, in particular when the diverticular disease is limited and the fistula is not due to diverticulitis.
  • Impacted Anterior Urethral Calculus Complicated by a Stone-containing Diverticulum in an Elderly Man: Outcome of Transurethral Lithotripsy without Resection of the Diverticulum Video Section

    Zhou, Tie; Chen, Guanghua; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Yonghan; Xiao, Liang; Xu, Chuangliang; Sun, Yinghao

    Abstract in English:

    Introduction The prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is about 20% in men aged 40 or above. Other than benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), urethral diverticulum or calculus is not uncommon for LUTS in men. Surgical treatment is often recommended for urethral diverticulum or calculus, but treatment for an impacted urethral calculus complicated by a stone-containing diverticulum is challenging. Materials and Methods An 82-year-old man had the persistence of LUTS despite having undergone transurethral resection of prostate for BPH. Regardless of treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics and an α-blocker, LUTS and post-void residual urine volume (100 mL) did not improve although repeated urinalysis showed reduction of WBCs from 100 to 10 per high power field. Further radiology revealed multiple urethral calculi and the stone configuration suggested the existence of a diverticulum. He was successfully treated without resecting the urethral diverticulum; and a new generation of ultrasound lithotripsy (EMS, Nyon, Switzerland) through a 22F offset rigid Storz nephroscope (Karl Storz, Tuttingen, Germany) was used to fragment the stones. Results The operative time was 30 minutes and the stones were cleanly removed. The patient was discharged after 48 hours with no immediate complications and free of LUTS during a 2 years follow-up. Conclusions When the diverticulum is the result of a dilatation behind a calculus, removal of the calculus is all that is necessary. Compared with open surgery, ultrasound lithotripsy is less invasive with little harm to urethral mucosa; and more efficient as it absorbs stone fragments while crushing stones.
  • Withdraw of the Ureteroscope Causes Fragmented Ureter Stones to Disperse Video Section

    Canguven, Onder; Boz, Mustafa; Bulbul, Mustafa; Selimoglu, Ahmet; Albayrak, Selami

    Abstract in English:

    Introduction Ureteroscopy has improved from the first use of ureteroscope in the 1970's. Although the success rate increased in the last years, (1) new treatment techniques are being developed for impacted and large proximal ureter stones (2). Pneumatic lithotripsy has high efficiency with low complication rates (2). However, in case of steinstrasse and large (> 1 cm) ureter stones, fragmented small stones may obstruct insertion of a ureteroscope after initial lithotripsy. In order to triumph over this issue, multiple ureteroscopic passages and manipulations needed for extraction of these small stones by forceps or basket catheters. The overall incidence of stricture was found upto 14.2% when the fragments were removed with a grasping forceps or a basket (3). We present our technique to disperse small fragmented stones in order to contact non-fragmented rest stone. Materials and Methods Ureteral lithotripsy was performed with an 8-9.8F semirigid ureteroscope using a pneumatic lithotripter (Swiss LithoClast, EMS, Nyon, Switzerland). The stone was fragmented into small pieces as small as 2-3 mm. by pneumatic lithotripter. Eventually, these fragmented stones interfered with vision and the lithotripter to get in touch with the rest stone. After fragmenting distal part of the large stone, the ureteroscope was pulled back out of ureter. While pulling back, the operating channel was closed and irrigation fluid was flowing in order not to decrease pressure behind the stones. Simultaneously, a person tilted the operating table to about 30° in reverse Trendelenburg position. When the ureteroscope was out of ureteral orifice, the operating channel was opened and irrigation fluid was stopped. This maneuver aided decreasing pressure in the bladder more rapidly in addition to feeding tube. Stone dust and antegrade fluid flow were easily seen out of the ureteral orifice. Ureteroscope was re-inserted after 30-60 seconds. While reaching the rest of the stone, small stone dust was seen at first. Bigger stones were approximately 3-5 cm distal to the original place of the stone. When the non-fragmented rest stone appeared, there were no blocking fragmented stones. Insertion of the ureteroscope was easy and we could go on with the lithotripsy procedure. Conclusions In comparison to standard position, tilting and rapid decrease in pressure by pulling back the ureteroscope made gravity and negative pressure more effective.
  • Re: Noninvasive Methods to Evaluate Bladder Obstruction in Men Letter To The Editor

    Elterman, Dean S.; Chughtai, Bilal; Lee, Richard; Te, Alexis E.; Kaplan, Steven A.
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