Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The worldwide incidence of kidney cancer is estimated at 337,860 new cases per year in the International Agency for Research on Cancer's GLOBOCAN 2012 update, with an estimated 143,369 deaths annually. Over the past 10 years, there have been significant advances in the treatment of advanced/metastatic renal cell carcinoma, including the development of targeted therapies. Currently recommended first-line treatments include sunitinib, temsirolimus, bevacizumab plus interferon, and pazopanib, or high-dose interleukin-2 or sorafenib for selected patients. Recommended second-line treatments include all of the above agents, as well as everolimus and axitinib. Unfortunately, combination therapies have generally resulted in increased toxicity and little improvement in efficacy. Recent studies focused on identification of predictive biomarkers for responses to specific targeted therapies and have not been successful to date. Despite recent advances in targeted treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, important questions regarding biomarkers of efficacy, and optimal combination and sequencing of agents remain to be answered. This paper reviews literature concerned with first-and second-line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and will discuss key issues in Latin America.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: Detection rate for anterior prostate cancer (PCa) in men who underwent initial and repeat biopsy has been prospectively evaluated. Materials and Methods: From January 2013 to March 2014, 400 patients all of Caucasian origin (median age 63.5 years) underwent initial (285 cases) and repeat (115 cases) prostate biopsy; all the men had negative digital rectal examination and the indications to biopsy were: PSA values > 10 ng/mL, PSA between 4.1-10 or 2.6-4 ng/mL with free/total PSA≤25% and ≤20%, respectively. A median of 22 (initial biopsy) and 31 cores (repeat biopsy) were transperineally performed including 4 cores of the anterior zone (AZ) and 4 cores of the AZ plus 2 cores of the transition zone (TZ), respectively. Results: Median PSA was 7.9 ng/mL; overall, a PCa was found in 180 (45%) patients: in 135 (47.4%) and 45 (36%) of the men who underwent initial and repeat biopsy, respectively. An exclusive PCa of the anterior zone was found in the 8.9 (initial biopsy) vs 13.3% (repeat biopsy) of the men: a single microfocus of cancer was found in the 61.2% of the cases; moreover, in 7 out 18 AZ PCa the biopsy histology was predictive of significant cancer in 2 (28.5%) and 5 (71.5%) men who underwent initial and repeat biopsy, respectively. Conclusions: However AZ biopsies increased detection rate for PCa (10% of the cases), the majority of AZ PCa with histological findings predictive of clinically significant cancer were found at repeat biopsy (about 70% of the cases).
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction and Objectives: Reactive Stroma (RStr) is observed in many human cancers and is related to carcinogenesis. The objectives of the present study were to stablish a relationship of the RStr microenvironment with prostate cancer (Pca) through a morphological and molecular characterization, and to identify a possible relationship between RStr with worse prognosis factors and occurrence of malignant prostatic stem cells. Materials and Methods: Forty prostatic samples were selected from men with Pca diagnosis submitted to radical prostatectomy; they were divided in two groups: Group-1 (n=20): samples without reactive stroma; Group-2 (n=20): samples of PCa with intense stroma reaction. Prostatic samples were evaluated for RStr intensity by Masson Trichromic stain and posteriorly submitted to histopathological and immunohistochemistry analysis for antigens: α-actin, vimentin, IGF-1, MMP-2, FGF-2, C-Myc, PSCA, AR, Erα and ERβ. Results: Reactive stroma with intense desmoplastic reactivity was significantly more frequent in intermediate (Gleason 7, 3+4) and high grade tumors (Gleason 7, 4+3). The group with intense stromal reactivity showed significant higher levels of Vimentin, IGF-1, MMP-2, FGF-2, C-Myc, PSCA and ERα. Conclusions: It can be concluded that RStr may be a predictive marker of Pca progression, since it was associated with increase of growth factors, imbalance of androgen and estrogen receptors and presence of malign prostatic stem cells.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: Studies about the anesthesia techniques during transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx) are usually focused on pain relief. Although patients' tolerance is an important issue in TRUS-Bx, cancer detection rate (CDR) must not be ignored. In this study, we compared the impact of intrarectal lidocaine gel anesthesia (IRLA) and periprostatic nerve blockade (PNB) techniques on CDR. Materials and Methods: A total of 422 patients underwent 10 core-TRUS-Bx because of elevated serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level (>2.5ng/mL) and/or suspicious digital rectal examination findings. Patients were divided into two groups according to the applied anesthesia technique: IRLA group and PNB group. Age, serum PSA level, prostate volume, visual analogue scale (VAS) score and CDR were recorded and compared statistically with chi square and unpaired t-tests. Results: Of the patients 126/422 (29.9%) underwent TRUS-Bx by using IRLA whereas 296/422 (70.1 %) by PNB technique. The mean, age, serum PSA level and prostate volume were similar between the two groups. CDR was 19.8% and 25.4% in IRLA and PNB groups, respectively (p=0.001). The mean VAS score of the PNB group (1.84±0.89) was significantly lower than that for IRLA group (3.62±1.06) (p=0.001). Conclusions: Our results revealed that PNB is superior to IRLA in terms of CDR. Further studies are required to confirm our findings.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate PSA-age volume (AV) scores in predicting positive prostate biopsy findings in Turkey. Materials and Methods: PSA-AV was calculated by multiplying the patient's age by the prostate volume and dividing it by the PSA level. Sensitivities and specificities of the PSA-AV were assessed by retrospective analysis of findings from 4,717 prostate biopsies. Results: The population's average age was 63.71±7.63 years, the mean PSA level was 9.73±17.01ng/mL, the mean prostate volume was 44.46±23.88 cm3. Of the 4,717 prostate biopsies, 1,171 biopsy specimens (24.8%) were positive for prostate cancer. A PSA-AV score of 700 had a sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 15%, respectively. These values were similar to the sensitivity and specificity for a PSA cut-off of 4ng/mL (94% and 13%, respectively). Although the sensitivity of a PSA-AV cut-off of 700 in patients over 60 years was similar to the PSA cut-off of 4ng/mL and the age-adjusted PSA, in patients <60 years, its sensitivity was higher. While the sensitivities of a PSA-AV cut-off of 700 in patients with low prostate volume was higher than a PSA cut-off of 4ng/ mL, the sensitivities of both methods with moderate prostate volumes were similar. Conclusions: Considering all the biopsies, the sensitivity and specificity of a PSA-AV of 700 for predicting positive biopsy findings were similar to a PSA of 4ng/mL. We suggest the PSA-AV cut-off of 700 should only be used in patients younger than 60 with low prostate volumes (<20cm3).
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We had investigated whether sequence variants within DKK3 gene are associated with the development of prostate cancer in a Korean study cohort. We evaluated the association between 53 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the DKK3 gene and prostate cancer risk as well as clinical characteristics (PSA, clinical stage, pathological stage and Gleason score) in Korean men (272 prostate cancer subjects and 173 benign prostate hyperplasia subjects) using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Of the 53 SNPs and 25 common haplotypes, 5 SNPs and 4 haplotypes were associated with prostate cancer risk (P=0.02–0.04); 3 SNPs and 2 haplotypes were significantly associated with susceptibility to prostate cancer, however 2 SNPs and 2 haplotypes exhibited a significant protective effect on prostate cancer. Logistic analyses of the DKK3 gene polymorphisms with several prostate cancer related factors showed that several SNPs were significant; three SNPs and two haplotypes to PSA level, three SNPs and two haplotypes to clinical stage, nine SNPs and two haplotype to pathological stage, one SNP and one haplotypes to Gleason score. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report documenting that DKK3 polymorphisms are not only associated with prostate cancer but also related to prostate cancer-related factors.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT NKX3.1 and PTEN genes are involved in the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). Here, in line with other studies that correlated the expression of these two genes, we aimed at evaluating the expression pattern of these genes in clinical PCa samples. Collectively, 81 tissue samples including 45 human PCa and 36 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) specimens were included in the study. The tissue samples were subjected to RNA extraction and subsequently to cDNA synthesis according to the kit manufacturer's protocol. Quantitative Real-Time PCR assay was performed for each sample in triplicate reactions. REST and SPSS software were used to statistically analyze PTEN and NKX3.1 gene expression data. Expression level of both NKX3.1 and PTEN genes was down-regulated in PCa samples compared to BPH samples. The relative expression ratio of PTEN and NKX3.1 was decreased to 0.155 and 0.003, respectively (P=0.000). The results of Chi-Square analysis revealed a significant correlation between the expression of these genes in both BPH and cancer groups (P=0.004 and 0.001, respectively). According to previous studies and our data, we concluded that the association between the down-regulation of PTEN and NKX3.1 genes contributed to the prostate tumorigenesis. This might highlight the interaction between the proteins encoded by these genes. Furthermore, this finding might be exploited for the development of innovative diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in PCa.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the duration of prophylactic antibiotic administration in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy. Material and Methods: A total of 367 patients undergoing a prostate biopsy between September 2007 and June 2009 was reviewed retrospectively and divided into 2 groups according to prophilaxy: oral ciprofloxacin (750 mg every 12 hours) for 3 or more days in Group-1 and single day in Group-2. Demographic characteristics of patients, symptoms, PSA values, IPSS scores, prostate sizes, pathologic results and complications were compared between the groups. Results: The mean age of all patients was 63.92 years and the mean PSA was 13.61ng/ dL. The pre-biopsy mean IPSS score was 12.47 and mean prostate volume 52.53 mL. For 78.2% of patients the current biopsy was their first biopsy. Cancer detection rate was 24.2%. Fever was observed in 3 (1.2%) patients in Group-1 and 5 (4.0%) patients in Group-2. Local infections occurred in 2 (0.8%) and 1 (0.8%) patients respectively in Groups 1 and 2. Acute prostatitis was observed in only 1 (0.8%) patient in Group-2. Accepted after revision: None of the patients developed septicemia or other serious infection. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of fever, local infections (epididimitis, orchitis, etc.) and acute prostatitis. Conclusions: In a selected patient population single dose prophylaxis with ciprofloxacin can be safely administered compared to other regimens of 3 or more days. Increasing the duration of antibiotic prophylaxis does not decrease infectious complications.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine if patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with levels III and IV tumor thrombi are receive any reduction in complication rate utilizing veno-venous bypass (VVB) over cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for high level (III/IV) inferior vena cava (IVC) tumor thrombectomy and concomitant radical nephrectomy. Materials and Methods: From May 1990 to August 2011, we reviewed 21 patients that had been treated for RCC with radical nephrectomy and concomitant IVC thrombectomy employing either CPB (n =16) or VVB (n=5). We retrospectively reviewed our study population for complication rates and perioperative characteristics. Results: Our results are reported using the validated Dindo-Clavien Classification system comparing the VVB and CPB cohorts. No significant difference was noted in minor complication rate (60.0% versus 68.7%, P=1.0), major complication rate (40.0% versus 31.3%, P=1.0), or overall complication rate (60.0% versus 62.5%, P=1.0) comparing VVB versus CPB. We also demonstrated a trend towards decreased time on bypass (P=0.09) in the VVB cohort. Conclusion: The use of VVB over CPB provides no decrease in minor, major, or overall complication rate. The use of VVB however, can be employed on an individualized basis with final decision on vascular bypass selection left to the discretion of the surgeon based on specifics of the individual case.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate renal function and to identify factors associated with renal function deterioration after retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for kidney stones. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients with renal stones treated by RIRS between January 2010 and June 2013 at a single institute. We used the National Kidney Foundation classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) to classify Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) in 5 groups. The baseline creatinine level was systematically pre-operatively and post-operatively evaluated. All patients had a creatinine blood measurement in June 2013. A change toward a less or a more favorable GFR group following RIRS was considered significant. Results: We included 163 patients. There were 86 males (52.8%) and 77 females (47.3%) with a mean age of 52.8±17 years. After a mean follow-up of 15.5±11.5 months, median GFR was not significantly changed from 84.3±26.2 to 84.9±24.5 mL/min (p=0.675). Significant renal function deterioration occurred in 8 cases (4.9%) and significant renal function amelioration occurred in 23 cases (14.1%). In univariate analysis, multiple procedures (p=0.023; HR: 5.4) and preoperative CKD (p=0.011; HR: 6.8) were associated with decreased renal function. In multivariate analysis these factors did not remain as predictive factors. Conclusion: Stone management with RIRS seems to have favorable outcomes on kidney function; however, special attention should be given to patients with multiple procedures and preoperative chronic kidney disease.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the subjective and objective outcomes of mini-incision dismembered Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty in the treatment of primary ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). Materials and Methods: Between January 2008 to January 2013, Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty was performed in 71 patients diagnosed with primary UPJO. Small subcostal muscle splitting incision was used in all cases. Sixteen patients with renal calculi underwent concomitant pyelolithotomy. Subjective outcome was assessed using visual pain analogue score (VAS). For objective assessment, the improvement in differential renal function (DRF) and radio-tracer wash out time (T1/2) on Tc-99m DTPA scan and decrease in hydronephrosis (HDN) on renal ultrasound (USG) and urography (IVU) were assessed. Results: Mean incision length was 5.2 cm. The average operating time and postoperative hospital stay was 63 (52-124) minutes and 2.5 (2–6) days respectively. Concomitant renal calculi were successfully removed in all the patients. Overall complication rates were 8.4% and overall success rate was 98.6% at median follow-up of 16 months. There was significant improvement in pain score (p=0.0001) and significant decrease in HDN after the procedure. While preoperative mean T1/2 was 26.7±6.4 minutes, postoperative half-time decreased to 7.8±4.2 minutes at 6 months and to 6.7±3.3 minutes at 1 year. Mean pre-operative DRF was 26.45% and it was 31.38% and 33.19% at 6 months and 1 year respectively. Conclusions: Mini-incision pyeloplasty is a safe and effective technique with combined advantage of high success rates of standard open pyeloplasty with decreased morbidity of laparoscopic approach. Excellent functional and objective outcomes can be achieved without extra technical difficulty.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: For most cases, urolithiasis is a condition where excessive oxalate is present in the urine. Many reports have documented free radical generation followed by hyperoxaluria as a consequence of which calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposition occurs in the kidney tissue. The present study is aimed to exam the antilithiatic potency of the aqueous extract (AE) of Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna). Materials and Methods: The antilithiatic activity of Terminalia arjuna was investigated in vitro nucleation, aggregation and growth of the CaOx crystals as well as the morphology of CaOx crystals using the inbuilt software ‘Image-Pro Plus 7.0’ of Olympus upright microscope (BX53). Antioxidant activity of AE of Terminalia arjuna bark was also determined in vitro. Results: Terminalia arjuna extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and aggregation of CaOx crystals. The AE of Terminalia arjuna bark also inhibited the growth of CaOx crystals. At the same time, the AE also modified the morphology of CaOx crystals from hexagonal to spherical shape with increasing concentrations of AE and reduced the dimensions such as area, perimeter, length and width of CaOx crystals in a dose dependent manner. Also, the Terminalia arjuna AE scavenged the DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals with an IC50 at 13.1µg/mL. Conclusions: The study suggests that Terminalia arjuna bark has the potential to scavenge DPPH radicals and inhibit CaOx crystallization in vitro. In the light of these studies, Terminalia arjuna can be regarded as a promising candidate from natural plant sources of antilithiatic and antioxidant activity with high value.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: To study the efficacy of peritubal infiltration in postoperative pain following percutaneous nephrolithotomy in general PCNL patients and PCNL patients with supracostal renal access. Patients and Methods: A total of 105 PCNL patients were randomized into two groups, 53 patients receiving peritubal analgesic infiltration (study group) and 52 patients as the control group. Of these patients, supracostal access was performed in 22 patients of study group and 23 patients of control group. The study group received peritubal injection with 10mL of bupivacain. Postoperative pain as the primary outcome was assessed by using visual analogue scale at 1, 4, 12, 24 and 48 hours postoperatively. The secondary outcomes were the total postoperative morphine usage in 24 hours and time of the first analgesic demand. Results: The average VAS pain at 1 and 4 hours after the operation in the study group were significant lower in the control group (P≤0.001 and 0.026). Doses of morphine usage for controlling postoperative pain and the first analgesic demand were significantly lower and longer in study group. Among patients submitted to supracostal access, the average VAS pain at 1 hour after operation in the study group was lower (P=0.018). Doses of morphine usage for controlling postoperative pain also was lower in the study group (P=0.012). Conclusion: The peritubal local anesthetic infiltration is effective in alleviating immediate postoperative pain after percutaneous nephrolithotomy even with supracostal access.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the efficiency of a novel device coupled with ultrassound for renal percutaneous puncture. Materials and Methods: After establishing hydronephrosis, ten pigs had three calyxes of each kidney punctured by the same urology resident, with and without the new device ("Punctiometer"). Time for procedure completion, number of attempts to reach the calyx, puncture precision and puncture complications were recorded in both groups and compared. Results: Puncture success on the first attempt was achieved in 25 punctures (83%) with the Punctiometer and in 13 punctures (43%) without the Punctiometer (p=0.011). The mean time required to perform three punctures in each kidney was 14.5 minutes with the Punctiometer and 22.4 minutes without the Punctiometer (p=0.025). The only complications noted were renal hematomas. In the Punctiometer group, all kidneys had small hematomas. In the no Punctiometer group 80% had small hematomas, 10% had a medium hematoma and 10% had a big hematoma. There was no difference in complications between both groups. Conclusions: The Punctiometer is an effective device to increase the likelihood of an accurate renal calyx puncture during PCNL, with a shorter time required to perform the procedure.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common complication of pelvic fractures. To identify the vascular and neurogenic factors associated with ED, 120 patients admitted with ED after traumatic pelvic fracture between January 2009 and June 2013 were enrolled in this study. All patients answered the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire. Nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) testing confirmed the occurrence of ED in 96 (80%) patients on whom penile duplex ultrasound and neurophysiological testing were further performed. Of these ED patients 29 (30%) were demonstrated only with vascular abnormality, 41 (42.7%) were detected only with neural abnormality, 26 (27.1%) revealed mixed abnormalities. Of the 55 patients (29+26) with vascular problems, 7 patients (12.7%) with abnormal arterial response to intracavernous injection of Bimix (15mg papaverine and 1mg phentolamine), 31 (56.4%) with corporal veno-occlusive dysfunction and 17 (30.9%) had both problems. Of the 67 (41+26) patients with abnormal neurophysiological outcomes, 51 (76.1%) with abnormal bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR), 20 (29.9%) with pathological pudendal nerve evoked potentials (PDEPs) and 25 (37.3%) with abnormal posterior tibial somatosensory nerve evoked potentials (PTSSEPs). Our observation indicated that neurogenic factors are important for the generation of ED in patients with pelvic fracture; venous impotence is more common than arteriogenic ED.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The primary goal in the management strategy of a patient with ED would be to determine its etiology and cure it when possible, and not just to treat the symptoms alone. One of the new therapeutic strategies is the use of low intensity extracorporeal shockwave (LISW) therapy. The mechanism of shockwave therapy is not completely clear. It is suggested that LISW induces neovascularization and improvement of cavernosal arterial flow which can lead to an improvement of erectile function by releasing NO, VEGF and PCNA. Materials and Methods: 31 patients between February and June 2013 with mild to severe ED and non-Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors responders were enrolled. Patients underwent four weekly treatment sessions. During each session 3600 shocks at 0.09mJ/ mm2 were given, 900 shocks at each anatomical area (right and left corpus cavernosum, right and left crus). Improvement of the erectile function was evaluated using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF), the Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) diaries (SEP-Questions 2 and 3) and Global Assessment Questions (GAQ-Q1 and GAQ-Q2). Results: At 3-month follow-up IIEF-EF scores improved from 16.54±6.35 at baseline to 21.03±6.38. Patients answering ‘yes’ to the SEP-Q2 elevated from 61% to 89% and from 32% to 62% in the SEP-Q3. A statistically significant improvement was reported to the Global Assessment Questions (GAQ-Q1 and GAQ-Q2). Conclusion: In conclusion, we can affirm that LISW is a confirmed therapeutic approach to erectile dysfunction that definitely needs more long-term trials to be clarified and further verified.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The term DSD refers to disorders that affect the normal process of sexual development causing disagreement between chromosomal, gonadal and phenotypic sex, and this study aimed to describe the clinical profile of a group with DSD 46, XY joined on DSD Clinic of Hospital of Salvador, Bahia Clinics. It was a retrospective study of medical records of survey data of 93 patients with DSD 46, XY. Among the patients studied 50.5% had no defined etiology and 20.4% had androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), 63.4% had been initially recorded in males, 31 (33.3%) in females, being that in two it was necessary to reassignment. All patients with complete AIS pure gonadal dysgenesis and had female genitalia. Others have been diagnosed with genital ambiguity or severe hypospadias and cryptorchidism. The gonads were palpable at the first consultation in 75.3% of patients. It is important to establish an active surveillance program for these patients. The first assessment took place before the age of ten in more than 50% of cases, which shows that much needs to be done for medical education and community about the DSD. Because the phenotypic variability of sexual development disorders was noted that the clinical profile of patients studied ranged between different etiologies, including hindering the diagnostic conclusion of these individuals.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: We assessed and evaluated attitudes and knowledge regarding ionizing radiation of urology surgery room staff. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was sent by e-mail to urology surgery room personnel in Turkey, between June and August 2013. The questionnaire included demographic questions and questions regarding radiation exposure and protection. Results: In total, 127 questionnaires were answered. Of them, 62 (48.8%) were nurses, 51 (40.2%) were other personnel, and 14 (11%) were radiological technicians. In total, 113 (89%) participants had some knowledge of radiation, but only 56 (44.1%) had received specific education or training regarding the harmful effects of radiation. In total, 92 (72.4%) participants indicated that they used a lead apron and a thyroid shield. In the subgroup that had received education about the harmful effects of radiation, the use ratio for all protective procedures was 21.4% (n=12); this ratio was only 2.8% (n=2) for those with no specific training; the difference was statistically significant (p=0.004). Regarding dosimeters, the use rates were 100% for radiology technicians, 46.8% for nurses, and 31.4% for other hospital personnel; these differences were statistically significant (p<0.001). No significant relationship between working period in the surgery room, number of daily fluoroscopy procedures, education, task, and use of radiation protection measures was found. Conclusions: It is clear that operating room-allied health personnel exposed to radiation do not have sufficient knowledge of ionizing radiation and they do not take sufficient protective measures.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objectives: Diseases of the genitourinary tract can lead to significant damage. Current reconstructive techniques are limited by tissue availability and compatibility. This study aims to assess if the decellularized human glans can be used as a biomaterial for penile reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Samples of the glans matrices were descellularized. We evaluate the presence of collagen type I and III, and elastic fibers. Biocompatibility assays were performed to assess the cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic interactions between the acellular matrix and 3T3 cells. The matrices were seeded with mesenchymal stem cells and were assessed for viability and integration of these cells. Biomechanical tests in native tissue, descellularized matrix and seeded matrix were performed to characterize their biomechanical properties. Results: The tissue architecture of the decellularized matrix of human glans was preserved as well as the maintenance of the biomechanical and biological properties. The analyzes of glans seeded with mesenchymal stem cells revealed the integration of these cells to the matrices, and its viability during two weeks "in vitro". Conclusion: The decellularization process did not alter the biological and biomechanical characteristics of the human glans. When these matrices were seeded they were able to maintain the cells integrity and vitality.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Meclofenamic acid is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has shown therapeutic potential for different types of cancers, including androgen-independent prostate neoplasms. The antitumor effect of diverse nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been shown to be accompanied by histological and molecular changes that are responsible for this beneficial effect. The objective of the present work was to analyze the histological changes caused by meclofenamic acid in androgen-independent prostate cancer. Tumors were created in a nude mouse model using PC3 cancerous human cells. Meclofenamic acid (10 mg/kg/day; experimental group, n=5) or saline solution (control group, n=5) was administered intraperitoneally for twenty days. Histological analysis was then carried out on the tumors, describing changes in the cellular architecture, fibrosis, and quantification of cellular proliferation and tumor vasculature. Meclofenamic acid causes histological changes that indicate less tumor aggression (less hypercellularity, fewer atypical mitoses, and fewer nuclear polymorphisms), an increase in fibrosis, and reduced cellular proliferation and tumor vascularity. Further studies are needed to evaluate the molecular changes that cause the beneficial and therapeutic effects of meclofenamic acid in androgen-independent prostate cancer.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: In this study, anti-inflammatory effects of Royal Jelly were investigated by inducing renal inflammation in rats with the use of ethylene glycol. For this purpose, the calcium oxalate urolithiasis model was obtained by feeding rats with ethylene glycol in drinking water. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided in five study groups. The 1st group was determined as the control group. The rats in the 2nd group received ethylene glycol (1%) in drinking water. The rats in the 3rd group were daily fed with Royal Jelly by using oral gavage. The 4th group was determined as the preventive group and the rats were fed with ethylene glycol (1%) in drinking water while receiving Royal Jelly via oral gavage. The 5th group was determined as the therapeutic group and received ethylene glycol in drinking water during the first 2 weeks of the study and Royal Jelly via oral gavage during the last 2 weeks of the study. Results: At the end of the study, proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-18 levels in blood and renal tissue samples from the rats used in the application were measured. Conclusion: The results have shown that ethylene glycol does induce inflammation and renal damage. This can cause the formation of reactive oxygen species. Royal Jelly is also considered to have anti-inflammatory effects due to its possible antiradical and antioxidative effects. It can have positive effects on both the prevention of urolithiasis and possible inflammation during the existing urolithiasis and support the medical treatment.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: To report our technique that helps locate the guidewire into the ureter enabling safe dilatation during PCNL. Materials and Methods: Cases in which the guidewire failed to pass into the ureter following successful puncture of the desired calyx were subjected to this technique. A second guidewire was passed through the outer sheath of a 9 Fr. metallic dilator cannula, passed over the first guidewire. The cannula and outer sheath were removed, followed by percutaneous passage of a 6/7.5 Fr ureteroscope between the two guidewires, monitoring its progress through both the endoscopic and fluoroscopic monitors. Once the stone was visualized in the calyx a guidewire was passed through the working channel and maneuvered past the stone into the pelvis and ureter under direct endoscopic vision. This was followed by routine tract dilatation. Results: This technique was employed in 85 out of 675 cases of PCNL carried out at our institute between Jan 2010 to June 2014. The mean time required for our technique, calculated from the point of introduction of the ureteroscope untill the successful passage of the guidewire down into the ureter was 95 seconds. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications as a result of this technique. Guidewire could be successfully passed into the ureter in 82 out of 85 cases. Conclusions: Use of the ureteroscope introduced percutaneously through the puncture site in PCNL, is a safe and effective technique that helps in maneuvering the guidewire down into the ureter, which subsequently enables safe dilatation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: Vesicorectal fistula is one of the most devastating postoperative complications after radical prostatectomy. Definitive treatment is difficult due to morbidity and recurrence. Despite many options, there is not an unanimous accepted approach. This article aimed to report a new minimally invasive approach as an option to reconstructive surgery. Materials and Methods: We report on Transanal Minimally Invasive Surgery (TAMIS) with miniLap devices for instrumentation in a 65 year old patient presenting with vesicorectal fistula after radical prostatectomy. We used Alexis® device for transanal access and 3, 5 and 11 mm triangulated ports for the procedure. The surgical steps were as follows: cystoscopy and implant of guide wire through fistula; patient at jack-knife position; transanal access; Identification of the fistula; dissection; vesical wall closure; injection of fibrin glue in defect; rectal wall closure. Results: The operative time was 240 minutes, with 120 minutes for reconstruction. No perioperative complications or conversion were observed. Hospital stay was two days and catheters were removed at four weeks. No recurrence was observed. Conclusions: This approach has low morbidity and is feasible. The main difficulties consisted in maintaining luminal dilation, instrumental manipulation and suturing.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this video is to present the laparoscopic repair of a VUF in a 42-year-old woman, with gross hematuria, in the immediate postoperative phase following a cesarean delivery. The obstetric team implemented conservative management, including Foley catheter insertion, for 2 weeks. She subsequently developed intermittent hematuria and cystitis. The urology team was consulted 15 days after cesarean delivery. Cystoscopy indicated an ulcerated lesion in the bladder dome of approximately 1.0cm in size. Hysterosalpingography and a pelvic computed tomography scan indicated a fistula. Materials and Methods: Laparoscopic repair was performed 30 days after the cesarean delivery. The patient was placed in the lithotomy position while also in an extreme Trendelenburg position. Pneumoperitoneum was established using a Veress needle in the midline infra-umbilical region, and a primary 11-mm port was inserted. Another 11-mm port was inserted exactly between the left superior iliac spine and the umbilicus. Two other 5-mm ports were established under laparoscopic guidance in the iliac fossa on both sides. The omental adhesions in the pelvis were carefully released and the peritoneum between the bladder and uterus was incised via cautery. Limited cystotomy was performed, and the specific sites of the fistula and the ureteral meatus were identified; thereafter, the posterior bladder wall was adequately mobilized away from the uterus. The uterine rent was then closed using single 3/0Vicryl sutures and two-layer watertight closure of the urinary bladder was achieved by using 3/0Vicryl sutures. An omental flap was mobilized and inserted between the uterus and the urinary bladder, and was fixed using two 3/0Vicryl sutures, followed by tube drain insertion. Results: The operative time was 140 min, whereas the blood loss was 100ml. The patient was discharged 3 days after surgery, and the catheter was removed 12 days after surgery. Discussion: Laparoscopy has advantages over open surgery in that it is associated with less pain, shorter length of hospital stay, better cosmesis, quicker recovery, and equal efficacy. Although cases of VUF are rarely noted, the laparoscopic skill obtained through other urological procedures suggest, that laparoscopic repair may be the procedure of choice for such cases (2). The reported operative time for the laparoscopic repair of VUF in the literature varies between 140 and 220 min (3). However, laparoscopic techniques should be considered as a mode of abdominal access and should not influence the method of surgical repair. Surgical success should depend on the adherence to good technique rather than the approach. Hence, this method appears to be a viable alternative for surgeons experienced with laparoscopic suturing techniques. Conclusion: Laparoscopic repair appears to be a viable alternative for surgeons experienced with laparoscopic suturing techniques.