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International braz j urol, Volume: 41, Issue: 6, Published: 2015
  • Editorial In this issue Editorial In This Issue

    Zequi, Stênio de Cássio
  • The pathophysiology of Peyronie's disease: beyond the Smith's space Editor's Comment

    Graziottin, Túlio M.
  • Vasectomy Reversal Must be the First Step for a Man Who had a Vasectomy and Wants a Children from a New Marriage? Opinion: Yes Difference Of Opinion

    Vieira, Marcelo
  • Vasectomy Reversal Must be the First Step for a Man Who had a Vasectomy and Wants a Children from a New Marriage? Opinion: No Difference Of Opinion

    Chiles, Kelly A.; Schlegel, Peter N.
  • The use of alpha-1 adrenergic blockers in children with distal ureterolithiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis Review Article

    Glina, F.P.; Castro, P.M.V.; Monteiro, G.G.R.; Guerra, G.C. Del; Glina, S.; Mazzurana, M.; Bernardo, W.M.

    Abstract in English:

    Introduction: Urinary lithiasis is the main urologic cause of emergency treatment in adult patient. In the past years, the incidence in children population has increased. However, literature about the use of alpha-1 adrenergic blockers in pediatric population with distal ureterolithiasis is still scarce. The drug acts by decreasing ureter contractions, especially in the distal portion, facilitating calculus expulsion. Objective: This review has the objective to evaluate the use of alpha-1 adrenergic blockers as medical expulsive treatment in children with distal ureterolithiasis. Evidence Acquisition: An electronic literature search was performed using the MEDLINE, COCHRANE, and LILACS databases. We further searched manually the references of the primary studies. Searches were concluded on October 4th, 2014. Articles were selected, independently and in pairs, by the respective titles and summaries. Any divergence was resolved by consensus. Evidence Synthesis: Alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists increased the probability of calculus expulsion by 27% (NNT=4). Calculi smaller than 5mm, increased by 33% (NNT=3). Larger than 5mm, increased by 34% (NNT=3). Conclusion: Alpha-1 adrenergic blocker use is related with a greater incidence of expulsion of ureteral calculi, smaller or greater than 5mm, and fewer episodes of pain when compared to ibuprofen. However it is necessary larger samples to enhance the power analysis of the expulsion of ureteral calculi larger than 5mm and the episodes of pain. Patient Summary: This review analyzed the outcome of alpha adrenergic antagonist in children with ureteral calculi. We conclude that it is the best medicine for use, since it helps the expulsion of the stone.
  • Factors associated with the Journal Impact Factor (JIF) for Urology and Nephrology Journals Original Article

    Sewell, Joseph M.; Adejoro, Oluwakayode O.; Fleck, Joseph R.; Wolfson, Julian A.; Konety, Badrinath R.

    Abstract in English:

    Purpose: The Journal Impact Factor (JIF) is an index used to compare a journal's quality among academic journals and it is commonly used as a proxy for journal quality. We sought to examine the JIF in order to elucidate the main predictors of the index while generating awareness among scientific community regarding need to modify the index calculation in the attempt to turn it more accurate. Materials and Methods: Under the Urology and Nephrology category in the Journal Citations Report Website, the top 17 Journals by JIF in 2011 were chosen for the study. All manuscripts’ abstracts published from 2009-2010 were reviewed; each article was categorized based on its research design (Retrospective, Review, etc). T and correlation tests were performed for categorical and continuous variables respectively. The JIF was the dependent variable. All variables were then included in a multivariate model. Results: 23,012 articles from seventeen journals were evaluated with a median of 1,048 (range=78-6,342) articles per journal. Journals with a society affiliation were associated with a higher JIF (p=0.05). Self-citations (rho=0.57, p=0.02), citations for citable articles (rho=0.73, p=0.001), citations to non-citable articles (rho=0.65, p=0.0046), and retrospective studies (rho=-0.51, p=0.03) showed a strong correlation. Slight modifications to include the non-citable articles in the denominator yield drastic changes in the JIF and the ranking of the journals. Conclusion: The JIF appears to be closely associated with the number of citable articles published. A change in the formula for calculating JIF to include all types of published articles in the denominator would result in a more accurate representation.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced upper tract urothelial carcinoma: updated results of the Seoul National university hospital experience Original Article

    Kim, Hyung Suk; Lee, Joong Sub; Jeong, Chang Wook; Kwak, Cheol; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Ku, Ja Hyeon

    Abstract in English:

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to update the long-term outcome in the treatment of locally advanced upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) regarding the role of adjuvant chemotherapy. Materials and methods: Clinical data from 138 patients who underwent RNU for locally advanced UTUC (pT3/4 or pN+) were analyzed. Results: The adjuvant chemotherapy group comprised 66 patients, and other 72 patients did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was the most common regimen, depending on the patient's eligibility and renal function. The median follow-up period was 48.7 months (interquartile range: 29.2-96.9 months). The 3-and 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rates were 76.0% and 69.9% for the non-adjuvant chemotherapy group versus 74.6% and 54.5% for the adjuvant chemotherapy group (p=0.301, log-rank test). Overall survival (OS) rates for the same time period were 70.1% and 62.9% for the non-adjuvant chemotherapy group versus 73.8% and 53.2% for the adjuvant chemotherapy group (p=0.931, log-rank test). On multivariate analysis, adjuvant chemotherapy could not predict DSS and OS after surgery. When patients who received cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy (n=59) were compared to those who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy, similar results were found. Conclusions: There does not appear to be a significant DSS or OS benefit associated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Prospective randomized clinical trials are necessary to verify the effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on locally advanced UTUC.
  • Clinical significance of serum and urinary HER2/neu protein levels in primary non-muscle invasive bladder cancer Original Article

    Arikan, Ozgur; Yýldýrým, Asýf; Ýsbilen, Banu; Canakci, Cengiz; Atýs, Gokhan; Gurbuz, Cenk; Erol, Bulent; Ýsman, Ferruh Kemal; Ozkanli, Seyma; Caskurlu, Turhan

    Abstract in English:

    Objective: We aimed to compare serum and urinary HER2/neu levels between healthy control group and patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Additionally, we evaluated relationship of HER2/neu levels with tumor stage, grade, recurrence and progression. Materials and Methods: Fourty-four patients with primary non-muscle invasive bladder tumors (Group 2) and 40 healthy control group (Group 1) were included the study. Blood and urinary samples were collected from all patients and HER2/neu levels were measured by ELISA method. Blood and urinary HER2/neu levels and additionally, ratio of urinary HER2/neu levels to urinary creatinine levels were recorded. Demographic data and tumor characteristics were recorded. Results: Mean serum HER2/neu levels were similar between two groups and statistically significant difference wasn't observed. Urinary HER2/neu levels were significantly higher in group 2 than group 1. Ratio of urinary HER2/neu to urinary creatinine was significantly higher in group 2 than group 1, (p=0,021). Serum and urinary HER2/ neu levels were not associated with tumor stage, grade, recurrence and progression while ratio of urinary HER2/neu to urinary creatinin levels were significantly higher in high-grade tumors. HER2/neu, the sensitivity of the test was found to be 20.5%, and the specificity was 97.5%, also for the urinary HER2/neu/urinary creatinine ratio, the sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 31.8% and 87.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Urinary HER2/neu and ratio of urinary creatinine urine were significantly higher in patients with bladder cancer compared to healthy subjects. Large series and controlled studies are needed for use as a tumor marker.
  • Loss of TIMP-1 immune expression and tumor recurrence in localized prostate cancer Original Article

    Reis, Sabrina Thalita dos; Viana, Nayara Izabel; Iscaife, Alexandre; Pontes Junior, José; Dip, Nelson; Antunes, Alberto Azoubel; Guimarães, Vanessa Ribeiro; Santana, Isaque; Nahas, William Carlos; Srougi, Miguel; Leite, Katia Ramos Moreira

    Abstract in English:

    Introduction and objective: Overexpression of MMPs has been related to biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. TIMP1 and TIMP2 are controllers of MMPs and the aim of this study is to evaluate the expression levels of MMPs and their regulators using immunohistochemistry in tissue microarray of localized prostate cancer (PC). Materials and Methods: Immune-expression of MMP-9, MMP-2, TIMP1, TIMP-2, MMP-14 and IL8, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in radical prostatectomy specimens of 40 patients with localized PC who underwent surgery between September 1997 and February 2000. Protein expression was considered as categorical variables, negative or positive. The results of the immune-expression were correlated to Gleason score (GS), pathological stage (TNM), pre-operatory PSA serum levels and biochemical recurrence in a mean follow up period of 92.5 months. Results: The loss of TIMP1 immune-expression was related to biochemical recurrence. When TIMP1 was negative, 56.3% patients recurred versus 22.2% of those whose TIMP1 was positive (p=0.042). MMP-9, MMP-2, IL8 and MMP-14 were positive in the majority of PC. TIMP-2 was negative in all cases. Conclusion: Negative immune-expression of TIMP1 is correlated with biochemical recurrence in patients with PC possibly by failing to control MMP-9, an important MMP related to cancer progression.
  • Safety of 12 core transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy in patients on aspirin Original Article

    Vasudeva, Pawan; Kumar, Niraj; Kumar, Anup; Singh, Harbinder; Kumar, Gaurav

    Abstract in English:

    Objective: To prospectively assess safety outcome of TRUS guided prostate biopsy in patients taking low dose aspirin. Materials and methods: Consecutive patients, who were planned for 12 core TRUS guided prostate biopsy and satisfied eligibility criteria, were included in the study and divided into two Groups: Group A: patients on aspirin during biopsy, Group B: patients not on aspirin during biopsy, including patients in whom aspirin was stopped prior to the biopsy. Parameters included for statistical analysis were: age, serum prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, hemoglobin (Hb %), number of hematuria episodes, number of patient reporting hematuria, hematuria requiring intervention, number of patient reporting hematospermia and number of patient reporting rectal bleeding. Results: Of 681 eligible patients, Group A and B had 191 and 490 patients respectively. The mean age, prostate volume, serum PSA and pre-biopsy hemoglobin were similar in both Groups with no significant differences noted between them. None of the post-biopsy complications, including number of hematuria episodes (p=0.83), number of patients reporting hematuria (p=0.55), number of patients reporting hematospermia (p=0.36) and number of patients reporting rectal bleeding (p=0.65), were significantly different between Groups A and B respectively. None of the hemorrhagic complication in either group required intervention and were self limiting. Conclusion: Continuing low dose aspirin during TRUS guided prostate biopsy neither alters the minor bleeding episodes nor causes major bleeding complication. So, discontinuation of low dose aspirin prior to TRUS guided prostate biopsy is not required.
  • Serum Levels of Trace Elements in Patients with Testicular Cancers Original Article

    Kaba, Mehmet; Pirinççi, Necip; Yüksel, Mehmet Bilgehan; Geçit, İlhan; Güneş, Mustafa; Demir, Murat; Akkoyun, HurremTuran; Demir, Halit

    Abstract in English:

    Introduction: Trace elements are primary components of biological structures; however, they can be toxic when their concentrations are higher than those needed for biological functions. Materials and Methods: In the present study serum levels of trace elements were measured in 30 patients (mean age was 26.9±11.2 years) newly diagnosed with germ cell testicular cancer and 32 healthy volunteers (mean age: 27.4±10.8) by using furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum samples were stored at-20°C until assays. Results: In patients with germ cell testicular cancer, the diagnosis was seminoma in 15, mix germ cell tumor in 7, embryonal carcinoma in 4, yolk sac tumor in 2 and teratoma in 2 patients. There was stage I testicular tumor in 19 patients (63.3%) while stage II in 6 patients (20.0%), stage IIIA in 4 patients (13.3%) and stage IIIC in one patient (3.4%). It was found that serum Co, Cu, Mg and Pb levels were increased (p<0.05), whereas Fe, Mn, and Zn levels were decreased in patients with testicular cancer (p<0.05). Conclusions: These alterations may be important in the pathogenesis of testicular cancers; however, further prospective studies are needed to identify the relationship between testicular cancer and trace elements.
  • Beyond biology: the impact of marital status on survival of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma Original Article

    Klaassen, Zachary; Reinstatler, Lael; Terris, Martha K.; Underwood III, Willie; Moses, Kelvin A.

    Abstract in English:

    Purpose: To analyze the association of marital status and survival of patients with ACC using a population-based database. Material and Methods: Patients with ACC were abstracted from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database from 1988-2010 (n=1271). Variables included marital status (married vs single/divorced/widowed (SDW)), gender, age, race, tumor (T) and node (N) classification, receipt of surgery, and SEER stage. Statistical analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard models to generate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: There were 728 (57.3%) females and median age was 56 years (IQR 44-66). Patients who were alive were more frequently married (65.6% vs 61.6%, p=0.008), female (61.1% vs 58.0%, p=0.001), younger (median 51 vs 57 years, p=0.0001), submitted to adrenalectomy (88.6% vs 63.8%, p<0.0001), and more favorable SEER stage (localized-64.9% vs 29.9%; regional–25.1% vs 30.1%; distant 4.8% vs 31.5%, p<0.0001) compared to patients dead of disease (DOD). On multivariable analysis, factors significantly associated with all-cause mortality were SDW status (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.091.51), age, non-operative management, and N+ disease. Risk factors for disease-specific mortality included SDW status (HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.07-1.56), age, non-operative management, T-classification, and N+ disease. Conclusions: Marital status is significantly associated with survival in patients with ACC. Our results suggest that the decreased survival seen among SDW individuals highlights an area for further research and needed intervention to reduce disparity.
  • Effect of mitochondrial potassium channel on the renal protection mediated by sodium thiosulfate against ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in rat model Original Article

    Baldev, N.; Sriram, R.; Prabu, P.C.; Gino, A. Kurian

    Abstract in English:

    Purpose: Sodium thiosulfate (STS) is clinically reported to be a promising drug in preventing nephrolithiasis. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of mitochondrial KATP channel in the renal protection mediated by STS. Materials and Methods: Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar rats by administrating 0.4% ethylene glycol (EG) along with 1% ammonium chloride for one week in drinking water followed by only 0.75% EG for two weeks. Treatment groups received STS, mitochondrial KATP channel opener and closer exclusively or in combination with STS for two weeks. Results: Animals treated with STS showed normal renal tissue architecture, supported by near normal serum creatinine, urea and ALP activity. Diazoxide (mitochondria KATP channel opening) treatment to the animal also showed normal renal tissue histology and improved serum chemistry. However, an opposite result was shown by glibenclamide (mitochondria KATP channel closer) treated rats. STS administered along with diazoxide negated the renal protection rendered by diazoxide alone, while it imparted protection to the glibenclamide treated rats, formulating a mitochondria modulated STS action. Conclusion: The present study confirmed that STS render renal protection not only through chelation and antioxidant effect but also by modulating the mitochondrial KATP channel for preventing urolithiasis.
  • Hemorrhagic Cystitis Requiring Bladder Irrigation is Associated with Poor Mortality in Hospitalized Stem Cell Transplant Patients Original Article

    Raup, Valary T.; Potretzke, Aaron M.; Manley, Brandon J.; Brockman, John A.; Bhayani, Sam B.

    Abstract in English:

    Purpose: To evaluate the overall prognosis of post-stem cell transplant inpatients who required continuous bladder irrigation (CBI) for hematuria. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of adult stem cell transplant recipients who received CBI for de novo hemorrhagic cystitis as inpatients on the bone marrow transplant service at Washington University from 2011-2013. Patients who had a history of genitourinary malignancy and/or recent surgical urologic intervention were excluded. Multiple variables were examined for association with death. Results: Thirty-three patients met our inclusion criteria, with a mean age of 48 years (23-65). Common malignancies included acute myelogenous leukemia (17/33, 57%), acute lymphocytic leukemia (3/33, 10%), and peripheral T cell lymphoma (3/33, 10%). Median time from stem cell transplant to need for CBI was 2.5 months (0 days-6.6 years). All patients had previously undergone chemotherapy (33/33, 100%) and 14 had undergone prior radiation therapy (14/33, 42%). Twenty-eight patients had an infectious disease (28/33, 85%), most commonly BK viremia (19/33, 58%), cytomegalovirus viremia (17/33, 51%), and bacterial urinary tract infection (8/33, 24%). Twenty-two patients expired during the same admission as CBI treatment (22/33 or 67% of total patients, 22/28 or 79% of deaths), with a 30-day mortality of 52% and a 90-day mortality of 73% from the start of CBI. Conclusions: Hemorrhagic cystitis requiring CBI is a symptom of severe systemic disease in stem cell transplant patients. The need for CBI administration may be a marker for mortality risk from a variety of systemic insults, rather than directly attributable to the hematuria.
  • Efficacy of botulinum toxin type A 100 units versus 200 units for treatment of refractory idiopathic overactive bladder Original Article

    Abdelwahab, Osama; Sherif, Hammouda; Soliman, Tark; Elbarky, Ihab; Eshazly, Aly

    Abstract in English:

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a single intra detrusor injection of BoNTA comparing two different doses (100 U or 200 U) in patients with idiopathic overactive bladder. Materials and Methods: A randomized prospective study evaluated the efficacy of BoNTA in management of refractory idiopathic overactive bladder and included 80 patients. All patients were assessed initially by taking a history, a physical examination, overactive bladder symptom score, urine analysis, routine laboratory investigations, KUB and pelviabdominal. OABSS was adjusted on all patients postoperative at 1,3,6,9 months also Urodynamic was done for all patients preoperative and postoperative at 3, 6, 9 months. Results: The mean age was 30.22±8.37 and 31.35±7.61 in group I and II respectively. There was no statistically difference between both groups in all parameters all over the study except at 9 months after treatment. Hematuria was observed 6 and 9 patients in group I and II respectively. Dysuria was observed in 6 and 15 patients in group I and II respectively. UTI was detected in 3 and 7 patients in group I and II respectively. Conclusion: A single-injection procedure of 100 U or 200 U BoNTA is an effective and safe treatment for patients with IOAB who failed anticholinergic regimens. OABSS and QoL were improved for 6 months; 100 U injections seemed to have comparable results with 200 U. There was a significant difference at month 9 towards 200 U with more incidences of adverse events.
  • Sphingosine Kinase 1 urothelial expression is increased in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity Original Article

    Ballouhey, Quentin; Panicker, Jalesh N.; Mazerolles, Catherine; Roumiguié, Mathieu; Zaidi, Falek; Rischmann, Pascal; Malavaud, Bernard; Gamé, Xavier

    Abstract in English:

    Objectives: To evaluate the expression of sphingosine kinase 1 (SPK1) in the bladder wall in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction and its association with clinical, urodynamic and pathological features. Materials and Methods: The expression of SPK1 was studied in bladder wall specimens obtained from cystectomy using immunohistochemistry in ten patients with spinal cord injury (n=8) or multiple sclerosis (n=2) with urodynamically proven neuropathic bladder dysfunction, and in controls (n=5). Inflammation and fibrosis were analysed with histological criteria and SPK1 expression was determined by individual immunohistochemical staining. Results: Significant increased SPK1 urothelial immunoreactivity was shown in patients compared to control group (p=0.03). By contrast, SPK1 immunoreactivity in patients was significantly decreased in the sub-urothelium, muscles and nerves, p=0.02; 0.01 and 0.003, respectively. Patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) had higher SPK1 urothelium expression than those without any DO (p=0.04). Conclusions: SPK1 is expressed in the human bladder wall, specifically the urothelium, in bladder specimens from patients with NDO. The role of SPK1 in the pathophysiology of NDO needs further elucidation.
  • Experimental use of a cellulosic biopolymer as a new material for suburethral sling in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence Original Article

    Lucena, Roberto G.; Lima, Salvador V. C.; Aguiar, José L. de A.; Andrade, Rogerson T.; Pinto, Flávia C. M.; Vilar, Fabio O.

    Abstract in English:

    Purpose: To analyze the interaction between the cellulose exopolysaccharide (CEC) and urethral tissue when used as a pubovaginal sling. Materials and Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups. In groups A and B the cellulose exopolysaccharide (CEC) was implanted around the urethral tissue (bladder neck below the upper margin) and the rats were sacrificed at 30 and 90 days. Similar procedure was used in groups C and D using a polypropylene mesh. After sacrifice bladder and urethra were sent for histological analysis. The histological parameters (inflammatory reaction) by evaluated by quantitative analysis. For collagen deposition analysis it was used stereological method. Results: The cellulose exopolysaccharide (CEC) was inert and well preserved at the implanted region at the time of examination. Morphologic alterations were not found at the CEC implant but some reactions of foreign body type were observed at the adjacent structures. In some areas a process of neovascular formation was observed. Stereological analysis at the suburethral area showed a significant difference in collagen presence in favor of CEC. Conclusions: The CEC implant showed adequate results when used as a suburethral sling with good integration to the host tissue, preserving its architecture.
  • Contemporary Series of Robotic-Assisted Distal Ureteral Reconstruction Utilizing Side Docking Position Original Article

    Slater, Rick C.; Farber, Nicholas J.; Riley, Julie M.; Shilo, Yaniv; Ost, Michael C.

    Abstract in English:

    Purpose: The robot-assisted approach to distal ureteral reconstruction is increasingly utilized. Traditionally, the robot is docked between the legs in lithotomy position resulting in limited bladder access for stent placement. We examined the use of side docking of the daVinci robot® to perform distal ureteral reconstruction. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of distal ureteral reconstruction (ureteral reimplantation and uretero-ureterostomy) executed robotically was performed at a single institution by a single surgeon. The daVinci robotic® Si surgical platform was positioned at the right side of the patient facing towards the head of the patient, i.e. side docking. Results: A total of 14 cases were identified from 2011–2013. Nine patients underwent ureteral reimplantation for ureteral injury, two for vesicoureteral reflux, one for ureteral stricture, and one for megaureter. One patient had an uretero-ureterostomy for a distal stricture. Three patients required a Boari flap due to extensive ureteral injury. Mean operative time was 286 minutes (189–364), mean estimated blood loss was 40cc (10–200), and mean length of stay was 2.3 days (1–4). Follow-up renal ultrasound was available for review in 10/14 patients and revealed no long-term complications in any patient. Mean follow-up was 20.7 months (0.1–59.3). Conclusion: Robot-assisted laparoscopic distal ureteral reconstruction is safe and effective. Side docking of the robot allows ready access to the perineum and acceptable placement of the robot to successfully complete ureteral repair.
  • Serum interleukin -8 is not a reliable marker for prediction of vesicoureteral reflux in children with febrile urinary tract infection Original Article

    Mahyar, Abolfazl; Ayazi, Parviz; Yarigarravesh, Mohammad Hadi; Khoeiniha, Mohammad Hossein; Oveisi, Sonia; Sahmani, Ahmad Ali; Esmaeily, Shiva

    Abstract in English:

    Objective: In view of the side effects of voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), identification of noninvasive markers predicting the presence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is important. This study was conducted to determine the predictive value of serum interleukin-8 (IL-8) in diagnosis of VUR in children with first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Materials and Methods: Eighty children with first febrile UTI were divided into two groups, with and without VUR, based on the results of VCUG. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value positive and negative likelihood ratio, and accuracy of IL-8 for prediction of VUR were investigated. Results: Of the 80 children with febrile UTI, 30 (37.5%) had VUR. There was no significant difference between the children with and without VUR and also between low and high-grade VUR groups in terms of serum concentration of IL-8 (P>0.05). Based on ROC curve, the sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio positive, and accuracy of serum IL-8 was lower than those of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed significant positive correlation only between erythrocyte sedimentation rate and VUR. Conclusions: This study showed no significant difference between the children with and without VUR in terms of the serum concentration of IL-8. Therefore, it seems that serum IL-8 is not a reliable marker for prediction of VUR.
  • Outcomes of Prostate Biopsy in Men with Hypogonadism Prior or During Testosterone Replacement Therapy Original Article

    Shoskes, Daniel A; Barazani, Yagil; Fareed, Khaled; Sabanegh Jr., Edmund

    Abstract in English:

    Introduction: The relationship between Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT) and prostate cancer remains controversial. Most TRT studies show no change in prostate specific antigen (PSA) but some men do have PSA rise or develop an abnormal digital rectal exam (aDRE). Our objective was to examine the biopsy results of men with symptomatic hypogonadism before or during therapy. Materials and Methods: Data was extracted from our medical record on men with hypogonadism who had a prostate biopsy within the past 4 years done by 3 Urologists with guideline driven practice patterns. Results: 96 men were identified. Mean age at biopsy was 63 (range 40–85) and median PSA was 3.78ng/dL (0.5–662). Of the 61 men not on TRT, median PSA was 4.34 (0.5 to 662) and mean total testosterone 254 (191–341). There were 29 (47.5%) prostate cancers found (6 Gleason score 6, 13 Gleason score 7, 10 Gleason score 8 or 9). Of the 35 men on TRT, median PSA was 3.27 (0.5 to 13.7). The %PSA increase ranged from 2 to 251% (mean 93.5%). Mean total testosterone was 383 (146–792). Of the 14 men treated < 2 years, none had cancer. Of the 21 men treated 2 or more years 5 had cancer (2 Gleason score 6, 3 Gleason score 7). Conclusions: Men with hypogonadism and a clinical indication for biopsy often have prostate cancer, many high grade. No men with an initial PSA rise on TRT had cancer. Men on long term TRT should be monitored with PSA and DRE per guidelines.
  • Prospective comparison of ligation and bipolar cautery technique in non-scalpel vasectomy Original Article

    Altok, Muammer; Şahin, Ali Feyzullah; Divrik, Rauf Taner; Yildirim, Ümit; Zorlu, Ferruh

    Abstract in English:

    Objectives: There is no trial comparing bipolar cautery and ligation for occlusion of vas in non-scalpel vasectomy. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of these vasectomy occlusion techniques. Materials and Methods: Between January 2002-June 2009, patients were allocated in alternate order. We recruited 100 cases in cautery group and 100 cases in ligation group. Non-scalpel approach was performed during vasectomy and fascial interposition was performed in all cases. First semen analysis was done 3 months after vasectomy. Vasectomy success was defined as azoospermia or non-motile sperm lower than 100.000/mL. Results: Four patients from the cautery group were switched to the ligation group due to technical problem of cautery device. Thus, data of 96 patients as cautery group and 104 patients as ligation group were evaluated. After vasectomy, semen analyses were obtained from 59 of 96 (61.5%) patients in cautery group and to 66 of 104 (63.5%) patients in ligation group. There was no statistical significant difference between the two groups in terms of the success of vasectomy (p=0.863). Conclusion: Although bipolar cautery technique is safe, effective and feasible in non-scalpel vasectomy, it has no superiority to ligation. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of the success and complications between the two groups.
  • Comparison of Cajal-like cells in pelvis and proximal ureter of kidney with and without hydronephrosis Original Article

    Balikci, Ömer; Turunç, Tahsin; Bal, Nebil; Çelik, Hüseyin; Özkardeş, Hakan

    Abstract in English:

    Objectives: To evaluate effects of Cajal-like cells on human renal pelvis and proximal ureter on peristalsis. Materials and Methods: 63 patients submitted to nephrectomy due to atrophic non-functional kidney associated with hydroureteronephrosis were included as study group and 30 cases with nephrectomy due to other reasons were included as control group. Samples from renal pelvis and proximal ureters were obtained and sections of 5μ form paraffin blocks of these samples were prepared; layers of lamina propria and muscularis mucosa were examined by immune-histochemistry using CD117 in order to determine count and distribution of Cajal-like cells. Results: During immune-histochemical examinations of sections, obtained from renal pelvis and proximal ureter of hydronephrotic kidneys by CD117, Cajal-like cells number determined in lamina propria and muscularis propria was statistically significantly lower compared to control group (p<0.001). Distribution of Cajal-like cells in renal pelvis and proximal tubulus was similar under examination by light microscope, and also both groups were not different from each other regarding staining intensity of Cajal-like cells by c-kit. Conclusion: Significantly reduced number of Cajal-like cells in study group compared to control group, shows that these cells may have a key role in regulation of peristalsis at level of renal pelvis and proximal ureter in urinary system.
  • Protective effect of hydrogen sulfide on renal injury in the experimental unilateral ureteral obstruction Original Article

    Dursun, Murat; Otunctemur, Alper; Ozbek, Emin; Sahin, Suleyman; Besiroglu, Huseyin; Ozsoy, Ozgur Doga; Cekmen, Mustafa; Somay, Adnan; Ozbay, Nurver

    Abstract in English:

    Introduction/Objective: Ureteral obstruction is a common pathology and causes kidney fibrosis and dysfunction at late period. In this present study, we investigated the antifibrotic and antiinflammatory effects of hydrogen sulfide on kidney damage after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rats. Materials and Methods: 24 rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was control, group 2 was sham, group 3 included rats with UUO and group 4 rats with UUO which were given sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS)-exogenous donor of hydrogen sulfide (intraperitoneally 56μmoL/kg/day). After 14 days, rats were killed and their kidneys were taken and blood analysis was performed. Tubular necrosis, mononuclear cell infiltration and interstitial fibrosis were determined histopathologically in a part of the kidneys; nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were determined in the other part of the kidneys. Urea-creatinine levels were investigated by blood analysis. Statistical analyses were made by the Chi-square test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: There was no significantly difference for urea-creatinine levels among groups. Pathologically, there was serious tubular necrosis and fibrosis in group 3 and there was significantly decreasing of tubular necrosis and fibrosis in group 4 (p<0.005). Also, there was significantly increase of NO and MDA levels and decrease of GSH levels in group 3 compared to other groups (p<0.005). Conclusions: hydrogen sulfide prevents kidney damage with antioxidant and antiinflammatory effect.
  • Bladder response to acute sacral neuromodulation while treating rats in different phases of complete spinal cord injury: a preliminary study Original Article

    Shi, Ping; Fang, Youfang; Yu, Hongliu

    Abstract in English:

    Background: Compared to conventional therapies, sacral neuromodulation (SNM) may offer an alternative, non-destructive treatment for SCI patients with bladder dysfunction. Understanding bladder response to SNM treatment for SCI in different phases may yield new insights for innovative use of this promising technique. Materials and Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study to examine the effects of acute SNM on bladder reflex in complete SCI rats. All rats were anesthetized and set up for continuous saline infusion. Acute SNM treatment was implemented for about 6 hours for each rat. Cystometric parameters, including time between contractions, contraction duration, bladder peak pressure, and number of uninhibited contractions, were analyzed and compared within rats before and after SNM treatment. Results: For the spinally transected rats during early phase (less than two weeks post spinalization), the time between contractions and contraction duration both increased after SNM treatments, yet the increased amplitude was about or less than 20%. For the spinally transected rats with a longer days survival (about two to four weeks post spinalization), the time between contractions and contraction duration substantially increased after SNM treatment and the changes for their average values were more than 90%. For the spinally transected rats with a much longer days survival (more than five weeks post spinalization), the time between contractions and contraction duration increased after SNM treatments, yet the magnitude of changes were less than 30%. Conclusion: The present study suggested that the significant effectiveness of SNM for complete SCI played its role after the spinal shock phase and prior to the development of detrusor overactivity. It indicated that the time point of SNM treatment is necessary to be paid attention.
  • The evaluation of pulmonary function and blood gas analysis in patients submitted to laparoscopic versus open nephrectomy Original Article

    Koc, Ayfer; Inan, Gozde; Bozkirli, Fusun; Coskun, Demet; Tunc, Lutfi

    Abstract in English:

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the early postoperative pulmonary function and arterial blood gases in patients who have undergone open versus laparoscopic nephrectomy. Materials and Methods: Forty patients were randomly assigned to undergo laparoscopic (LN, n=20) or open nephrectomy (ON, n=20). Pulmonary function tests including forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at 25% (FEF25), forced expiratory volume at 50% (FEF50), forced expiratory volume at 25% to 75% (FEF25–75), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FIV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were performed one day before the operation and on the postoperative day 1. The arterial blood gas analysis (pH, pCO2, pO2, SaO2) was made at breathing room preoperatively, in the recovery phase and on postoperative day 1. Results: All spirometric variables decreased after both open and laparoscopic nephrectomy on postoperative day 1. FEV1, FVC, FEF25 and FEF25–75 values decreased on postoperative day 1 (39.7%, 37.4%, 27.7%, 51.8% respectively) in the open surgery group and they were significantly lower in laparoscopic group (29.9%, 32.5%, 23.2%, 44.5% respectively). There were no significant differences in FEF50, PEF and FIV1 between the groups. The SaO2 and pO2 values also decreased in both groups. During early recovery, pH decreased while pCO2 increased significantly but they returned to preoperative values on postoperative day 1 in both groups. Conclusion: Laparoscopic nephrectomy is better than open nephrectomy considering pulmonary functions.
  • Robot-Assisted Extended Pelvic Lymph Nodes Dissection for Prostate Cancer: Personal Surgical Technique and Outcomes Surgical Technique

    Francesco, Porpiglia; Stefano, De Luca; Riccardo, Bertolo; Roberto, Passera; Fabrizio, Mele; Matteo, Manfredi; Daniele, Amparore; Ivano, Morra; Cristian, Fiori

    Abstract in English:

    Objective: Extended pelvic lymph nodes dissection (EPLND) allows the removal of a higher number of lymph nodes than limited PLND. The aims of this study were to describe our robot-assisted EPLND (RAEPLND) technique with related complications, and to report the number of lymph nodes removed and the rate of lymph nodal metastasis. Materials and Methods: 153 patients underwent RAEPLND prior to robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Indications were defined according to Briganti nomogram, to predict risk of lymph-nodal metastasis. Lymphatic packages covering the distal tract of the common iliac artery, the medial portion of the external iliac artery, the external iliac vein and the internal iliac vessels, together with the obturator and the presacral lymphatic packages were removed on both sides. Results: Median preoperative PSA was 7.5 ng/mL (IQR 5.5–11.5). Median operative time was 150 min (135–170). Median RAEPLND alone operative time was 38 min (32.75–41.25); for right and left side, 18 (15–29) and 20 min (15.75–30) (p=0.567). Median number of lymph nodes retrieved per patient was 25 (19.25–30); 13 (11–16) and 11 (8–15) for right and left side. In 19 patients (12.41%) metastasis was found at the level of pelvic lymph nodes. Median number of positive lymph nodes was 1 (1–4.6) per patient. Complications occurred in 11 patients (7.3%). Conclusions: the number of lymph nodes removed was comparable to published data about open series, allowing the increase of detection rate of lymph nodal metastasis for minimally invasive approach without compromising complications' rate if performing the procedure following reported technique.
  • Pregnancy and birth after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with normal testicular spermatozoa in a patient with azoospermia and tail stump epididymal sperm Challenging Clinical Cases

    Povlsen, Betina B.; Aw, Lin Da; Laursen, Rita J.; Esteves, Sandro C.; Humaidan, Peter

    Abstract in English:

    Main findings: An intriguing yet perplexing case report of a successful pregnancy and live birth with intracytoplasmic sperm injection using normal testicular sperm, after the finding of azoospermia in the semen analysis and discovering only tail stump abnormal sperm in the epididymis. Case hypothesis: A tail stump sperm defect of genetic origin was suspected. However, after obtaining normal testicular sperm we concluded that obstructive azoospermia, either idiopathic or secondary to multiple minor genital trauma was the plausible scenario. This has rendered the search of previous reports on a similar condition, but none was found. However, it has raised scientific thoughts for future research. Promising future implications: The importance of reporting this case is to alert urologists performing sperm retrieval that healthy and morphologically normal sperm may be found in the testis of azoospermic men with 100% tail stump epididymal sperm. Retrieval of normal testicular sperm obviates the need of a more complex investigation, including sperm electron microscopy. It also offers the possibility of utilizing such gametes for sperm injections rather than abnormal tail stump sperm that may be associated with a poor reproductive outcome.
  • Adult granulosa cell tumor of the testis masquerading as hydrocele Challenging Clinical Cases

    Vallonthaiel, Archana George; Kakkar, Aanchal; Singh, Animesh; Dogra, Prem N; Ray, Ruma

    Abstract in English:

    Adult testicular granulosa cell tumor is a rare, potentially malignant sex cord-stromal tumor, of which 30 cases have been described to date. We report the case of a 43-year-old male who complained of a left testicular swelling. Scrotal ultrasound showed a cystic lesion, suggestive of hydrocele. However, due to a clinical suspicion of a solid-cystic neoplasm, a high inguinal orchidectomy was performed, which, on pathological examination, was diagnosed as adult granulosa cell tumor. Adult testicular granulosa cell tumors have aggressive behaviour as compared to their ovarian counterparts. They may rarely be predominantly cystic and present as hydrocele. Lymph node and distant metastases have been reported in few cases. Role of MIB-1 labelling index in prognostication is not well defined. Therefore, their recognition and documentation of their behaviour is important from a diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic point of view.
  • Pancake kidney with bladder herniation Radiology Page

    Yuce, Ihsan; Kantarci, Mecit; Eren, Suat; Levent, Akin
  • EDITORIAL COMMENT Video Section

    Ignjatovic, Ivan; Potic, Milan; Basic, Dragoslav; Dinic, Ljubomir; Laketic, Darko; Mihajlovic, Marija; Skakic, Aleksandar

    Abstract in English:

    The treatment of long urethral strictures is based on the use of buccal mucosa graft (BMG). Postoperative failures commonly occur in patients with the obliterative strictures, and the long augmented part of the urethra which is prone to fibrotic changes. Combined approach with the resection of the obliterative part of the urethral plate located in the bulbar urethra, together with the ventral placement of BMG was performed in 36 patients. Etiology of the stricture was: idiopathic in 19/36 (52.7%), iatrogenic in 14/36 (38.8%), and other causes in 3/36 (8.3%). Mean length of the stricture was 7.2±1.6 cm, and the length of the augmented graft 4.5±1.2 cm (due to resected urethral plate) so, the single BMG was enough in 25/36 (69.4%) patients. The medium postoperative follow up was 24 months (20–28 months) months. Success of the surgery was defined as no need for additional surgery neither dilatation. Cystoscopy was performed 4–6 months after the surgery and additional follow up with IPSS and uroflowmetry. Overall success was achieved in 31/36 (86.1%) patients. Mean postoperative IPSS was 9.5±2.1 in these patients. Complications were according to Clavien Dindo scale: grade II in 11/36 (30.5%-infection, orchialgia, scrotal pain), grade III in 4/36 (11.1%-fistula) and grade IV in 5/36 (14.5% - restenosis). Postoperative Qmax= 13.2±1.2 ml/s. Bell shaped curve was present in 14/36(38.8%). Our results suggest that overall success rate is similar to the expected values for BMG surgery, and the number of the grafts used is lower due to reduced stricture length.
  • Re: Mini incision open pyeloplasty – Improvement in patient outcome Letter To The Editor

    Singh, Vishwajeet; Garg, Manish; Sharma, Pradeep; Sinha, Rahul Janak; Kumar, Manoj
Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia Rua Bambina, 153, 22251-050 Rio de Janeiro RJ Brazil, Tel. +55 21 2539-6787, Fax: +55 21 2246-4088 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil
E-mail: brazjurol@brazjurol.com.br