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International braz j urol, Volume: 45, Issue: 5, Published: 2019
  • Bulbar urethral stricture: penile skin flap may be a good option? Editorial In This Issue

    Favorito, Luciano A.
  • Focal therapy for prostate cancer – index lesion treatment vs. hemiablation. A matter of definition Editorial

    Stabile, Armando; Moschini, Marco; Montorsi, Francesco; Cathelineau, Xavier; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael
  • Social Media in the Urology Practice | Opinion: YES Difference Of Opinion

    Bellote, Mateus Cosentino; Santamaria, Hegel Trujillo; Pelayo-Nieto, Marcela; Heman Prasad, ES; Gadzhiev, Nariman; Gudaru, Kalyan
  • Social Media in the Urology Practice | Opinion: NO Difference Of Opinion

    Silva, Rodrigo Donalisio Da; Leow, Jeffrey J.; Abidin, Zainal Adwin; Linden-Castro, Edgar; Castro, Edgar Iván Bravo; Blanco, Leonardo Tortolero; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen-Chun; Contreras, Pablo Nicolas; Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer
  • Brazilian consensus in enuresis–recomendations for clinical practice Review Article

    Netto, José Murillo B.; Rondon, Atila Victal; Lima, George Rafael Martins de; Zerati, Miguel; Schneider-Monteiro, Edison Daniel; Molina, Carlos Augusto F; Calado, Adriano de Almeida; Barroso, Ubirajara

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Introduction Enuresis, defined as an intermittent urinary incontinence that occurs during sleep, is a frequent condition, occurring in about 10% of children at 7 years of age. However, it is frequently neglected by the family and by the primary care provider, leaving many of those children without treatment. Despite of many studies in Enuresis and recent advances in scientific and technological knowledge there is still considerable heterogeneity in evaluation methods and therapeutic approaches. Materials and Methods The board of Pediatric Urology of the Brazilian Society of Urology joined a group of experts and reviewed all important issues on Enuresis and elaborated a draft of the document. On September 2018 the panel met to review, discuss and write a consensus document. Results and Discussion Enuresis is a multifactorial disease that can lead to a diversity of problems for the child and family. Children presenting with Enuresis require careful evaluation and treatment to avoid future psychological and behavioral problems. The panel addressed recommendations on up to date choice of diagnosis evaluation and therapies.
  • Association between calcitonin receptor gene polymorphisms and calcium stone urolithiasis: A meta-analysis Review Article

    Xing, Jinchun; Qin, Jiaxuan; Cai, Zonglong; Duan, Bo; Bai, Peide

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose It has been reported that calcitonin receptor (CALCR) gene polymorphisms might be associated with calcium stone urolithiasis. Owing to mixed and inconclusive results, we conducted a meta-analysis to summarize and clarify this association. Materials and Methods A systematic search of studies on the association between CALCR gene polymorphisms and calcium stone urolithiasis susceptibility was conducted in databases. Results Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to pool the effect size. Five articles were included in our meta-analysis. Conclusions CALCR rs1801197 might be associated with increased risk of calcium stone urolithiasis. There is insufficient data to fully confirm the association between CALCR rs1042138 and calcium stone urolithiasis susceptibility. Well-designed studies with larger sample size and more subgroups are required to validate the risk identified in the current meta-analysis.
  • Non-functional paraganglioma of urinary bladder managed by transurethral resection Original Article

    Qiao, Baomin; Zhang, Baochao; Fu, Zhenrui; Liu, Liwei; Liu, Chunyu

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose As a rare bladder tumor, paraganglioma of the urinary bladder (PUB) is frequently misdiagnosed as bladder cancer, particularly for the non-functional type. To date, transurethral resection remains a controversial treatment for non-functional PUB. This study aimed to identify the clinical features, pathological characteristics, prognosis, and safe/effective treatment of non-functional PUB using transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT). Materials and Methods The clinical records, radiological data, pathological characteristics and follow-up times were retrospectively reviewed in 10 patients with clinically and pathologically proven non-functional PUB in our hospital from January 2008 to November 2016. All patients underwent TURBT treatment. Results The incidence of non-functional PUB in patients with bladder cancer was 0.17%. The mean age at diagnosis was 44.5 ± 13.6 years (range, 29-70 years), and the patient population had a female: male ratio of 3: 2. No patients had excess catecholamine (CA) whilst four patients had painless hematuria. All neoplasms were completely resected via TURBT. The majority of samples were positive for immunohistochemical markers including chromogranin A (CgA) and Synaptophysin (Syn), but were negative for cytokeratins (CKs). Only a single recurrence was observed from the mean follow-up period of 36.4 ± 24.8 months. Conclusion Complete TURBT is a safe and efficient treatment that serves both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry examinations are mandatory for diagnostic confirmation. Long-term follow-up is recommended for patients with non-functional PUB.
  • Biological roles of filamin a in prostate cancer cells Original Article

    Li, Xue-Chao; Huang, Chuan-Xi; Wu, Shi-Kui; Yu, Lan; Zhou, Guang-Jian; Chen, Li-Jun

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective This study aims to investigate the association of filamin A with the function and morphology of prostate cancer (PCa) cells, and explore the role of filamin A in the development of PCa, in order to analyze its significance in the evolvement of PCa. Materials and Methods A stably transfected cell line, in which filamin A expression was suppressed by RNA interference, was first established. Then, the effects of the suppression of filamin A gene expression on the biological characteristics of human PCa LNCaP cells were observed through cell morphology, in vitro cell growth curve, soft agar cloning assay, and scratch test. Results A cell line model with a low expression of filamin A was successfully constructed on the basis of LNCaP cells. The morphology of cells transfected with plasmid pSilencer-filamin A was the following: Cells were loosely arranged, had less connection with each other, had fewer tentacles, and presented a fibrous look. The growth rate of LNCap cells was faster than cells transfected with plasmid pSilencer-filamin A (P <0.05). The clones of LNCap cells in the soft agar cloning assay was significantly fewer than that of cells stably transfected with plasmid pSilencer-filamin A (P <0.05). Cells stably transfected with plasmid pSilencer-filamin A presented with a stronger healing and migration ability compared to LNCap cells (healing rate was 32.2% and 12.1%, respectively; P <0.05). Conclusion The expression of the filamin A gene inhibited the malignant development of LNCap cells. Therefore, the filamin A gene may be a tumor suppressor gene.
  • Outcomes of endovascular treatment of renal arterial stenosis in transplanted kidneys Original Article

    Marchini, Giovanni Scala; Bull, Alexandre Sallum; Piovesan, Affonso Celso; Yamaçake, Kleiton Gabriel Ribeiro; Antonopoulos, Ioannis Michel; Falci, Renato; Kanashiro, Hideki; Ebaid, Gustavo; Carnevale, Francisco César; Messi, Gustavo; Nahas, William Carlos

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and outcomes of endovascular treatment of TRAS with PTA. Materials and Methods We searched our prospectively collected database looking at cases of TRAS between January 2005-December 2011. CCT was the gold-standart for diagnosis of TRAS. Parameters analysed comprised technical aspects, arterial blood pressure variation, and renal function. A minimum follow-up of 24 months was considered. Results Of the 2221 renal transplants performed in the selected period, 22 (0.9%) patients were identified with TRAS. Fourteen (63.6%) were male and mean age was 377±14.8years (12-69). Kidney graft was from deceased donnors in 20 (80%) cases. On doppler evaluation, mean blood flow speed after transplantation, at TRAS diagnosis and after TAP was 210.6±99.5, 417±122.7 and 182.5±81.6mL/sec, respectively (p<0.001). For SBP and DBP, there was a significant difference between between pre-intervention and all post-treatment time points (p<0.001). After 1 month of the procedure, there was stabilization of the Cr level with a significant difference between mean Cr levels along time (p<0.001). After a mean follow-up of 16±4.2 (3-24) months, overall success rate was 100%. Conclusions Endovascular treatment with PTA/stenting is a safe and effective option for managing TRAS, ensuring the functionality of the graft and normalization of blood pressure and renal function.
  • Preoperative proteinuria is associated with increased rates of acute kidney injury after partial nephrectomy Original Article

    Kara, Önder; Maurice, Matthew J.; Mouracade, Pascal; Malkoc, Ercan; Dagenais, Julien; Çapraz, Mustafa; Chavali, Jaya S.; Kara, Merve Yazici; Kaouk, Jihad H.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose We investigated the association between preoperative proteinuria and early postoperative renal function after robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN). Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 1121 consecutive RPN cases at a single academic center from 2006 to 2016. Patients without pre-existing CKD (eGFR≥60 mL/min/1.73m2) who had a urinalysis within 1-month prior to RPN were included. The cohort was categorized by the presence or absence of preoperative proteinuria (trace or greater (≥1+) urine dipstick), and groups were compared in terms of clinical and functional outcomes. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) was assessed using RIFLE criteria. Univariate and multivariable models were used to identify factors associated with postoperative AKI. Results Of 947 patients, 97 (10.5%) had preoperative proteinuria. Characteristics associated with preoperative proteinuria included non-white race (p<0.01), preoperative diabetes (p<0.01) and hypertension (HTN) (p<0.01), higher ASA (p<0.01), higher BMI (p<0.01), and higher Charlson score (p<0.01). The incidence of AKI was higher in patients with preoperative proteinuria (10.3% vs. 4.6%, p=0.01). The median eGFR preservation measured within one month after surgery was lower (83.6% vs. 91%, p=0.04) in those with proteinuria; however, there were no significant differences by 3 months after surgery or last follow-up visit. Independent predictors of AKI were high BMI (p<0.01), longer ischemia time (p<0.01), and preoperative proteinuria (p=0.04). Conclusion Preoperative proteinuria by urine dipstick is an independent predictor of postoperative AKI after RPN. This test may be used to identify patients, especially those without overt CKD, who are at increased risk for developing AKI after RPN.
  • The role of a novel decision aid to support informed decision making process in patients with a symptomatic non - lower pole renal stone < 20 mm in diameter: a prospective randomized study Original Article

    Gökce, Mehmet İlker; Akpınar, Cağrı; Esen, Barış; Solak, Vahid; Gülpınar, Ömer; Bedük, Yaşar

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of a novel decision aid (DA) in improving the patients’ level of knowledge and decreasing decisional conflicts while deciding for SWL vs. RIRS in case of a symptomatic renal stone <2 cm. Materials and Methods In this prospective randomized study patients were randomized to receive either standard informing process (group 1, n=57) or DA (group 2, n=58). Level of knowledge was assessed with a questionnaire of 10 questions before and after patient informing process. Level of decisional conflict was assessed with a previously validated scoring system. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with adequate level of knowledge. Results Level of knowledge increased significantly in both groups after patient informing process. The increase was significantly more prominent in group 2 (p=0.045). Percentage of patients with adequate knowledge was also higher in group 2 (56.1%vs.74.1%, p=0.04). Mean decisional conflict scale score (higher score indicates higher decisional conflict level) was also significantly higher in group1 (14.7±14.5 vs. 10.1±13.7, p=0.045). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed higher education level (college degree) and use of DA as factors associated with adequate level of knowledge. Conclusions In the current study, The DA was shown to have a positive impact on level of knowledge and diminish the level of decisional conflict for patients with a symptomatic non-lower pole renal stone <20 mm. We recommend development and use of DAs for particular clinic scenarios to aid in education of patients and shared decision making process in stone disease clinics.
  • Computed tomography window affects kidney stones measurements Original Article

    Danilovic, Alexandre; Rocha, Bruno Aragão; Marchini, Giovanni Scala; Traxer, Olivier; Batagello, Carlos; Vicentini, Fabio Carvalho; Torricelli, Fábio César Miranda; Srougi, Miguel; Nahas, William Carlos; Mazzucchi, Eduardo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objectives Measurements of stone features may vary according to the non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) technique. Using magnified bone window is the most accurate method to measure urinary stones. Possible differences between stone measurements in different NCCT windows have not been evaluated in stones located in the kidney. The aim of this study is to compare measurements of kidney stone features between NCCT bone and soft tissue windows in patients submitted to retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). Materials and Methods Preoperative and 90th postoperative day NCCT were performed in 92 consecutive symptomatic adult patients (115 renal units) with kidney stones between 5 mm to 20 mm (< 15 mm in the lower calyx) treated by RIRS. NCCT were evaluated in the magnified bone window and soft tissue window in three axes in a different time by a single radiologist blinded for the measurements of the NCCT other method. Results Stone largest size (7.92±3.81 vs. 9.13±4.08; mm), volume (435.5±472.7 vs. 683.1±665.0; mm3) and density (989.4±330.2 vs. 893.0±324.6; HU) differed between bone and soft-tissue windows, respectively (p<0.0001) 5.2% of the renal units (6/115) were reclassified from residual fragments > 2 mm on soft tissue window to 0-2 mm on bone window. Conclusion Kidney stone measurements vary according to NCCT window. Measurements in soft tissue window NCCT of stone diameter and volume are larger and stone density is lesser than in bone window. These differences may have impact on clinical decisions.
  • Comparison of supine and prone miniaturized percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the treatment of lower pole, middle pole and renal pelvic stones: A matched pair analysis Original Article

    Erbin, Akif; Ozdemir, Harun; Sahan, Murat; Savun, Metin; Cubuk, Alkan; Yazici, Ozgur; Akbulut, Mehmet Fatih; Sarilar, Omer

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose We aimed to compare the outcomes of supine and prone miniaturized percutaneous nephrolithotomy (m-PNL) in the treatment of lower pole, middle pole and renal pelvic stones. Materials and Methods 54 patients who performed supine m-PNL between January 2017 and March 2018 and 498 patients who performed prone m-PNL between April 2015 and January 2018 were included in the study. Of the 498 patients, 108 matching 1: 2 in terms of age, gender, body mass index, American Association of Anesthesiology score, stone size, stone localization and hydronephrosis according to the supine m-PNL group were selected as prone m-PNL group. The patients with solitary kidney, upper pole stone, urinary system anomaly or skeletal malformation and pediatric patients (<18 years old) were excluded from the study. The success was defined as ‘complete stone clearance’ and was determined according to the 1st month computed tomography. Results The operation time and fluoroscopy time in supine m-PNL was significantly shorter than prone m-PNL group (58.1±45.9 vs. 80.1±40.0 min and 3.0±1.7 min vs. 4.9±4.5 min, p=0.025 and p=0.01, respectively). When post-operative complications were compared according to the modified Clavien-Dindo classification, overall and subgroup complication rates were comparable between groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the success rates (supine m-PNL; 72.2%, prone m-PNL; 71.3%, p=0.902). Conclusions Supine m-PNL procedure is more advantageous in terms of operation time and fluoroscopy time in the treatment of lower pole, middle pole and renal pelvic stones.
  • Comparison of the outcomes of laparoscopic pyeloplasty with and without concomitant pyelolithotomy Original Article

    Kadihasanoglu, Mustafa; Yucetas, Ugur; Karabay, Emre; Sönmezay, Erkan

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective We aimed to evaluate the results of laparoscopic pyeloplasty with concomitant pyelolithotomy and compare results with a cohort of patients undergoing laparoscopic pyeloplasty without pyelolithotomy. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed records of 43 patients undergoing transperitoneal laparoscopic Anderson-Hynes dismembered pyeloplasty between December 2012 and July 2018 at our department. Eighteen patients (42%) underwent laparoscopic pyeloplasty with concomitant pyelolithotomy. The results of patients with renal stones were compared with 25 matched patients undergoing laparoscopic pyeloplasty without concomitant renal stones. Demographic data, operative and stone parameters were compared between the groups. Results The groups were similar regarding to demographic characteristics. All operations were completed laparoscopically with no conversions to open surgery. In 3 cases without renal stones and 15 cases with renal stones, transposition of the ureter due to crossing vessels was performed. The mean stone size was 13±5.24 mm, and the median number of stones was 1 (1-18). The success of laparoscopic pyeloplasty with and without pyelolithotomy was 93.3% and 92.9%, respectively, as confirmed by negative diuretic renogram at postoperative 3rd months. Overall stone-free rate after laparoscopic pyelolithotomy was 93.3%. Mean operative time was 222.6765.71 minutes vs. 219.11±75.63 minutes for the pyeloplasty with concomitant pyelolithotomy vs. pyeloplasty, respectively (p=0.88). Conclusions Laparoscopic pyeloplasty with concomitant pyelolithotomy is a safe and effective intervention with associated good cosmetic results and high stone-free rates without significant increase in operative time or complications.
  • Prevalence of enuresis and its impact in quality of life of patients with sickle cell disease Original Article

    Mrad, Flávia Cristina de Carvalho; Nelli, Alana de Medeiros; Alvaia, Mateus de Andrade; Maia, Heros Aureliano Antunes da Silva; Guimarães, Carina Oliveira Silva; Carvalho, Evanilda Souza de Santana; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Netto, José Murillo Bastos; Bessa, José de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Introduction Evidence indicates an increase in the prevalence of enuresis in individuals with sickle cell disease. The present study aims to evaluate the prevalence and impact of enuresis on quality of life in individuals with sickle cell disease. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated individuals with sickle cell disease followed at a reference clinic, using a questionnaire designed to evaluate the age of complete toilet training, the presence of enuresis and lower urinary tract, and the impact on quality of life of these individuals. Results Fifty children presenting SCD (52% females, mean age ten years) were included in the study. Of those, 34% (17/50) presented as HbSC, 56% with HbSS (28/50), 2% Sα-thalassemia (1/5) and 8% the type of SCD was not determined. The prevalence of enuresis was 42% (21/50), affecting 75% of subjects at five years and about 15% of adolescents at 15 years of age. Enuresis was classified as monosymptomatic in 33.3% (7/21) and nonmonosymptomatic in 66.6% (14/21) of the cases, being primary in all subjects. Nocturia was identified in 24% (12/50), urgency in 20% (10/50) and daytime incontinence 10% (5/50) of the individuals. Enuresis had a significant impact on the quality of life of 67% of the individuals. Conclusion Enuresis was highly prevalent among children with SCD, and continues to be prevalent throughout early adulthood, being more common in males. Primary nonmonosymptomatic enuresis was the most common type, and 2/3 of the study population had a low quality of life.
  • Assessment of long term outcomes after buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty: the impact of chronic kidney disease Original Article

    Aggarwal, Ajay; Kumar, Manoj; Pandey, Siddharth; Agarwal, Samarth; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objectives To compare and assess various outcomes and success of buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty (BMGU) in patients with CKD versus patients having normal renal function. Material and Methods This was a retrospective, single centre study, during period 2013 to 2017. Patients were grouped into two groups. Group 1 had patients with estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR)>60mL/min/1.73m2 while group 2 had patients with eGFR <60mL/min/1.73m2. eGFR was calculated according to the MDRD equation. The two groups were compared with regard to various outcomes like length, location of stricture, technique of graft placement, intra-operative blood loss (haemoglobin drop), duration of hospital stay, post-operative complications and recurrence. Results A total of 223 patients were included in study with group 1 had 130 patients and group 2 had 93 patients. Mean age of patients with CKD were higher (47.49 years versus 29.13 years). The mean follow-up period was comparable between both groups (23.29 months and 22.54 months respectively). Patients with CKD had more post-operative Clavien Grade 2 or higher complications (p=0.01) and a greater recurrence rates (p<0.001) than in non-CKD patients. On multivariate analysis, age and CKD status was significant predictor of urethroplasty success (p=0.004) (OR= 14.98 (1.952-114.94, 95% CI). Conclusions CKD patients are more prone to post-operative complications in terms of wound infection, graft uptake and graft failure and higher recurrence rates following BMGU.
  • Macroplastique for women with stress urinary incontinence secondary to intrinsic sphincter deficiency Original Article

    Carroll, Timothy F.; Christie, Alana; Foreman, Melissa; Khatri, Gaurav; Zimmern, Philippe E.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the subjective and objective outcomes of Macroplastique® (MPQ) in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) secondary to intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD). Materials and Methods Following Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, charts of non-neurogenic women with SUI secondary to ISD who underwent MPQ injection and had 6 months minimum follow-up were reviewed from a prospectively maintained database. Patients were divided into 3 groups: Naïve (Group I), Prior Anti-Incontinence Surgery (Group II), and combined Prior Bulking Agent and Anti-Incontinence Surgery (Group III). Data collected included SUI self-report, Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) Question 3, and VAS Quality of Life (QoL) Questionnaire scores at baseline and in follow-up. Three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) evaluated volume/configuration of MPQ. Success was defined after the last MPQ injection as a UDI-6 Question 3 score of 0 (dry) or 1, and no reoperation for SUI. Results From 2011-2017, 106 of 142 women met study criteria. At a median follow-up of 20 months (mean=26 months; range: 6-71), success rate was 41% for Group I, 40% for Group II, and 65% for Group III (p = 0.22). QoL scores were significantly improved over baseline in all groups. There was no significant difference in clinical outcome between the asymmetrical and symmetrical group on 3DUS. The completely dry rate was highest in Group III at 29%, compared to 4% for Group I and 15% for Group II (p = 0.05). Conclusion Macroplastique® improved subjective and objective outcome measures for SUI secondary to ISD as both a primary and secondary treatment option in women.
  • Intermediate-term outcomes of laparoscopic pectopexy and vaginal sacrospinous fixation: a comparative study Original Article

    Astepe, Bahar Sariibrahim; Karsli, Aybike; Köleli, Işil; Aksakal, Orhan Seyfi; Terzi, Hasan; Kale, Ahmet

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective To compare the intermediate-term follow-up results of laparoscopic pectopexy and vaginal sacrospinous fixation procedures. Materials and Methods Forty-three women who had vaginal sacrospinous fixations(SSF) using Dr. Aksakal’s Desta suture carrier and 36 women who had laparoscopic pectopexies were re-examined 7 to 43 months after surgery. The PISQ-12 and P-QOL questionnaires were answered by all of the women. Results The apical descensus relapse rates did not differ between the groups (14% in the SSF vs. 11.1% in the pectopexy group). The de novo cystocele rates were higher in the SSF group (25.6% in the SSF vs. 8.3% in the pectopexy group). There were no significant differences in the de novo rectocele numbers between the groups. The treatment satisfaction rates were high in both groups (93% in the SSF vs. 91.7% in the pectopexy group), which was not statistically significant. Moreover, the postoperative de novo urge and stress urinary incontinence rates did not differ; however, the postoperative sexual function scores (PISQ-12) (36.86±3.15 in the SSF group vs. 38.21±5.69 in the pectopexy group) were better in the pectopexy group. The general P-QOL scores were not significantly different between the surgery groups. Conclusion The vaginal sacrospinous fixation maintains its value in prolapse surgery with the increasing importance of native tissue repair. The new laparoscopic pectopexy technique has comparable positive follow-up results with the conventional sacrospinous fixation procedure.
  • Human Chorionic Gonadotropin monotherapy for the treatment of hypogonadal symptoms in men with total testosterone > 300 ng/dL Original Article

    Madhusoodanan, Vinayak; Patel, Premal; Lima, Thiago Fernandes Negris; Gondokusumo, Jabez; Lo, Eric; Thirumavalavan, Nannan; Lipshultz, Larry I.; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose The 2018 American Urological Association guidelines on the Evaluation and Management of Testosterone Deficiency recommended that 300 ng/dL be used as the threshold for prescribing testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). However, it is not uncommon for men to present with signs and symptoms of testosterone deficiency, despite having testosterone levels greater than 300 ng/dL. There exists scant literature regarding the use of hCG monotherapy for the treatment of hypogonadism in men not interested in fertility. We sought to evaluate serum testosterone response and duration of therapy of hCG monotherapy for men with symptoms of hypogonadism, but total testosterone levels > 300 ng/dL. Materials and Methods We performed a multi-institutional retrospective case series of men receiving hCG monotherapy for symptomatic hypogonadism. We evaluated patient age, treatment indication, hCG dosage, past medical history, physical exam findings and serum testosterone and gonadotropins before and after therapy. Descriptive analysis was performed and Mann Whitney U Test was utilized for statistical analysis. Results Of the 20 men included in the study, treatment indications included low libido (45%), lack of energy (50%), and erectile dysfunction (45%). Mean testosterone improved by 49.9% from a baseline of 362 ng/dL (SD 158) to 519.8 ng/dL (SD 265.6), (p=0.006). Median duration of therapy was 8 months (SD 5 months). Fifty percent of patients reported symptom improvement. Conclusions Treatment of hypogonadal symptoms with hCG for men who have a baseline testosterone level > 300 ng/dL appears to be safe and efficacious with no adverse events.
  • Portable model for vasectomy reversal training Original Article

    Pinto, Luis Otávio Amaral Duarte; Barros, Charles Alberto Villacorta de; Lima, Anderson Bentes de; Santos, Deivid Ramos dos; Bacelar, Herick Pampolha Huet de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objectives To validate an experimental non-animal model for training of vasectomy reversal. Materials and Methods The model consisted of two artificial vas deferens, made with silicon tubes, covered by a white resin, measuring 10 cm (length) and internal and external diameters of 0.5 and 1.5 mm, respectively. The holder of the ducts is made by a small box developed with polylactic acid, using a 3D print. The objective of the invention is to simulate the surgical field of vasovasostomy, when the vas deferens are isolated from other cord structures. For validation, it was verified the acquisition of microsurgical skills during its use, in a capacitation course with 5 urology residents from a Hospital of the region. Along the training sessions, it was analyzed the time (speed) of microsurgical sutures, and quantification of the performance using a checklist. Collected data were analyzed using de BioEstat®5.4 software. Results Medium time for the completion of microsurgical sutures improved considerably during the course, and reached a plateau after the third day of training (p=0.0365). In relation to the checklist, it was verified that during capacitation, there was significant improvement of the scores of each participant, that reached a plateau after the fourth day of training with the model (p=0.0035). Conclusion The developed model was able to allow the students that attended the course to gain skills in microsurgery, being considered appropriate for training vasectomy reversal.
  • Editorial Comment: Portable model for vasectomy reversal training Editorial Comment

    Vieiralves, Rodrigo R.
  • An augmented patient-specific approach to administration of contrast agent for CT renal angiography Original Article

    Saade, Charbel; Hamieh, Nadine; Deeb, Ibrahim Al-Sheikh; Haddad, Maurice; Abi-Ghanem, Alain S.; Ghieh, Diamond; El-Merhi, Fadi

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose This hybrid retrospective and prospective study performed on 200 consecutive patients undergoing renal CTA, investigates the opacification of renal vasculature, radiation dose, and reader confidence. Materials and Methods 100 patients were assigned retrospectively to protocol A and the other 100 were allocated prospectively to protocol B. Both protocols implemented a contrast material and saline flow rate of 4.5 mL/sec. Protocol A utilized a 100 mL of low-osmolar nonionic IV contrast material (Ioversol 350 mg I/mL) while protocol B employed a patient-tailored contrast media formula using iso-osmolar non-ionic (Iodixanol 320 mg I/mL). Results Arterial opacification in the abdominal aorta and in the bilateral main proximal renal arteries demonstrated no statistical significance (p>0.05). Only the main distal renal artery of the left kidney in protocol B was statistically significant (p<0.046). In the venous circulation, the IVC demonstrated a significant reduction in opacification in protocol B (59.39 HU ± 19.39) compared to A (87.74 HU ± 34.06) (p<0.001). Mean CNR for protocol A (22.68 HU ± 13.72) was significantly higher than that of protocol B (14.75 HU ± 5.76 p< 0.0001). Effective dose was significantly reduced in protocol B (2.46 ± 0.74 mSv) compared to A (3.07 ± 0.68 mSv) (p<0.001). Mean contrast media volume was reduced in protocol B (44.56 ± 14.32 mL) with lower iodine concentration. ROC analysis demonstrated significantly higher area under the ROC curve for protocol B (p< 0.0001), with inter-reader agreement increasing from moderate to excellent in renal arterial visualization. Conclusion Employing a patient-tailored contrast media injection protocol shows a significant refinement in the visualization of renal vasculature and reader confidence during renal CTA.
  • Evaluation of relaxant responses properties of cinnamon essential oil and its major component, cinnamaldehyde on human and rat corpus cavernosum Original Article

    Onder, Alev; Yilmaz-Oral, Didem; Jerkovic, Igor; Akdemir, Alp Ozgur; Gur, Serap

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Cinnamomum cassia (Cinnamon) is a well-known traditional medicine with therapeutic benefits for centuries. We evaluated the effects of cinnamon essential oil (CEO) and its main component cinnamaldehyde (CA) on human corpus cavernosum (HCC) and rat CC. The essential oil of cinnamon was analyzed for the confirmation of the oil profile. HCC specimens from patients undergoing penile prosthesis surgery (age 48-69 years) were utilized for functional studies. In addition, erectile responses in anesthetized control and diabetic rats were evaluated in vivo after intracavernosal injection of CEO and CA, and rat CC strips were placed in organ baths. After precontraction with phenylephrine (10µM), relaxant responses to CEO and CA were investigated. CA (96.9%) was found as the major component. The maximum relaxation responses to CEO and CA were 96.4±3.5% and 96.0±5.0% in HCC and 97.5±5.5% and 96.8±4.8% in rat CC, respectively. There was no difference between control and diabetic rats in relaxation responses to CEO and CA. The relaxant responses obtained with essential oil and CA were not attenuated in the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, and soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor (sGS) in CC. In vivo, erectile responses in diabetic rats were lower than in control rats, which was restored after intracavernosal injection of CEO and CA. CEO and CA improved erectile function and relaxation of isolated strips of rat CC and HCC by a NO/cGMP-independent mechanism. Further investigations are warranted to fully elucidate the restorative effects of CEO and CA on diabetic erectile dysfunction.
  • Improvement of fertility parameters with Tribulus Terrestris and Anacyclus Pyrethrum treatment in male rats Original Article

    Haghmorad, Dariush; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Bagher; Haghighi, Pardis; Alidadiani, Paria; Shahvazian, Ensieh; Tavasolian, Parsova; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective Anacyclus Pyrethrum (AP) and Tribulus Terrestris (TT) have been reported as male infertility treatment in several studies; however, in Iranian traditional medicine these two plants are prescribed simultaneously. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of AP and TT extracts both separately and simultaneously on the male Wistar rat fertility parameters. Materials and Methods 32 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: Control, TT, AP, and AT treated groups. Treatment continued for 25 days and rats were weighed daily. Their testes were dissected for histological studies. Sperm analysis including sperm count, viability and motility were performed. Serum was obtained to evaluate testosterone, LH and FSH levels. Histological studies were conducted to study Leydig, and Sertoli cells, spermatogonia and spermatid cell numbers, and to measure seminiferous diameter and epithelium thickness. Results Sperm count increased in all the treatment groups. Sperm viability and motility in AT and AP groups were elevated. TT and AT groups showed significantly increased testosterone level compared to control group (P=004, P=0.000, respectively) and TT, AP and AT treatment groups showed increased LH level (P=0.002, P=0.03 and P=0.000, respectively) compared to control, while only AT group showed increased FSH (p=0.006) compared to control. Histological studies showed significant increase of spermatogonia, Leydig and Sertoli cell numbers and epithelial thickness in AT group compared to other groups. All the treatment groups had higher number of Leydig, spermatogonia and spermatid cells. Conclusion TT and AP improved sexual parameters; however, their simultaneous administration had higher improving effects on studied parameters.
  • Editorial Comment: Improvement of fertility parameters with Tribulus Terrestris and Anacyclus Pyrethrum treatment in male rats Editorial Comment

    Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; Buys-Gonçalves, Gabriela Faria
  • Penile skin flap: a versatile substitute for anterior urethral stricture Surgical Technique

    Hmida, Wissem; Othmen, Mouna Ben; Bako, Amidou; Jaidane, Mehdi; Mosbah, Faouzi

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose Penile skin flap uretroplasty is a useful technique for a long urethral stricture due to the ample length and surgical handling characteristics. We investigated the surgical technique and initial results of uretroplasty for anterior urethral strictures using a dorsal penile skin flap. Patients and methods From January 2003 to January 2018, a total of 77 patients underwent substitution urethroplasty using dorsal penile skin flap for bulbar urethral strictures in our institution. All patients were assessed preoperatively, and followed postoperatively by physical examination, urinalysis, retrograde and voiding urethrography, uroflowmetry and post-void residual urine measurement. Success was defined as no requirement of additional urethral instrumentation. Results The mean age was 45 years (10-87). The mean stricture length was 5cm (3-10cm). The mean flap length was 6cm. Urinary fistula was the most common postoperative complication. The mean follow-up was 60 months (6-120). The overall success rate was 88%. Recurrent strictures were found in 4 patients (5%) at 1 year. At 3 year follow-up, 5 (7%) more patients had recurrences. All recurrences were managed by internal urethrotomy. Conclusions Substitution urethroplasty using penile skin flap appear to be a safe and efficient technique for the treatment of a long and complex anterior urethral stricture. It provides encouraging cosmetic and functional results.
  • Novel homozygous mutation in a colombian patient with persistent müllerian duct syndrome: expanded phenotype Challenging Clinical Cases

    Acero, Mary García; Moreno, Olga; Gutiérrez, Andrés; Sánchez, Catalina; Cataño, Juan Guillermo; Suárez-Obando, Fernando; Rojas, Adriana

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The anti-Müllerian hormone triggers the regression of uterus and fallopian tubes in male embryos; if there are problems in the synthesis or action of this protein, Müllerian structures persist in an otherwise phenotypic male. The most frequent clinical presentation of Persistent Mullerian Duct syndrome is cryptorchidism and inguinal hernia. The few cases reported in adults are incidental findings or inguinal hernias. However, we present an adult male with history of bilateral cryptorchidism with unsuccessful orchidopexy, who presents with a large abdominal mass with the finding of a seminomatous tumor and persistence of Müllerian structures, in whom the variant c.916delC (p.Leu306Cysfs*29) in the AMHR2 gene not previously reported was documented.
  • Intracorporeal renal hypothermia with ice slush for robot-assisted partial nephrectomy in a highly complex renal mass Video Section

    Bauza, Jose Luis; Murthy, Prithvi; Sagalovich, Daniel; Bertolo, Riccardo; Pieras, Enrique; Piza, Pedro; Kaouk, Jihad

    Abstract in English:

  • One-sided anterior Urethroplasty for panurethral stricture: step-by-step Video Section

    Ito, Willian Eduardo; Rodrigues, Marco Aurélio; Almeida, Silvio Henrique Maia de
Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia Rua Bambina, 153, 22251-050 Rio de Janeiro RJ Brazil, Tel. +55 21 2539-6787, Fax: +55 21 2246-4088 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil