Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Vesicoureteral reflux, the retrograde flow of urine from the bladder into the upper urinary tract, is one of the most common urologic diagnoses in the pediatric population. Once detected, therapeutic options for urinary reflux are diverse, ranging from observation with or without continuous low-dose prophylactic antibiotics to a variety of operative interventions. While a standardized algorithm is lacking, it is generally accepted that management be tailored to individual patients based on various factors including age, likelihood of spontaneous resolution, risk of subsequent urinary tract infections with renal parenchymal injury, and parental preference. Anti-reflux surgery may be necessary in children with persistent reflux, renal scarring or recurrent pyelonephritis after optimization of bladder and bowel habits. Open, laparoscopic/robot-assisted and endoscopic approaches are all successful in correcting reflux and have been shown to reduce the incidence of febrile urinary tract infections.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Robotic surgery has been slow to be fully accepted in the world of pediatric urology largely because of its initial application directed towards adult use and because of the inherent high cost associated with it. However, as previously shown, it has now become the gold standard for adolescent pyeloplasty in The United States. As the adoption of robotic surgery in children has become more widespread, its use has been applied to a broader spectrum of procedures with similar success rates to standard laparoscopy. These procedures include nephrectomy, heminephrectomy, ureteral reimplantation, and ureteroureterostomy. However, it has also shown feasibility and comparable success when compared to open surgery in procedures that were previously deemed too complex to be done by standard laparoscopy. For example, bladder neck reconstruction with Mitrofanoff and Malone procedure as well as bladder augmentation. This review objective is to provide an overview of robotic surgery in pediatric urology, with a focus on the more common cases such as pyeloplasty and reimplantation as well as more complex bladder reconstruction procedures.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To explore the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) model application for predicting outcome of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma using targeted agents. Materials and Methods: We performed a literature review of 989 articles. The selecting process used preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). All included studies were assessed by Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results of individual studies were pooled using Stata 14.0 software. Results: A total of 17 articles were included. Most articles provided univariate and multivariate analysis of IMDC model prognosis. Combined HRs were 1.58 (95% CI 1.34-1.82) and 3.74 (95% CI 2.67-4.81) for univariate PFS of intermediate to favorable and poor to favorable respectively. In the category of multivariate PFS, combined HRs were 1.27 (95% CI 0.99-1.56) and 2.29 (95% CI 1.65-2.93) with intermediate to favorable and poor to favorable respectively. Regarding univariate OS, combined HRs were 1.93 (95% CI 1.62-2.24) and 6.25 (95% CI 4.18-8.31) with intermediate to favorable and poor to favorable respectively. With multivariate OS, combined HRs were 1.32 (95%CI 1.04-1.59) and 2.35 (95%CI 1.69-3.01) with intermediate to favorable and poor to favorable respectively. Conclusion: In summary, analysis of currently available clinical evidence indicated that IMDC model could be applied to classify patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma using targeted agents. However, different types of targeted agents and various areas could affect the accuracy of the model. There was also a difference in predicting patients' PFS and OS.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the oncological and functional results of open partial nephrectomy (OPN) and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) at the T1b clinical stage, which constitutes 25% of renal cell carcinomas (RCC) at diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The characteristics of 63 patients with stage T1b solitary tumor who underwent OPN (41) or LPN (22) were compared. The survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the factors affecting disease-free survival. Potential predictive factors, which might affect the postoperative glomerular filtration rate (GFR), were evaluated using multivariate linear regression analysis. Results: No differences were observed between OPN and LPN groups regarding patient and tumor characteristics. Although the warm ischemia time, intraoperative estimated blood loss, and operation duration were higher in the LPN group, no differences were noted between the two techniques regarding complication rates (p<0.001, p=0.023, p≤0.001, and p=0.190, respectively). The median hospitalization time was shorter in the LPN group than that in the OPN group (4 and 5 days, respectively), with less severe complications. No intergroup differences were observed regarding cancer-specific survival (CSS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). The evaluation of the factors affecting DFS showed that age was an effective parameter (RR = 1.112, 95% CI: 1.010–8.254), but the surgical technique was not. Conclusion: No differences were observed between OPN and LPN techniques between oncological and functional outcomes in patients with clinical stage T1b RCC.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: Testicular germ cells tumor (TGCT) are associated with a high cure rate and are treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. However, a group of testicular cancer patients may have a very unfavorable evolution and insensitivity to the main therapeutic agent chemotherapy (CT) cisplatin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of recurrence and overall survival related to the expression of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), transglutaminase 2 (TG2) and excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) in patients with TGCT treated with platinum combinations. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study was performed with TGCT patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed and the expression was correlated with clinical and laboratory data. Results: Fifty patients were included, the mean age was 28.4 years (18 to 45), and 76% were non-seminoma. All patients were treated with standard cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin or cisplatin, and etoposide. Patient’s analyzed immunodetection for NF-κB, TG2, and ERCC1 were positive in 76%, 54% and 42%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified that positive expressions to ERCC1 and NF-κB are independent risk factors for higher recurrence TGCT after chemotherapy (RR 2.96 and 3.16, respectively). Patients with positive expression of ERCC1 presented a poor overall survival rate for 10-year follow (p=0.001). Conclusions: The expression of ERCC1 and NF-κB give a worse prognosis for relapse, and only ERCC1 had an influence on the overall survival of TGCT patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. These may represent markers that predict poor clinical outcome and response to cisplatin.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in carcinoma prostate (CaP) has deleterious effect on bone mineral density (BMD) leading to increase incidence of osteoporosis and skeletal-related events. We evaluated bone health status and impact of bone-directed therapy (BDT) and ADT on BMD in these patients from Jan 2015-Dec 2018. Materials and Method: Baseline bone health was assessed using Tc-99 MDP Bone scan/ DEXA scan for patients on ADT. Monthly zoledronic acid (ZA) was given to high-risk candidates (T-score ≤2.5 or previous hip/vertebral fracture) or Skel et al. metastatic patients who were receiving ADT. Baseline and follow-up (at 12-months) BMD using DEXA scan at various sites (spine, femur total, femur neck and radius) and subjective improvement in bony pain using Numeric Pain Rating Score after administration of ZA were compared. Results: A total of 96-patients of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer receiving ADT with or without BDT were included in the study cohort. Mean age of presentation was 68.4±15.61 years. Median serum PSA was 32.2±13.1ng/mL. There was significant improvement in mean BMD (T-score) in 64-patients post ZA therapy at 12-months (at femoral total, femoral neck and spine; 0.95, 0.79 and 0.68, respectively) (p <0.05) while there was significant deterioration in mean BMD at 12-months (at spine, femoral neck and femoral total; −0.77, −0.55 and −0.66, respectively) in 32 patients who did not receive ZA and were on ADT (p <0.05). Pain scores significantly decreased in patients after 12-months of ZA use (−2.92±2.16, p <0.01). Conclusion: Bone-directed therapy (Zoledronic acid) leads to both subjective and objective improvement in bone health of prostate cancer patients on ADT.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Urinary or sexual dysfunction in the elderly are underreported. However, they are highly prevalent. This study aims to identify the prevalence of these conditions. Objective: The aim is to carry out an investigation in non-institutionalized individuals over 60 years of age, to obtain data on its sexual and urinary health in São Paulo, Campinas, Santo André and Londrina. Results: 6.000 questionnaires were distributed, and 3425 were included in the study, for the analysis of the questionnaires separately. In relation to ADAM, 92% of the 1385 evaluated were suspicious of androgen deficiency (ADAM). As for the male sexual function, it was observed 37% of premature ejaculation. As for the female sexual function, 1300 (74%) did not practice sexual intercourse and the main reasons were: lack of partner and lack of sexual desire. In addition, 988 (78%) of women who had no sexual intercourse responded that they didn't want sex and, more importantly, about 22% of them would like to have sexual intercourse. International prostate symptom score (IPSS) showed gradual worsening of urinary symptoms with increasing age, being the most prevalent: nocturia and urinary urgency. As for the female IPSS, we noted that even after 80 years, the majority have mild symptoms related to voiding dysfunction; with increasing age there is a gradual increase in the result of the IPSS. Conclusion: Due to the large number of sexual and urinary disorders found, we recommend the improvement in health conditions, promoting a better quality of life in the elderly.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the mainstay of therapy for advanced prostate cancer. Studies addressing the efficacy of different depot formulations of long acting luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonists in the Brazilian population are lacking. We aimed to compare the efficacy of three schedules of leuprolide acetate in lowering PSA in a real world population. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the medical records of patients with prostate cancer seen at our institution between January 2007 and July 2018. We analyzed patients treated with long-acting leuprolide acetate and grouped these patients into three strata according to the administration of ADT every 1, 3 or 6 months. The primary outcome was the serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels at 6 and 12 months after treatment initiation. We used Friedman test to compare the distribution of PSA levels at baseline and at 6 and 12 months within each treatment stratum. We considered two-sided P values <0.05 as statistically significant. We analyzed toxicity descriptively. Results: We analyzed a total of 932 patients, with a median age of 72 years and a median time since diagnosis of prostate cancer of 8.5 months. ADT was administered monthly in 115 patients, quarterly in 637, and semiannually in 180. Nearly half of the patients had locally advanced disease. In comparison with baseline, median serum PSA levels were reduced at 12 months by at least 99.7% in the three strata (P <0.001 in all cases). Sexual impotence and hot flashes were the most frequently reported toxicities. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the largest assessment of real-world data on alternative schedules of leuprolide in a Brazilian population. Our study suggests that PSA levels can be effectively be reduced in most patients treated with monthly, quarterly, or semiannual injections of long-acting leuprolide acetate.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Two automated irrigation systems have been released for use during endoscopic procedures such as ureteroscopy: the Cogentix RocaFlow® (CRF) and Thermedx FluidSmart® (TFS). Accurate pressure control using automated systems may help providers maintain irrigation pressures within a safe range while also providing clear visualization. Our objective was to directly compare these systems based on their pressure accuracy, pressure-flow relationships, and fluid heating capabilities in order to help providers better utilize the temperature and pressure settings of each system. Materials and Methods: An in vitro ureteroscopy model was used for testing, consisting of a short semirigid ureteroscope (6/7, 5F, 31cm Wolf 425612) connected to a continuous digital pressure transducer (Meriam m1550). Each system pressure output and flow-rate, via 100mL beaker filling time, was measured using multiple trials at pressure settings between 30 and 300mmHg. Output fluid temperature was monitored using a digital thermometer (Omega DP25-TH). Results: The pressure output of both systems exceeded the desired setting across the entire tested range, a difference of 15.7±2.4mmHg for the TFS compared to 5.2±1.5mmHg for the CRF (p <0.0001). Related to this finding, the TFS also had slightly higher flow rates across all trials (7±2mL/min). Temperature testing revealed a similar maximum temperature of 34.0°C with both systems, however, the TFS peaked after only 8 minutes and started to plateau as early as 4-5 minutes into the test, while the CRF took over 18 minutes to reach a similar peak. Conclusions: Our in vitro ureteroscopy testing found that the CRF system had better pressure accuracy than the TFS system but with noticeably slower fluid heating capabilities. Each system provided steady irrigation at safe pressures within their expected operating parameters with small differences in performance that should not limit their ability to provide steady irrigation at safe pressures.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: To elucidate the current scenario of endourology in Brazil for the treatment of urinary lithiasis, with an emphasis on regional differences and the reasons why certain techniques are still underutilized. Materials and Methods: An electronic questionnaire was sent by email to the 4,745 members of the Brazilian Urological Society (BSU) in 2016 to collect information on the 3 main endourological procedures used in the treatment of nephrolithiasis: Semi-rigid ureteroscopy (URS), Flexible ureteroscopy (F-URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL). Results: A total of 1,267 urologists answered the questionnaire. It was observed that the vast majority perform URS (95.6%), while 80.2% perform F-URS and only 72.1% perform PCNL. Regarding the surgical volume, most perform up to 10 procedures per month (73.4% to 88.2%) and the main impediment was the lack of patients with the pathology (42.1% to 67.7%). The lack of equipment or hospital infrastructure was one of the main limiting factors for rigid (23%) and flexible (38.1%) URS, mainly in the North and Northeast regions of the country. Regarding PCNL, most of them reported lack of practical experience in the method (29.9%). Finally, most urologists expressed interest in taking courses in endourology. Conclusion: Ureteroscopy, rigid or flexible, is already well established in the country, requiring the direction of more resources for its practice, especially in less developed regions. Regarding PCNL a significant part of Brazilian urologists still lack practical experience in this procedure, emphasizing the need for greater investment in teaching this technique.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: To report our experience over the past 20 years in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of penile fracture (PF). Materials and methods: Between January 1997 and January 2017, patients with clinical diagnosis of PF were admitted to our facility and retrospectively assessed. Medical records were reviewed for clinical presentation, etiology and operative findings. Postoperative complications, sexual and urinary function were evaluated. Results: Sexual trauma was the main etiological factor, responsible for 255 cases (88.5%): 110 (43.1%) occurred with the “doggy style” position, 103 (40.3%) with “man on top” position, 31 (12.1%) with the “woman on top” position and 11 (4.3%) in other sexual positions. The most common findings in the clinical presentation were hematoma, in all cases and detumescence in 238 (82.6%). Unilateral corpus cavernosum injuries were found in 199 (69%) patients and bilateral in 89 (31%) patients. Urethral injuries were observed in 54 (18.7%) cases. Nine (14.7%) patients developed erectile dysfunction and eight (13.1%) had penile curvature. Only two (3.7%) patients had complications after urethral reconstruction. Conclusions: PF has typical clinical presentation and no need for additional tests in most cases. Hematoma and immediate penile detumescence are the most common clinical findings. Sexual activity was the most common cause. The ‘doggy style’ and ‘man-on-top’ was the most common positions and generally associated with more severe lesions. Concomitant urethral injury should be considered in cases of highenergy trauma. Surgical reconstruction produces satisfactory results, however, it can lead to complications, such as erectile dysfunction and penile curvature.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the lower urinary tract symptoms, classified by the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), urodynamic results (Watts Factor (WF), Bladder Contractility Index (BCI), and post void residual (PVR), in order to differentiate Detrusor Underactivity (DU) from Bladder Outlet Obstruction (BOO). Methods: Retrospective observational study performed from 2011 to 2018 at the Hospital das Clínicas of Unicamp. Two phases were done: first, to estimate sample size, and second, to evaluate the predicted parameters. Male patients with range age from 40 to 80 years were included. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1, without BOO and with DU; Group 2, with BOO. Variables analyzed: age, comorbidities, symptoms, urodynamic data (BCI and WF) and PVR. Results: Twenty-two patients were included in each group, with medians of 68 (Group 1) and 67.5 years old (Group 2) (p = 0.8416). There was no difference for comorbidities. In relation to IPSS, medians were: 16.5 and 20.5, respectively (p = 0.858). As for symptoms, there was predominance of combination of storage and voiding symptoms in the two groups (p = 0.1810). Regarding PVR, 15 patients in Group 1 and 16 in Group 2 presented PVR> 30mL (p = 0.7411). BCI presented median values of 75 and 755.50 for Group 1 and Group 2, respectively (p <0.0001), while WF had medians of 22.42 and 73.85 (p <0.0001). Conclusion: Isolated symptoms, classified by IPSS and PVR, could not differentiate patients with DU from those with BOO, but it was possible using urodynamic data.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: Minimally invasive techniques are used increasingly by virtue of advancements in technology. Surgery for prostate cancer, which has high morbidity, is performed with an increasing momentum based on the successful oncological and functional outcomes as well as cosmetic aspects. Materials and methods: Sixty two patients underwent robot-assisted perineal radical prostatectomy (R-PRP) surgery at our clinic between November 2016 and August 2017. Six pelvimetric dimensions were defined and measured by performing multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) prior to operation in all patients. In light of these data, we aimed to investigate the effect of pelvimetric measurements on surgery duration and surgical margin positivity. Results: By using this technique in pelvic area, we observed that measurements only representing surgical site and excluding other pelvic organs had a significant effect on surgery duration, and pelvic dimensions had no significant effect on surgical margin positivity. Conclusion: In R-PRP technique, peroperative findings and oncological outcomes can vary depending on several variable factors, but although usually not taken into account, pelvimetric measurements can also affect these outcomes. However, there is a need for randomised controlled trials to be conducted with more patients.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: Spongioplasty (mobilization and midline approximation of the two branches of the bifid dysplastic distal corpus spongiosum) can form a covering layer for the neourethra to prevent urethrocutaneous fistula in hypospadias repair surgery. However, it remains unclear whether spongioplasty affects neourethral function. The objective of this study was to compare neourethral function after hypospadias repair with and without spongioplasty. Materials and Methods: Fourteen congenital hypospadiac New Zealand male rabbits were randomly allocated into two groups, seven animals underwent Duplay hypospadias repair and spongioplasty (experimental group), while seven underwent Duplay surgery alone (control group). Functional differences between groups were assessed by comparing neourethral compliance and flow rate. Two months after surgery, in vivo neourethral compliance was assessed by measuring intraluminal pressure with a digital pressure meter of an isolated neourethral segment, following progressive distension with 1, 2, and 3mL of air. Penises were harvested for uroflowmetry test using a simple device. Results: Postoperatively, fistula developed in one and zero rabbits in the control and experimental groups, respectively. Mean pressures tended to be higher in the experimental group than in the control group (82.14 vs. 69.57, 188.43 vs. 143.26, and 244.71 vs. 186.29mmHg for 1, 2, and 3mL of air, respectively), but the difference was not statistically significant. Mean flow rates also did not significantly differ between the experimental and control groups (2.93mL/s vs. 3.31mL/s). Conclusion: In this congenital rabbit model, no obvious functional differences were found between reconstructed urethras after hypospadias repair with and without spongioplasty.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare perioperative outcomes, complications and anastomotic stricture rate in a contemporary series of patients who underwent open radical cystectomy (RC) with modified Wallace anastomotic technique versus traditional ileal conduit. Materials and methods: Study enrolled 180 patients, of whom 140 were randomized and underwent RC; seventy were randomized to group I and the seventy to the group II. For the primary objective, we hypothesized that the rate of ureteroenteric strictures would be at least 20 % lower in the second group. Secondary end points included rate of anastomotic leak, surgical time, deterioration of the upper tract, intraoperative blood loss and patient-reported quality of life (HRQOL). The modified Wallace 1 technique involved eversion of the ureteral plate and bowel mucosa edges, which were anastomosed together in running fashion, while the outher anastomotic wall was augmented with sero-serosal interrupted sutures. Results: The mean (SD) follow-up time was 26.1 (5.7) months in group I and 25.2 (4.8) months in group II, during which, anastomotic stricture was observed in 8 patients (12%) from the first and 2 patients (3%) from the second group (p < 0.05). The anastomotic leakage rate was significantly higher in first group (17% vs. 8.5%, p< 0.05), while patient-reported HRQOL outcomes were similar between groups after the 12 month follow-up period. Conclusions: By using a modified Wallace technique, we were able to significantly lower anastomotic stricture and anastomotic leakage rates, which are major issues in minimizing both short- and long-term postoperative complications.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: Prostatourethrorectal fistula (PURF) is an uncommon complication resulting from surgery, radiation or trauma (1). The most common therapeutic management is transperineal surgery (1). Transabdominal approach is less used and limited to large fistulae needing cystectomy and rectal resection (1). The aim of this study was to show an original robotic technique of conservative treatment for PURF. Materials and Methods: A 75 years old man referred recurrent UTI, pneumaturia and urinary loss from rectum due to PURF arising after TURP performed after transvesical prostate adenomectomy. Cystogram, cystoscopy and MRI confirmed PURF. We used a robotic approach performing isolation, resection and suture of the fistulous tract on rectal and urethral side. Leak test was negative. We carried out an omental flap, positioned between rectum and prostatic urethra, and a temporary ileostomy without any bowel resection or urinary diversion. Results: Operative time was 210 minutes, estimated blood loss 50ml. Oral feeding was restored at 48 hours. Bladder catheter was removed on the 15th post-operative day. Post-operative cystogram was negative. Post-operative complications were ileus and urinary tract infection. Hospital stay was 10 days. At 6 months follow-up, before temporary ileostomy closure, cystoscopy showed a totally re-epithelised fovea, and cystogram and CT enterography were negative. Conclusions: Robotic conservative treatment of PURF seems to be safe and feasible (2, 3). Robotic approach allows accurate surgical dissection, through easier access to the rectal-prostatic plane, reducing the need for resection. To our knowledge, this is the first robotic conservative treatment for PURF reproducing the same steps of laparotomic approach with the advantages of minimally invasive technique (4).
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objectives: To show our single-center experience in retroperitoneoscopic approach for highly complex posterior hilar tumors. Minimally invasive nephron sparing surgery for renal hilar tumors is extremely challenging due to their anatomic location, close to the main renal vessels and the collecting system (1). Transperitoneal approach is feasible, but highly complex because the anterior disposition of the vasculature. Retroperitoneal approach can easily provide access to the posterior hilar structures and the posterolateral surface of the kidney(2, 3). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our hilar renal tumor database and analyzed those in which a retroperitoneoscopic approach was chosen. The RENAL score was then calculated, and operative and ischemia times were recorded. We also collected the mean hospital stay and the presence of complications. Pathology reports and follow-up were also gathered. Results: Five of our twelve highly complex hilar renal tumor patients were treated using a retroperitoneoscopic approach. Mean RENAL score was 10. Mean operative time was 135 minutes. Mean warm ischemia time was 14 minutes. Mean hospital stay was 4 days. We have recorded 2 complications. One patient required a transfusion and another presented with an urinary fistula which was treated by double J stent placement. The pathology report showed a clear cell renal cell carcinoma pT1a in most of the cases. Only one patient had a positive margin. To date, no recurrences have been noticed. Conclusions: The treatment of complex renal hilar tumors in a minimally invasive fashion is highly challenging even in experienced hands. Retroperitoneal partial nephrectomy is feasible, safe and effective for the treatment of such lesions. Long-term oncologic outcomes of this approach are awaited.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Minimally invasive treatments such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotripsy are standard procedures for the management of renal stones (1). However, renal position and rotation defects may significantly interfere in the results of these treatments (2). Open surgery has always been an option for these cases, but with the advancement of laparoscopy in the last decades, laparoscopic pielolitotomy has become a good alternative for approaching kidney stones in abnormal renal rotation and position (3). Materials and methods: A 42-year-old male patient with a 2.2cm stone in the left pelvic kidney was submitted to laparoscopic pielolitotomy after extracorporeal schok wave lithotripsy failure and difficulty in access for percutaneous nephrolithotripsy. We did not have access to flexible ureteroscopy for this case. Results: The surgical time was 150 minutes. An antegrade JJ stent was inserted and renal pelvic suture was performed with vicryl 4-0. There was no need for opioids and patient was discharged on the first postoperative day. The JJ stent was removed after 1 month, with complete resolution of the clinical symptoms. Conclusions: Laparoscopic pielolitotomy is an excellent treatment alternative for patients with large stones in pelvic kidney.