Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose To review current literature regarding sacral neuromodulation (SNM) for neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) focused on indications, barriers and latest technological developments. Material and Methods A PubMed database search was performed in April 2020, focusing on SNM and various neuro-urological conditions. Results SNM has been increasingly indicated for lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) in neuro-urological patients. Most studies are cases series with several methodological limitations and limited follow-up, lacking standardized definition for SNM clinical success. Most series focused on neurogenic overactive bladder in spinal cord injured (incomplete lesions) and multiple sclerosis patients. Barriers for applying this therapy in neurogenic LUTD were mainly related to magnetic resonance imaging incompatibility, size of the implantable pulse generator (IPG), and battery depletion. Newer technological advances have been made to address these limitations and will be widely available in the near future. Conclusions SNM seems a promising therapy for neurogenic LUTD in carefully selected patients with incomplete lesions. Further studies are still needed to define which subgroups of neurological patients benefit the most from this minimally invasive technique.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose Various surgical options are available for large proximal ureteral stones, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and laparoscopic ureterolithotomy (LU). However, the best option remains controversial. Therefore, we conducted a network meta-analysis comparing various surgical treatments for proximal ureteral stones ≥10mm to address current research deficiencies. Materials and methods We searched PubMed, Ovid, Scopus (up to June 2019), as well as citation lists to identify eligible comparative studies. All clinical studies including patients comparing surgical treatments for proximal ureteral stones ≥10mm were included. A standard network meta-analysis was performed with Stata SE 14 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA) software to generate comparative statistics. The quality was assessed with level of evidence according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine and risk of bias with the Cochrane Collaboration’s Review Manager (RevMan) 5.3 software. Results A total of 25 studies including 2.888 patients were included in this network meta-analysis. Network meta-analyses indicated that LU and PCNL had better stone-free rates and auxiliary procedures. PCNL could result in major complications and severe bleeding. In initial stone-free rate, final stone-free rate, and auxiliary procedures results, SUCRA ranking was: LU> PCNL> URSL> ESWL. In Clavien Dindo score ≥3 complications, SUCRA ranking was: LU> ESWL> URSL> PCNL. In fever, SUCRA ranking was: ESWL> LU> URSL> PCNL. In transfusion, SUCRA ranking was: LU> URSL> ESWL> PCNL. In Cluster analysis, LU had the highest advantages and acceptable side effects. Considering the traumatic nature of PCNL, it should not be an option over URSL. ESWL had the lowest advantages. Conclusions LU have the potential to be considered as the first treatment choice of proximal ureteral stone ≥10mm.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Patients with staghorn renal stones are challenging cases, requiring careful preoperative evaluation and close follow-up to avoid stone recurrence. In this article we aim to discuss the main topics related to staghorn renal stones with focus on surgical approach. Most of staghorn renal stones are composed of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) and are linked to urinary tract infection by urease-producing pathogens. Preoperative computed tomography scan and careful evaluation of all urine cultures made prior surgery are essential for a well-planning surgical approach and a right antibiotics choice. Gold standard surgical technique is the percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). In cases of impossible percutaneous renal access, anatrophic nephrolithotomy is an alternative. Shockwave lithotripsy and flexible ureteroscopy are useful tools to treat residual fragments that can be left after treatment of complete staghorn renal stone. PCNL can be performed in supine or prone position according to surgeon’s experience. Tranexamic acid can be used to avoid bleeding. To check postoperative stone-free status, computed tomography is the most accurate imaging exam, but ultrasound combined to KUB is an option. Intra-operative high-resolution fluoroscopy and flexible nephroscopy have been described as an alternative for looking at residual fragments and save radiation exposure. The main goals of treatment are stone-free status, infection eradication, and recurrence prevention. Long-term or short-term antibiotic therapy is recommended and regular control imaging exams and urine culture should be done.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT To evaluate the efficiency of an energy density of 0.05mj/mm2 of low intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy (Li-ESWT) on erectile dysfunction (ED) patients.A total of 45 ED patients met the inclusion criteria, including 7 PDE5i responders and 38 nonresponders. All the patients have already been delivered 10000 shockwaves of total seven treatment points twice a week for 4 weeks. Simultaneously, questionnaires of International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function (IIEF-EF), Erectile Hard Score (EHS) and Minimal Clinical Important Differences (MCID) were evaluated for the efficiency and safety at 8th and 16th weeks.The changes in the IIEF-EF score by MCID suggested that Li-ESWT treatment was effective in 22 PDE5i nonresponders patients (58%) at 8th week. Then at 16th week the number of patients who were effectively treated increased to 27 (71%). Among PDE5i responders, 5 patients (71%) were effective base on MCID at 16th week. Among PDE5i nonresponders 22 patients (58%) achieved erection hard enough for vaginal penetration and increased to 27 (71%) patients at 16th week (EHS ≥3). Moreover, even 3 patients achieved EHS 4 in PDE5i nonresponders at 16th week. Among PDE5i responders, 4 of 7 patients reached EHS of 4 from EHS 3 at 16th week. Apart from this, Li-ESWT treatment was also effective in 9 patients (24%) in PDE5i nonresponders without follow-up PDE5i.Energy flux density (EFD) of 0.05 of Li-ESWT could improve the erectile function of ED patients with PDE5i response. In addition, EFD of 0.05 of Li-ESWT treatment could turn PDE5i nonresponders to responders.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective There is limited data regarding surgeon volume and partial nephrectomy outcomes. The aim of this study is to report trifecta outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) performed by the low volume surgeon. Materials and Methods Thirty-nine patients with clinical T1-2 renal tumors who underwent RAPN between 2012 and 2018 were included in this study. Trifecta was defined as negative surgical margins, warm ischemia time ≤20 minutes, and no operative complications. Patient demographics, R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score, operation time, estimated blood loss, warm ischemia time, length of hospital stay, renal functions, and oncological outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. Complications were graded based on the modified Clavien-Dindo classification system. Results The median R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score was 6 (4-10). RAPN was successfully performed in all but one patient. The median operation time was 180 (90-240) minutes. Warm ischemia was performed only by segmental renal artery control in 35 and, by main renal artery control in three patients. The off-clamp technique was used in two patients. The median warm ischemia time was 16 (0-31) minutes. Seven patients had a warm ischemia time of longer than 20 minutes. Three patients had postoperative complications. The surgical margin was positive in one patient. As a result, the trifecta was achieved in 30 of the 39 patients (77%). Conclusion RAPN is a safe and effective minimally invasive alternative in the treatment of renal masses. The present study suggests that reasonable trifecta rates can be achieved even by low volume surgeons.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effects of Arf6 downregulation on human prostate cancer cells. Materials and Methods The effects of Arf6 downregulation on cell proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis were assessed by MTT, BrdU, scratch, Transwell assays and flow cytometry respectively. AKT, p-AKT, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2 and Rac1 protein expressions were detected by Western blot. Results Downregulating Arf6 by siRNA interference suppressed the mRNA and protein expressions of Arf6. The proliferation capacities of siRNA group at 48h, 72h, and 96h were significantly lower than those of control group (P <0.05). The migration distance of siRNA group at 18h was significantly shorter than that of control group (P <0.01). The number of cells penetrating Transwell chamber membrane significantly decreased in siRNA group compared with that of control group (P <0.01). After 24h, negative control and normal control groups had similar apoptotic rates (P >0.05) which were both significantly lower than that of siRNA group (P <0.01). After Arf6 expression was downregulated, p-ERK1/2 and Rac1 protein expressions were significantly lower than those of control group (P <0.05). Conclusion Downregulating Arf6 expression can inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells in vitro, which may be related to ERK1/2 phosphorylation and Rac1 downregulation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective To examine the impact of obesity on perioperative outcomes and urethral stricture recurrence after anterior urethroplasty. Material and Methods We reviewed our prospectively maintained single-surgeon database to identify men with anterior urethral strictures who had undergone anastomotic or augmentation urethroplasty between October 2012 and March 2018. In all, 210 patients were included for primary analysis of perioperative outcomes, while 193 patients with at least 12 months follow-up were included for secondary analysis of stricture recurrence. Patients grouped by BMI were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses for perioperative outcomes and log rank testing for recurrence-free survival. Results Overall, 41% (n=86) of patients were obese and 58.6% (n=123) had bulbar urethral strictures. Obese patients had significantly longer urethral strictures (mean=6.7cm±4.7) than nonobese patients (p <0.001). Though urethroplasty in obese patients was associated with increased estimated blood loss (EBL) relative to normal BMI patients on both univariate (p=0.003) and multivariate (p <0.001) analyses, there was no difference in operative time, length of stay, or complication rate between BMI groups. At a mean follow-up interval of 36.7 months, 15% (n=29) of patients had stricture recurrence, yet recurrence-free survival was not significantly different between groups (log rank p=0.299). Dorsal augmentation urethroplasty resulted in significantly fewer recurrences in obese patients compared to nonobese patients (p=0.036). Conclusion Despite the association with increased urethral stricture length and EBL, obesity is not predictive of adverse perioperative outcomes or stricture recurrence. Obese patients should be offered urethral reconstruction, but patient selection and preoperative counseling remain imperative.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose To estimate statewide presentation delay, misdiagnosis rate, inter-hospital transfer times and testicular salvage for testicular torsion patients treated in our state’s public health system. Patients and Methods Case series of consecutive testicular torsion patients treated in our state’s public health system between 2012-2018. Predictors included presentation delay (time from symptoms to first medical assessment), facilitie’s level-of-care (primary, secondary, tertiary), first diagnosis (torsion, epididymitis, other), Doppler-enhanced ultrasound request (Doppler-US) and inter-hospital transfer times, with surgical organ salvage as the main response. We used Bayesian regression to estimate the effect of first examining facilitie’s level-of-care, first diagnosis, and Doppler-US on transfer time. Results 505 patients were included, most (298, 59%) with presentation delay >6 hours. Misdiagnosis at first examining facility raised transfer time from median 2.8 to 23.4 (epididymitis) and 37.9 hours (other) and lowered testicular salvage rates from 60.3% (torsion) to 10.7% (epididymitis) and 18.3% (other). Doppler-US had negligible effects on transfer time once controlling for misdiagnosis in the regression model. Although organ salvage in patients presenting before 6 hours at the tertiary facility was high (94.6%, and about 20% lower for those presenting at lower levels-of-care), the overall salvage rate was more modest (46%). Conclusion Our low overall testicular salvage rates originated from a large proportion of late presentations combined with long transfer times caused by frequent misdiagnoses. Our results indicate that efforts to improve salvage rates should aim at enhancing population-wide disease awareness and continuously updating physicians working at primary and secondary levels-of-care about scrotal emergencies.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Background Focal therapy (FT) for localized prostate cancer (PCa) treatment is raising interest. New technological mpMRI-US guided FT devices have never been compared with the previous generation of ultrasound-only guided devices. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed prospectively recorded data of men undergoing FT for localized low- or intermediate-risk PCa with US- (Ablatherm®-2009 to 2014) or mpMRI-US (Focal One®-from 2014) guided HIFU. Follow-up visits and data were collected using internationally validated questionnaires at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months. Results We included n=88 US-guided FT HIFU and n=52 mpMRI-US guided FT HIFU respectively. No major baseline differences were present except higher rates of Gleason 3+4 for the mpMRI-US group. No major differences were present in hospital stay (p=0.1), catheterization time (p=0.5) and complications (p=0.2) although these tended to be lower in the mpMRI-US group (6.8% versus 13.2% US FT group). At 3 months mpMRI-US guided HIFU had significantly lower urine leak (5.1% vs. 15.9%, p=0.04) and a lower drop in IIEF scores (2 vs. 4.2, p=0.07). Of those undergoing 12-months control biopsy in the mpMRI-US-guided HIFU group, 26% had residual cancer in the treated lobe. Conclusion HIFU FT guided by MRI-US fusion may allow improved functional outcomes and fewer complications compared to US- guided HIFU FT alone. Further analysis is needed to confirm benefits of mpMRI implementation at a longer follow-up and on a larger cohort of patients.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose To investigate the course of anxiety and depression before and after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx) and in the postoperative 1st month when the histopathological biopsy result was obtained. Methods In between June 2017- January 2019, 204 patients who underwent TRUS-Bx and completed the questionnaires assessing anxiety and depression were included in the study. Questionnaires were completed immediately before the biopsy, immediately after the biopsy and at the end of the first month when the histopathological biopsy results were given. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and perceived stress scale (PSS) forms were used to assess anxiety and depression. After the histopathological examination patients were divided into two groups as patients without cancer (Group 1) and with cancer (Group 2). Data was compared between the groups. Results PSA level was negatively correlated with STAI TX-1 scores of the patients immediately after TRUS-Bx, whereas it was positively correlated with STAI TX-1 and TX-2 30 days after the TRUS-Bx. PSA level was positively correlated with HADS-A and HADS-D scores immediately before and 30 days after TRUS-Bx. Biopsy results showed a significant difference in 30 day post-biopsy related data. STAI TX-1, STAI TX-2, HADS-A, HADS-D and PSS scores were higher in Group 2 compared with Group 1. Conclusions Pre-biopsy anxiety disappeared after bx, but there was a significant increase in anxiety and depression in patients after the diagnosis of malignancy. Patients were seriously concerned about the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose To compare the effect of general anesthesia (GA) and regional anesthesia (RA) on f-URS outcomes and surgeon comfort. Material and Methods The study was conducted between June 2017 to January 2018 and data collection was applied in a prospective, randomized fashion. 120 patients participated in the study and were divided into RA group (n=56) and GA group (n=64). Demographic, operative and post-operative parameters of patients were analysed. The end point of this study was the effect of two anesthesia regimens on the comfort of the surgeon, and the comparability of feasibility and safety against perioperative complications. Results The study including 120 randomized patients, 14 patients were excluded from the study and completed with 106 patients (45 in RA group and 61 in GA group). No difference was detected between the two groups in terms of preoperative data. During the monitorization of operative vital signs, 3 patients in RA group experienced bradycardia, and this finding was significant when compared with GA group (p=0.041). Additionally, 2 patients in RA group experienced mucosal tears and 1 patient experienced hemorrhage during the operation, but no complications were observed in the GA group (p=0.041). Postoperative surgeon comfort evaluation revealed statistically significant results in favor of GA group (p=0.001). Conclusions Both GA and RA are equally effective and safe anesthesia methods for f-URS procedures. However, RA group showed significantly increased likelihood of bradycardia and mucosal injury during surgery, and significantly decreased surgeon comfort during surgery.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective To study the arterial segments of ovine kidney, present a proportional volume analysis of each kidney arterial segment, and analyze arterial injuries caused by simulated partial nephrectomy of cranial pole. Materials and Methods Forty-eight ovine kidneys injected with polyester resin into the renal arteries and collecting system were used in this study. Eighteen kidneys were used to study the arterial segments and the proportional volume of each renal segment. Other 30 kidneys were submitted to superior pole resection at a distance of 1.0cm, 0.5cm, or exactly at the cranial hilar edge, just before the resin hardening. These endocasts were used to evaluate the arterial injuries caused by these different resection planes. Results Ovine renal artery divided into two (ventral and dorsal) or three segmental arteries. Dorsal segment presented higher proportional volume than ventral segment. For kidneys with three segments, the third segment was on the caudal region (caudo-ventral or caudo-dorsal segment) and presented the lowest proportional volume. None of the resected kidneys (at 1.0, 0.5 or at the cranial hilar edge) presented injury of arterial branches that irrigate non-resected region. Conclusion The segmental distribution of renal artery, the proportional volume of each segment and arterial injuries after cranial pole resection in ovine kidneys are different from what is observed in human kidneys. Meanwhile, ovine kidneys show a primary segmental division on anterior and posterior, as in humans, but different from swine. These anatomical characteristics should be considered when using ovine as animal models for renal experimental and/or training procedures.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction To assess the feasibility of vacuum physiotherapy meant to decrease graft contraction and recurrent penile curvature (PC), hence successful tubularization and a straight penis in patients underwent two-stage buccal mucosa graft (BMG) urethroplasty, in proximal hypospadias repair. Material and methods Between January 2014 and July 2018, 59 two-stage BMG urethroplasties performed at our referral center, were included in the study. The parents were counseled to use the vacuum device between the two stages. An internal, self-administered, semiquantitative, non-validated questionnaire was designed to record parent and patient adherence to the vacuum physiotherapy and parent satisfaction. Success rate of graft tubularization, curvature correction rates, and status of early (4 months) postoperative urinary stream were evaluated. Results Of 45/59 (76.3%) who returned the questionnaire, 77.8% followed the recommended physiotherapy protocol using the vacuum device. 93.3% of parents replied that the use of the vacuum was easy or moderately easy. None of the parents interrupted the physiotherapy because of perceived difficulty or intolerability. 100% of parents would have repeated the physiotherapy, if they had to. Overall, success rate of tubularization was 98.3% (58/59), complete curvature correction was achieved in 88.2% (52/59) of patients, and 79.7% (47/59) of patients showed a straight and powerful early post-operative urinary stream. Conclusions Physiotherapy with the vacuum device is safe, easy and practically feasible. Our vacuum physiotherapy protocol had high compliance rate. Vacuum physiotherapy should be considered for further assessment in patients undergoing two stage hypospadias repair using buccal mucosa.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objectives To evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on clinical practice, income, health and lifestyle behavior of Brazilian urologists during the month of April 2020. Materials and Methods A 39-question, web-based survey was sent to all urologist members of the Brazilian Society of Urology. We assessed socio-demographic, professional, health and behavior parameters. The primary goal was to evaluate changes in urologists’ clinical practice and income after two months of COVID-19. We also looked at geographical differences based on the incidence rates of COVID-19 in different states. Results Among 766 urologists who completed the survey, a reduction ≥ 50% of patient visits, elective and emergency surgeries was reported by 83.2%, 89.6% and 54.8%, respectively. An income reduction of ≥ 50% was reported by 54.3%. Measures to reduce costs were implemented by most. Video consultations were performed by 38.7%. Modifications in health and lifestyle included weight gain (32.9%), reduced physical activity (60.0%), increased alcoholic intake (39.9%) and reduced sexual activity (34.9%). Finally, 13.5% of Brazilian urologists were infected with SARS-CoV-2 and about one third required hospitalization. Urologists from the highest COVID-19 incidence states were at a higher risk to have a reduction of patient visits and non-essential surgeries (OR=2.95, 95% CI 1.86 – 4.75; p< 0.0001) and of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 (OR=4.36 95%CI 1.74-10.54, p=0.012). Conclusions COVID-19 produced massive disturbances in Brazilian urologists’ practice, with major reductions in patient visits and surgical procedures. Distressing consequences were also observed on physicians’ income, health and personal lives. These findings are probably applicable to other medical specialties.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction We present an alternative procedure for distal hypospadias consisting of urethral mobilization and partial glandar disassembly, namely GUD (glandar urethral disassembly) technique. Materials and Methods A subcoronal circumcision exposes distal dysplastic urethra. We incise the Buck´s fascia on both sides of urethra releasing it partially from the corpora. We keep a thin bridge of urethral plate to the glans and disassembly almost completely the glans from the corpora, except for the bridge. The glans is incised creating two wide wings that are extremely mobile. The urethra is mobilized, advanced and sutured to the tip of the glans. The glans wings embrace the distal urethra producing a conical glans. Discussion The concept of urethral mobilization has been reported and popularized by Koff in the literature to correct distal hypospadias. One of the limitations of this procedure is the risk of urethral retraction due to extensive proximal dissection. We got inspiration from Mitchell and Bagli’ s work of penile disassembly in epispadias to develop the GUD concept. We adopt minimal urethral mobilization mainly in glandar/proximal penile shaft and complete deconstruction of the glans, detaching the corpora from the glans and rotating the wide glans wings to embrace the urethra. Therefore we avoid suture urethroplasty and refurbish the glans to a better conical shape. Conclusion We are convinced that this operation can be regarded as a genuine alternative to distal hypospadias (coronal and subcoronal) but should not be addressed to midshaft forms.