International braz j urol, Volume: 46 Supplement 1, Published: 2020
  • SARS-COVID-19 transformed the world and urological practice Editorial In This Issue

    Favorito, Luciano A.
  • The Social, Economic and Sanitary Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic Editorial Comment

    Gómez, Ana María Autrán; Favorito, Luciano A.
  • The SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus and the COVID-19 Outbreak Review Article

    Lauxmann, Martin Alexander; Santucci, Natalia Estefanía; Autrán-Gómez, Ana María

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The SARS-CoV-2, a newly identified β-coronavirus, is the causative agent of the third large-scale pandemic from the last two decades. The outbreak started in December 2019 in Wuhan City, Hubei province in China. The patients presented clinical symptoms of dry cough, fever, dyspnea, and bilateral lung infiltrates on imaging. By February 2020, The World Health Organization (WHO) named the disease as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The Coronavirus Study Group (CSG) of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) recognized and designated this virus as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 uses the same host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), used by SARS-CoV to infect humans. One hypothesis of SARSCoV-2 origin indicates that it is likely that bats serve as reservoir hosts for SARSCoV-2, being the intermediate host not yet determined. The predominant route of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is from human to human. As of May 10th 2020, the number of worldwide confirmed COVID-19 cases is over 4 million, while the number of global deaths is around 279.000 people. The United States of America (USA) has the highest number of COVID-19 cases with over 1.3 million cases followed by Spain, Italy, United Kingdom, Russia, France and Germany with over 223.000, 218.000, 215.000, 209.000, 176.000, and 171.000 cases, respectively.
  • Special strategies and management of urological diseases during the COVID-19 Pandemic: initial experiences from a Medical Center of China Review Article

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Meng; Fu, Guang-Qing; Zeng, Xiang; Wu, Cui-Ping; Liang, Yong; Liu, Jian-Hui; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen-Chun

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Although urological diseases are not directly related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), urologists need to make comprehensive plans for this disease. Urological conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and tumors are very common in elderly patients. This group of patients is often accompanied by underlying comorbidities or immune dysfunction. They are at higher risk of COVID-19 infection and they tend to have severe manifestations. Although fever can occur along with urological infections, it is actually one of the commonest symptoms of COVID-19; urologists must always maintain a high index of suspicion in their clinical practices. As a urological surgeon, how we can protect medical staff during surgery is a major concern. Our hospital had early adoption of a series of strict protective and control measures, and was able to avoid cross-infection and outbreak of COVID-19. This paper discusses the effective measures that can be useful when dealing with urological patients with COVID-19.
  • COVID-19's Impact on Italian Urology Review Article

    Esperto, Francesco; Papalia, Rocco; Autrán-Gómez, Ana María; Scarpa, Roberto M.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted our lives, our habits and our healthcare system. Italy is one of the countries affected first and more aggressively from the outbreak. Our rapidity has been guide for other healthcare systems from around the World. We describe the impact of COVID-19 on Urology, how the Urological scientific community responded to the emergency and our experience in a high-volume Roman University hospital. The aim of our work is to share our experience providing suggestions for other global hospitals on how to manage the COVID-19 emergency.
  • Endourology and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in COVID-19 Pandemic Review Article

    Pinto, Alexis M. Alva; González, Mariano Sebastián

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The new disease COVID-19 pandemic has completely modified our lifestyle, changing our personal habits and daily activities and strongly our professional activity. Following World Health Organization (WHO) and health care authorities around the World recommendations, all elective surgeries from benign diagnose procedures must be postponed and imperatively continue working on emergent and oncological urgent pathologies. Surgical elective treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is not considered as a priority. During BPH endoscopic surgeries, urine and blood are mixed with the irrigation liquid implying a risk of viral presence. Furthermore, a steam and smoke bubble is being accumulated inside the bladder implying the risk of splashing and aerosols. The risks of other viral infections have been identified during endourological procedures and they are related to splashing events. Several studies observed 33-100% of splashing on goggles. All BPH endoscopic procedures must be postponed. In case of complete urinary obstruction, this event can be adequately treated by urethral or suprapubic catheter under local anesthesia. As soon as local COVID-19 prevalence decreases, endourological procedures could be restarted. As protocols are being validating around the World to redeem elective surgeries, a symptomatic obstructed patient could be operated knowing his COVID-19 status with a molecular PCR, a cleaned epidemiological interview with a normal preoperative protocol. If patient is COVID-19+, surgery must be delayed until complete recovery, because mortality could increase as Lei from Wuhan describes. Informed consent must include risks of complications related to COVID-19 disease. Surgery must be performed by an experienced surgeon in order to avoid increase of operating time and risks of complications. Surgical approach of BPH must be considered depending on availability of disposable material, infrastructure, and the epidemiological COVID-19 status of your area. The main aim is patients and healthcare staff safety.
  • Endourology (Lithiasis). Management, surgical considerations and follow-up of patients in the COVID-19 era Review Article

    Socarrás, Moisés E. Rodríguez; Esperto, Francesco; Bapstistussi, Marcelo Denilson; Barufaldi, Felipe; Vital, Matheus Soares; Papalia, Rocco; Salerno, Annamaria; Cataldo, Rita; Autrán-Gómez, Ana María; Scarpa, Roberto Mario

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To provide recommendations on the endourological management of lithiasis in the scenario of the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: A non-systematic review in PubMed and the grey literature, as well as recommendations by a panel of stakeholders was made, regarding management, surgical considerations and follow-up of patients affected by lithiasis in the COVID-19 era. Results: Under the current outbreak and COVID-19 pandemic scenario, patients affected by lithiasis should be prioritized into low, intermediate and high risk categories, to decide their delay and save resources, healthcare personnel, beds and ventilators. However, patients with potentially serious septic complications need emergency interventions. The possibility of performing or restarting elective activity depends on local conditions, the availability of beds and ventilators, and the implementation of screening protocols in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Delaying lithiasis surgery and increasing waiting lists will have consequences and will require considerable additional effort. Teleconsultation may be useful in guiding these patients, reducing visits and unnecessary exposure. Conclusions: categorization and prioritization of patients affected by lithiasis is crucial for management, surgical selection and follow-up. Protocols, measures and additional efforts should be carried out in the current situation of the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Clinical and surgical assistance in prostate cancer during the COVID-19 Pandemic: implementation of assistance protocols Review Article

    Sanchez, Lara Rodriguez; Cathelineau, Xavier; Pinto, Alexis M. Alva; Borque-Fernando, Ángel; Gil, Maria Jesús; Yee, Chi-Hang; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Propose an approach of prostate cancer (PCa) patients during COVID-19 pandemic. Material and Methods: We conducted a review of current literature related to surgical and clinical management of patients during COVID-19 crisis paying special attention to oncological ones and especially those suffering from PCa. Based on these publications and current urological guidelines, a manual to manage PCa patients is suggested. Results: Patients suffering from cancer are likely to develop serious complications from COVID-19 disease together with an increased risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the management of oncological patients should be taken into special consideration and most of the treatments postponed. In case the procedure is not deferrable, it should be adapted to the current situation. While the shortest radiotherapy (RT) regimens should be applied, surgical procedures must undergo the following recommendations proposed by main surgical associations. PCa prognosis is generally favourable and therefore one can safely delay most of the biopsies up to 6 months without interfering with survival outcomes in the vast majority of cases. In the same way, most of the localised PCa patients are suitable for active surveillance (AS) or hormonal therapy until local definitive treatment could be reconsidered. In metastatic as well as castration resistant PCa stages, adding androgen receptor targeted agents (abiraterone, apalutamide, darolutamide or enzalutamide) to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) could be considered in high risk patients. On the contrary, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and Radium-223 must be avoided with regard to the consequence of hematologic toxicity and risk of COVID-19 infection because of immunodepression. Conclusions: Most of the biopsies should be delayed while AS is advised in those patients with low risk PCa. ADT allows us to defer definitive local treatment in many cases of intermediate and high risk PCa. In regard to metastatic and castration resistant PCa, combination therapies with abiraterone, apalutamide, darolutamide or enzalutamide could be considered. Chemotherapy, Radium-223 and immunotherapy are discouraged.
  • Bladder Cancer at the time of COVID-19 Outbreak Review Article

    Esperto, Francesco; Pang, Karl H.; Albisinni, Simone; Papalia, Rocco; Scarpa, Roberto M.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The COVID-19 outbreak has led to the deferral of a great number of surgeries in an attempt to reduce transmission of infection, free up hospital beds, intensive care and anaesthetists, and limit aerosol-generating procedures. Guidelines and suggestions have been provided to categorize Urological diseases into risk groups and recommendations are available on procedures that can be or cannot be deferred. We aim to summarise updates on diagnosis, treatment and follow up of bladder cancer during the COVID-19 outbreaks.
  • Consideration in the management of renal cell carcinoma during the COVID-19 Pandemic Review Article

    Zequi, Stênio de Cássio; Abreu, Diego

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Recently the COVID-19 pandemic became the main global priority; main efforts and health infrastructures have been prioritized in favor of COVID-19 battle and the treatment of benign diseases has been postponed. Renal cell cancer (RCC) patients configure a heterogenous populations: some of them present indolent cases which can safely have postponed their treatments, others present aggressive tumors, deserving immediate care. These scenarios must be properly identified before a tailored therapeutic choice. Objectives We propose a risk- based approach for patients with RCC, to be used during this unprecedented viral infection time. Materials and Methods: After a literature review focused in COVID-19 and current RCC treatments, we suggest therapeutic strategies of RCC in two sections: surgical approach and systemic therapy, in all stages of this malignance. Results: Patients with cT1a tumors (and complex cysts, Bosniak III/IV), must be put under active surveillance and delayed intervention. cT1b-T2a/b cases must be managed by partial or radical nephrectomy, some selected T1b-T2a (≤7cm) cases can have the surgery postponed by 60-90 days). Locally advanced tumors (≥cT3 and or N+) must be promptly resected. As possible, minimally invasive surgery and early hospital discharge are encouraged. Upfront cytoreduction, is not recommendable for low risk oligometastatic patients, which must start systemic treatment or even could be put under surveillance and delayed therapy. Intermediate and poor risk metastatic patients must start target therapy and/or immunotherapy (few good responders intermediate cases can have postponed cytoreduction). The recommendation about hereditary RCC syndromes are lacking, thus we recommend its usual care. Local or loco regional recurrence must have individualized approaches. For all cases, we suggest the application of a specific informed consent and a shared therapeutic choice. Conclusion: In the pandemic COVID -19 times, a tailored risk-based approach must be used for a safe management of RCC, aiming to not compromise the oncological outcomes of the patients.
  • Priorities in testis cancer care during Covid-19 Pandemic Review Article

    Secin, Fernando P.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Introduction: There is little information on how to prioritize testis cancer (TC) patients' care during COVID-19 pandemic in order to relieve its pressure on the health care systems. Objective: To describe the recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with TC amidst COVID- 19 pandemic. Material and Methods: Pubmed search and review of the main urological association guidelines on TC. Results: The biology of TC requires immediate care of patients during diagnosis, initial surgical therapy and management of recurrent disease. Active surveillance is the first choice of management and should be offered to all compliant clinical stage I TC patients provided they understand the need to self-isolate. Active surveillance may also help decrease the demand for intensive care unit beds, ventilators, personal protective equipment, and other critical hospital and human resources by minimizing surgeries without compromising patient outcomes. Complications of therapy and symptomatic patients represent medical emergencies and should be treated immediately. Telemedicine may be useful during follow-up periods. Conclusions: Most stages of testis cancer require urgent care; however, all recommendations must be adapted to local health care priorities considering that most of these patients are at low risk of severe COVID-19 infection.
  • Therapeutic and Surgical Indications for Patients with Penile Cancer in the COVID-19 era Review Article

    Casco, Nelson Canales; Carmona, María Jiménez; Soto, Álvaro Juárez

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this work is to review and synthesize the existing evidence and recommendations regarding to the therapeutic and surgical indications as well as monitoring of patients with Penile Cancer in COVID-19 era and to propose an action protocol to facilitate decision-making. Material and Methods: A non-systematic review of the literature regarding the management of penile cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic was performed until April 30, 2020. We propose our recommendations based on this evidence. Results: Penile cancer is an uncommon but aggressive disease. Prognosis is determined by several characteristics, being the most important the presence of lymph nodes, in which case, treatment should not be delayed. For these reasons, an initial evaluation is mandatory. Priority classifications, based on the oncological outcomes when treatment is delayed, have been made in order to separate deferrable disease from the one that needs high priority treatment. In penile cancer with low risk of progression, surgical treatment can be delayed, but other options must be considered, like topical treatment or laser therapy. In cases with intermediate risk of progression, surgical treatment may be delayed up to three months, but we must consider radiation therapy and brachytherapy as effective options. When feasible, follow-up should by telemonitoring. Conclusions: In the COVID 19 era, initial evaluation of the patient is mandatory. Histological diagnosis with local staging is necessary before offering any therapeutic option. In case of superficial non-invasive disease, topical treatment is effective in absence of lymph node involvement. In selected patients, radiotherapy is an organpreserving approach with good results. Non-deferrable surgical treatment must be performed by an experienced surgeon and as an outpatient procedure when possible. When indicated, iLND should not be delayed since it is decisive for patient survival. Follow-up should be by telemonitoring.
  • Impact of COVID-19 in Female Urology Review Article

    Palma, Paulo Cesar Rodrigues; Brito, Luiz Gustavo Oliveira; Ghigo, Joanna

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This review discusses the impact of COVID-19 in Female Urology, revises the most important disorders in this field and how their diagnosis and treatment may be modified due to the current pandemic. The text also discusses new options such as telemedicine and what clinical situations within Female Urology should be of utmost importance for the urologist to be careful about. We also discuss how surgeries are being postponed are resumed according to the local scenario.
  • Summary and considerations in genitourinary cancer patient care during the COVID-19 Pandemic Review Article

    Rodríguez-Covarrubias, Francisco; Castillejos-Molina, Ricardo A.; Autrán-Gómez, Ana María

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To provide a summary and recommendations for the set-up of strategies for cancer patients care in genitourinary oncology clinics during the pandemic and in the recovery period. Material and Methods: A non-systematic review of available literature on the management of urological malignancies during the COVID-19 pandemic was performed to summarize recommendations to improve the diagnosis and treatment of urological cancers during and after the contingence, including clinical and research aspects. Results: Urological cancer diagnosis and management should be tailored according to the severity of the COVID-19 crisis in each region and the aggressiveness of each tumor. Clinicians should adhere to strict protocols in order to prioritize the attention of patients with high-risk malignancies while optimizing resources to avoid the saturation of critical care services. Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic urological cancer care has been severely impaired. For proper patient management, multidisciplinary approach is encouraged tailoring therapy according to COVID-19 regional behavior and local institutional resources. Patients with high-risk malignancies should be prioritized.
  • Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the sexual behavior of the population. The vision of the east and the west Review Article

    Ibarra, François Peinado; Mehrad, Mehri; Mauro, Marina Di; Godoy, Maria Fernanda Peraza; Cruz, Eduard García; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Russo, Giorgio Ivan

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The COVID-19 pandemic has radically changed the way of life around the World. The state of alarm has forced the population to stay at home, radically changing both interpersonal and partner relationships; work at home, social distancing, the continued presence of children at home, fear of infection and not being able to physically meet with others have changed most people's sexual habits. We conducted a review by exploring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on sexual behavior in the population from three different countries: Iran, Italy and Spain from each country's perspective. The impact of the coronavirus will be very important in the sexual life of the people and we will attend in the next months or years, to some changes in the relationships at all the levels. The pandemic will negatively affect sexual behaviors due to multiple contact restrictions. In the future, we will be able to assess these effects in more detail.
  • COVID-19: Measures to prevent hospital contagion. What do urologists need to know? Review Article

    Castro, Edgar Ivan Bravo; Secchi, Gerardo López; Gómez, Cristobal Díaz; Gómez, Javier Torres; Clark, Omar; Alonso, Ivan Azael Martinez; Salcedo, José Gadu Campos

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT A new outbreak of respiratory infection caused by the novel coronavirus in late December 2019 in China caused standards of medical care to change not only for related areas but for the entire healthcare system, and when the WHO declared COVID-19 a pandemic new strategies of patient care had to be defined initially to optimize resources to confront the pandemic and then to protect healthcare personnel. As urologists, we must be involved in these new standards, since without an effective vaccine the risk of contagion is high; thus, the purpose of this review is to have orientation on the measures urologists should take in their everyday clinical practice.
  • Social media influence in the COVID-19 Pandemic Review Article

    González-Padilla, Daniel A.; Tortolero-Blanco, Leonardo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Never before in human history has it been possible to communicate so quickly during a pandemic, social media platforms have been a key piece for the dissemination of information; however, there are multiple advantages and disadvantages that must be considered. Responsible use of these tools can help quickly disseminate important new information, relevant new scientific findings, share diagnostic, treatment, and followup protocols, as well as compare different approaches globally, removing geographic boundaries for the first time in history. In order to use these tools in a responsible and useful way, it is recommended to follow some basic guidelines when sharing information on social networks in the COVID-19 era. In this paper, we summarize the most relevant information on the influence, and advantages, and disadvantages of the use of social networks during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Treatment and research lines for the patient with COVID-19. What do we have and where are we going? Review Article

    Gotera, Carolina

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) represents the most significant global public health crisis of this generation. From the beginning of the pandemic, several publications and on-line resources about different treatment lines have been done, and development effort in response to the COVID-19 pandemic to investigate potential therapies is unprecedented. Unfortunately, until now, there is not enough evidence to recommend any specific anti-COVID19 treatment. Randomized clinical trials and high-quality evidence, even in the middle of a pandemic, are needed. We provide a review of the latest published literature on the therapeutic strategies and current investigational lines for SARS-CoV-2.
  • The effect of the Covid-19 Pandemic on pediatric urology Original Article

    Tur, Anna Bujons; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Fraile, Andrés; Corbetta, Juan Pablo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Medical and surgical priorities have changed dramatically at the time of this pandemic. Scientific societies around the World have provided rapid guidance, underpinned by the best knowledge available, on the adaptation of their guidelines recommendations to the current situation. There are very limited scientific evidence especially in our subspecialty of pediatric urology. We carry out a review of the little scientific evidence based mainly on the few publications available to date and on the recommendations of the main scientific societies regarding which patients should undergo surgery, when surgery should be performed and how patient visits should be organize.
  • Early experience with COVID-19 in kidney transplantation recipients: update and review Original Article

    González, Javier; Ciancio, Gaetano

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Introduction: little is known on the risk factors, clinical presentation, therapeutic protocols, and outcomes of kidney transplantation recipients (KTRs) who become infected by SARS-CoV-2. Purpose: to provide an updated view regarding the early experience obtained from the management of KTRs with COVID-19. Materials and Methods: A narrative review was conducted using PubMed database to identify relevant articles written in English/Spanish, and published through May 15, 2020. Search terms included: “coronavirus”, “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2”, “SARS-CoV-2”, “COVID-19”, “COVID”, “renal transplantation”, and “kidney transplantation”. Case series were considered eligible, and case reports excluded. Thirty-four articles were included in the review. Results: KTRs should be considered immunocompromised hosts: potential risk for infection, non-negligible comorbidity, and exposure to long-term immunosuppression. Only single center small retrospective experiences are still available regarding KTRs with COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 symptoms in KTRs are similar to that observed for the general population, being fever and cough the most frequently observed. Mild-to-moderate symptomatic KTRs can be managed in an outpatient setting, while patients exhibiting severe symptoms must be addmited to hospital. More rapid clinical progression, and higher complication and death rates have been observed for hospitalized KTRs, requiring hemodyalisis or ventilatory support. Lymphopenia, elevated serum markers (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, IL-6, D-dimer), and chest-X-ray findings consistent with pneumonia are linked to worse prognosis. A number of antiviral therapies have been used. However, it is difficult to draw meaningful conclusions regarding their efficacy at this point. Baseline immunosupression regimen should be adjusted in a case-by-case manner. However, it poses a significant challenge.
  • Exploring Urological Experience in the COVID-19 Outbreak: American Confederation of Urology (CAU) Survey Original Article

    Autrán-Gómez, Ana María; Tobia, Ignacio; Molina, Ricardo Castillejos; Covarrubias, Francisco Rodríguez; Benzing, Frank; Maruccia, Serena; Reis, Leonardo de O.; Lay, Ramón Rodríguez; Reza, Marcelo Torrico De la; Torres, Felix Santaella; Porras, Andrés Hernández; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To explore the current situation faced by Latin American urology departments during the COVID-19 Outbreak in terms of knowledge, actions, prioritization of urology practices, and implementation of internal clinical management protocols for inpatients and outpatients. Material and Methods: A non-validated, structured, self-administered, electronic survey with 35 closed multiple choice questions was conducted in Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and English and Deutsch versions from April 1st to April 30th, 2020. The survey was distributed through social networks and the official American Confederation of Urology (CAU) website. It was anonymous, mainly addressed to Latin American urologists and urology residents. It included 35 questions exploring different aspects: 1) Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and internal management protocols for healthcare providers; 2) Priority surgeries and urological urgencies and 3) Inpatient and outpatient care. Results: Of 864 surveys received, 846 had at least 70% valid responses and were included in the statistical analyses. Surveys corresponded to South America in 62% of the cases, Central America and North America in 29.7%. 12.7% were residents. Regarding to PPE and internal management protocols, 88% confirmed the implementation of specific protocols and 45.4% have not received training to perform a safe clinical practice; only 2.3% reported being infected with COVID-19. 60.9% attended urgent surgeries. The following major uro-oncologic surgeries were reported as high priority: Radical Nephrectomy (RN) 58.4%, and Radical Cystectomy (RC) 57.3%. When we associate the capacity of hospitalization (urologic beds available) and percentage of high-priority surgery performed, we observed that centers with fewer urological beds (10-20) compared to centers with more urological beds (31-40) performed more frequently major urologic cancer surgeries: RN 54.5% vs 60.8% (p=0.0003), RC 53.1% vs 64.9% (p=0.005) respectively. Conclusions: At the time of writing (May 13th 2020) our data represents a snapshot of COVID-19 outbreak in Latin American urological practices. Our findings have practical implications and should be contextualized considering many factors related to patients and urological care: The variability of health care scenarios, institutional capacity, heterogeneity and burden of urologic disease, impact of surgical indications and decision making when prioritizing and scheduling surgeries in times of COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Ibero-American Urology Residents: Perspective of American Confederation of Urology (CAU) Original Article

    Paesano, Nahuel; Santomil, Fernando; Tobia, Ignacio

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Since World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 as a global pandemic, urology services have developed strategies to prioritize and not to differ urgent and oncological patient's medical attention, in order to optimize resources and decrease infection probability among staff and patients. This unprecedented situation has generated a decrease in assistance and academic activities in most medical residences. The aim of this manuscript is to evaluate the impact of this health crisis on training programs through a survey addressed to urology medical residents. Materials and Methods: Cross sectional designed study, with multiple-choice non validated survey answered online by residents. Questionnaire was developed through the CAU EDUCACION platform. Results: A total of 148 responses from 18 countries coming from Latin America and Spain answering the survey. Of total, 82% answered that the activity of their urology department was significantly reduced, attending only urgent surgical pathologies, 15 % that, the urology activity has been closed completely and the staff was assigned to COVID-19 patients care, 3% continue with the regular clinic activity. Likewise, 75% stated that their surgical training has been completely affected, 93% receive urological information through tools such as Skype, ZOOM meeting, Cisco Webex, being Webinar modality the most used. Despite technological boom, 65% answered their academic training has been partially or completely affected. Most of the surveyed residents consider that period of residence should be extended to retrieve the educational targets. Conclusion: This unprecedented reality is negatively impacting the heterogeneous residency programs that American Confederation of Urology (CAU) nucleates. It is necessary to continue with technological innovation and allocate time and resources to easily generate accessible tools to favor the training of future urologists.
  • Implementation and strategies to ensure adequate coordination within a Urology Department during the COVID-19 pandemic Original Article

    Esperto, Francesco; Prata, Francesco; Civitella, Angelo; Pang, Karl H.; Marchioni, Michele; Tuzzolo, Piergiorgio; Scarpa, Roberto M.; Papalia, Rocco

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose: to provide an update on the management of a Urology Department during the COVID-19 outbreak, suggesting strategies to optimize assistance to the patients, to implement telemedicine and triage protocols, to define pathways for hospital access, to reduce risk of contagious inside the hospital and to determine the role of residents during the pandemic. Materials and Methods: In May the 6th 2020 we performed a review of the literature through online search engines (PubMed, Web of Science and Science Direct). We looked at recommendations provided by the EAU and ERUS regarding the management of urological patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. The main aspects of interest were: the definition of deferrable and non-deferrable procedures, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and hospital protocols for health care providers, triage, hospitalization and surgery, post-operative care training and residents' activity. A narrative summary of guidelines and current literature for each point of interest was performed. Conclusion: In the actual Covid-19 scenario, while the number of positive patients globally keep on rising, it is fundamental to embrace a new way to deliver healthcare and to overcome challenges of physical distancing and self-isolation. The use of appropriate PPE, definite pathways to access the hospital, the implementation of telemedicine protocols can represent effective strategies to carry on delivering healthcare.
  • The Covid-19 pandemic seen from the frontline Original Article

    Carmona, Luz Elena Ojeda; Nielfa, Maria Del Carmen Córdoba; Alvarado, Alvaro Luis Diaz

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT COVID-19 disease caused by infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus produces respiratory symptoms, predominantly of the upper airways, which can progress to pneumonia after 7 days with persistent fever, cough and dyspnea, and even develop a syndrome of acute respiratory distress (ARDS), multi-organ failure and death. Since COVID-19 disease was declared by the WHO there has been a redistribution of the healthcare system for these types of patients, especially in the front line, which is, in primary care, emergencies and in intensive care units (ICU). In primary care, the fundamental role is the diagnosis of the suspected patients, follow-up mainly by telemedicine (specially telephone calls) to detect warning signs in case of worsening and subsequent referral to the emergency department; as well as explaining home isolation measures. In the emergency department, it is included the management of suspicious cases and, if it any risk factor is found, complementary tests are carried out for precise diagnosis and admission assessment; In case of oxygen saturation <95% and poor general condition, valuation is requested for admission to the ICU. Depending on the severity of the patient, he/she would be or not a candidate for invasive mechanical ventilation, which must be performed by trained personnel to prevent the spread of the infection minimizing the risk of contagion. ARDS's treatment strategies include pulmonary protection ventilation, prone position, recruitment maneuvers and, less frequently, oxygenation by extracorporeal membrane. Among the specific treatments for COVID-19 stand out mainly drugs to reduce viral load, although sometimes specific drugs will be needed to treat hyperinflammation, hypercoagulability and concomitant infections. One of the goals to be achieved is for patients to recover and be able to successfully return to work; for this purpose, an adequate physical and psychological rehabilitation program is essential, as about 50% have symptoms of anxiety and depression.
  • The Psychosocial Impact of COVID-19 on health care workers Original Article

    Rodríguez, Bárbara Otonín; Sánchez, Tania Lorca

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT At the end of 2019, a disease was identified, COVID-19, caused by a new type of easy and fast spreading virus, which led to the beginning of a worldwide pandemic. One of the most exposed groups to the virus and its psychosocial consequences is the healthcare workers, due to their implication in caring for affected people. Health workers are exposed to a fast and unpredictable situation that requires more human resources and materials than usual, however, the lack of means on account to this situation entails an increased probability of suffering different consequences, including the burnout syndrome, to which, generally, this professionals are already vulnerable. In addition, quarantine is added as a measure to prevent the spread of the pandemic, which is another handicap for healthcare workers. Quarantine means these professionals are more likely to suffer the foreseeable psychological consequences in general population, specifically, it has been observed that Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is more prevalent, because of the stress load of the situation experienced.
  • Emergency Surgery in Urology during the COVID-19 Pandemic Original Article

    Reza, Marcelo Torrico de la; Autrán-Gómez, Ana María; Tardío, Germán Urenda; Bolaños, Javier Arancibia; Rivero, Juan Carlos Gil

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Proposal: To highlight the indications for emergency surgery during the 2019 Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) that support recommendations published in midMarch 2020 by the American Confederation of Urology on its website. Materials and Methods: A bibliographic search was conducted in PubMed and Cochrane Library to perform a non-systematic review, using key words: Urology, Emergency and COVID-19, to determine recommendations for patients that should receive emergency care due to urological pathology. Results: The main recommendations and protocols in the management of different urological emergencies during the COVID-19 pandemic are reviewed and discussed. Conclusions: We are living a new condition with the COVID-19 pandemic, which obliges urologists to conform to the guidelines that appear on a daily basis formulated by multidisciplinary surgical groups to manage urological emergencies. Consequently, in this time of health crisis, we must adapt to the resources available, implementing all biosecurity measures to protect patients and all health personnel who are in charge of patient management.
  • Impact of Covid-19 on the urology service in United States: perspectives and strategies to face a Pandemic Original Article

    Cacciamani, Giovanni Enrico; Shah, Mihir; Yip, Wesley; Abreu, Andre; Park, Daniel; Fuchs, Gerhard

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Over the course of several weeks following the first diagnosed case of COVID-19 In the U.S., the virus rapidly spread across our communities. It became evident that the pandemic was going to place a severe strain on all components of the U.S. healthcare system, and we needed to adapt our daily practices, training and education. In the present paper we discuss four pillars to face a pandemic: surgical and outpatients service, tele-medicine and tele-education. In the face of unprecedented risks in providing adequate health care to our patients during this current, evolving public health crisis of COVID-19, alternative patient management tools such as telemedicine services, allow clinicians to maintain necessary patient rapport with their healthcare provider when required. As a subspecialty, urology should take full advantage of telehealth and teleeducation at this juncture. As tele-urology and tele-education can obviate the potential drawbacks of “social distancing” as it pertains to healthcare, the platform can also reduce the risk of COVID-19 spread, without compromising quality urological care and educational efforts. Telehealth can bring urologists and their patients together, perhaps closer than ever.
  • Laparoscopic and robotic urology surgery during global Pandemic COVID-19 Lecture

    Zampolli, Hamilton C.; Rodriguez, Alejandro R.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Known laparoscopic and robotic assisted approaches and techniques for the surgical management of urological malignant and benign diseases are commonly used around the World. During the global pandemic COVID-19, urology surgeons had to reorganize their daily surgical practice. A concern with the use of minimally invasive techniques arose due to a proposed risk of viral transmission of the coronavirus disease with the creation of pneumoperitoneum. Due to this, we reviewed the literature to evaluate the use of laparoscopy and robotics during the pandemic COVID-19. A literature review of viral transmission in surgery and of the available literature regarding the transmission of the COVID-19 virus was performed up to April 30, 2020. We additionally reviewed surgical society guidelines and recommendations regarding surgery during this pandemic. Few studies have been performed on viral transmission during surgery. No study has been made regarding this area during minimally invasive urology cases. To date there is no study that demonstrates or can suggest the ability for a virus to be transmitted during surgical treatment whether open, laparoscopic or robotic. There is no society consensus on restricting laparoscopic or robotic surgery. However, there is expert consensus on modification of standard practices to minimize any risk of transmission. During the pandemic COVID-19 we recommend the use of specific personal protective equipment for the surgeon, anesthesiologist and nursing staff in the operating room. Modifications of standard practices during minimally invasive surgery such as using lowest intra-abdominal pressures possible, controlled smoke evacuation systems, and minimizing energy device usage are recommended.
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